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Title Gater Gouge

Gater Gouge

 

CSC 1995

 

SUBJECT AREA Warfighting

 

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Gator Gouge

 

 

Table of Contents

 

Introduction

Amphibious Warfighting Platform Information

United States

United Kingdom

Netherlands

Italy

Spain

France

Command and Control in the Amphibious Operation

The Beachmaster and the Amphibious Operation

Health Services Support in the Amphibious Task Force

Introduction

Gator Gauge is designed to provide an easy to use and understand

introduction to the Amphibious warfighting platforms in use today. This

information is intended to provide a basis for further study into the

capabilities, functions, and doctrine of Amphibious Warfare. Key to

understanding amphibious warfighting is a basic knowledge of the

United States Naval Strategy, "...From the Sea." This strategy is based

upon the importance of the littoral (coastal regions) and the shift in

emphasis from the "blue water" Navy to a "brown water" Navy. This is

a distinctive shift in perspective in the assessment and addressal of threats

to the United States and its' allies security and interests. This change of

emphasis is due to the reduced threat from the Soviet Navy and the

emerging threats from the third world. This presentation will introduce

and give an overview of the amphibious platforms used, the command

and control environment, amphibious doctrine in regards to

the Composite Warfare Commander, Beachmaster, and Health Services

Support.

 

 

Amphibious Warfighting Platform Information

United States

United Kingdom

Netherlands

Italy

Spain

France

 

United States

Amphibious Platforms

Amphibious Command Ships (LCC) / Blue Ridge Class

Amphibious Assault Ships (LHD) / Wasp Class

Amphibious Assault Ships (LHA) / Tarawa Class

Amphibious Assault Ships (LPH) / Iwo Jima Class

Multi-Purpose Amphibious Ship (LPD 17)/design phase

Amphibious Transport Docks (LPD) / Austin Class

Dock Landing Ships (LSD and LSD-CV) / Anchorage, Whidbey

Island and Harpers Ferry Class

Tank Landing Ships (LST) / Newport Class

Landing Craft Air-Cushion (LCAC)

Mechanized Landing Craft (LCM 8)

 

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Amphibious Command Ships (LCC)

Blue Ridge Class

Names: USS Blue Ridge LCC l9

USS Mount Whitney LCC 20

Operational: Provide integrated

command, control and

communications (C3) facilities

for sea, air, and land commanders

in amphibious operations.

Complement: 82l (43 officers); Flag l70-l90

Military lift 700 personnel; 3 LCPs; 2 LCVPs

Guns: 4 - 3 inch (76mm/50 Mk 33); 85 degree elevation; 50 rds/min to l2.8 km

(7 nautical miles); weight of shell 6 kg. Antennae and their supports severely

restrict firing arcs of guns.

2 - 20 mm/ 76 6 barrelled phalanx Mk 15; 3K rds/min combined to 1.5 km.

Missiles: SAM: 2 GMLS Mk 25 Mod l octuple launchers; l6 Sea Sparrow; semi-

active radar homing to l4.6 km (8 nautical miles) at 2.5 Mach; warhead 39 kg.


 

 

Amphibious Command Ships (LCC)

Blue Ridge Class

Combat Data System: Naval Tactical Data System (NTDS); Amphibious

Command Information System (ACIS); Naval Intelligence Processing System

(NIPS). SATCOM SSR-l, WSC- (UHF), WSC-6 (SHF), USC-38 (EHF),

SMQ-6 receiver.

Aircraft: None, though each ship has a helicopter landing area..

Main Machinery: 2 Foster-wheeler boilers; l GE turbine; l Shaft

General Information: The Blue Ridge Class ships are the only ships designed for

an amphibious command ship role. Earlier amphibious commandships lacked

sufficient speed to operate with a 20 knot amphibious force. USS Blue Ridge and

USS Mount Whitney became fleet flagships; Seventh and Second Fleet, respectively.


 

 

 

Amphibious Assault Ship (LHD)

Wasp Class

Names: USS Wasp (LHD l)

USS Essex (LHD 2)

USS Kearsarge (LHD 3)

USS Boxer (LHD 4)

USS Bataan (LHD 5)*

USS Bonhomme Richard (LHD 6)*

*LHD 5 to be commissioned in l997.

LHD 6 is planned for l998.

Operational: A typical complement of aircraft would be a mix of 30 helicopters and six to eight Harriers (AV-8B). In the secondary role as a sea control ship the most likely mix of 20 AV-8B Harriers and four to six SH-60B Seahawk helicopters.

Complement: 1077 (98 officers)

Military Lift: 1074 personnel, 3 LCACs; 1032 tons aviation fuel; 4 LCPL.

Guns: 3-20 mm 6 barrelled phalanx Mk l5; 3000 rds/min combined to l.5 km.


 

Amphibious Assault Ship (LHD)

Wasp Class

Missiles: SAM: 2 GMLS Mk 29 octuple launchers; l6 Sea Sparrow, semi-active

radar homing to l4.6 km (8 nautical miles) at 2.5 Mach, warhead 39 kg.

Combat Data Systems: Integrated Tactical Amphibious Warfare Data System

(ITAWDS) and Marine Tactical Amphibious C2 System (MTACCS)

SATCOM SSR-l, WSC-3 (UHF), USC-38 (EHF), SMQ-11 Metsat.

Fire Control: 2 Mk 9l MFCS, SYS-2(V)3 IDAT

Helicopters: Capacity for 42 CH-46E Sea Knight with the capability to support:

AH-1W Super Cobra, CH-53E Super Stallion, CH-53D Sea Stallion, UH-1N

Twin Huey, AH- 1T Sea Cobra and SH-60B Seahawk helicopters.

Fixed Wing Aircraft: 6-8 AV-8B Harriers or up to 20 in a secondary role.

Main Machinery: 2 boilers; 2 turbines; 2 shafts.


 

 

Amphibious Assault Ship (LHD)

Wasp Class

Structure: Two aircraft elevators, one to starboard and aft of the island and one to port amidships; both fold for Panama Canal transits. The well deck is 267 x 50 ft and can accommodate up to three Amphibious Air-Cushion Vechicles (LCAC). The flight deck has nine helicopter landing spots. Cargo capacity is 101000 cu ft total with additional 2000 sq ft to accommodate vehicles. Vehicle storage is available for five M1 tanks, 25 LAVs, eight M l98 guns, 68 trucks, l0 logistics vehicles and several service vehicles. Command, control, and communications spaces have been moved deeper inside the ship for protection. Fitted with a 600 bed capacity hospital and six operating rooms. HY-100 steel covers the flight deck. Nine 32 ft monorail trains each carrying 6000 lbs deliver material to the well deck at 6.8 mph.

General Information: Designed to carry MEF(FWD) level personnel and above with

flag accommodations. The LHD can serve in the dual role of amphibious assault ship and small aircraft carrier. The new LHDs are scheduled to replace two LPHs

(USS Guam and USS Guadalcanal) later in this decade.


 

 

Amphibious Assault Ship (LHA)

Tarawa Class

Names: USS Tarawa (LHA l)

USS Saipan (LHA 2)

USS Belleau Wood (LHA 3)

USS Nassau (LHA 4)

USS Peleliu (LHA 5)

USS Nassau (LHA-4)

 

Operational: The flight deck can operate a maximum of nine CH-53D Sea Stallion

or l2 CH-46D/E Sea Knight helicopters or a mix of these and other helicopters.

Unmanned Reconnaissance Vehicles (URVs) can be operated.

Complement: 930 (56 officers)

Military Lift: 1703 troops; 4 LCU 1610 type or 2 LCU and 2 LCM 8 or 45 LVT

tractors; 1200 tons aviation fuel. 4 LCPL.

Guns: 2 - 5 in /54Mk 45 Mod l; 65 degree elevation; 20 rds/min to 23 km anti-

surface; 15 km anti-aircraft; weight of shell 32 kg.6 Mk 242 25 mm automatic

cannons; 2 - 20 mm/76 6 barrelled phalanx Mk 15, 3000 rds/min comb. to 1.5 km.


Amphibious Assault Ships (LHA)

Tarawa Class

Missiles: SAM: 2GDC RAM; passive IR/anti-radiation homing to 9.6 km at

2 Mach; warhead 9.1 kg.

Combat Data Systems: Integrated Tactical Amphibious Warfare Data System

(ITAWDS) to provide computerized support in control of helicopters and air

craft, shipboard weapons and sensors, navigation, landing craft control, and

electronic warfare. SATCOM SRR-l, WSC-3(UHF), USC-38 (EHF)(LHA 2

and 4), SMQ-11 Metsat.

Fire Control Mk 86 Mod 4 GFCS. 2 optronic detectors.

Helicopters: 19 CH-53D Sea Stallion or 26 CH-46D/E Sea Knight.

Fixed Wing Aircraft: Harrier AV-8B VSTOL aircraft in place of some heli-

copters if modified to accommodate.

Main Machinery: 2 boilers; 2 turbines; 2 shafts; bow thruster.


 

Amphibious Assault Ships (LHA)

Tarawa Class

Structure: Beneath the full-length flight deck are two half-length hangar decks,

the two being connected by an elevator amidships on the port side and a stern lift; beneath the after elevator is a floodable docking well measuring 268 ft in length and 78 ft in width which is capable of accommodating four LCU 1610 type landing craft. Also included is a garage for trucks and AFVs and troop berthing for reinforced battalion. 33730 sq ft available for vehicles and 116900 cu ft for palletted stores. Extensive medical facilities including operating rooms, X-ray room, hospital ward,, isolation ward,, laboratories, pharmacy, dental operating room, and medical store rooms.

General Information: Ships of this class have 200 ft larger flight deck than the LPHs. These ships have increased versatility. They provide the Marine Corps with a superb means of ship to shore movement by helicopter in augmentation of landing craft. LHAs have extensive storage capability and can accommodate LCU.


Amphibious Assault Ships (LPH)

Iwo Jima Class

Names: USS Guam (LPH 9)

USS Tripoli (LPH 10)

USS New Orleans (LPH 11)

USS Inchon (LPH l2)

 

Operational: The flight decks provide for simultaneous take off or landing of seven CH-46 Sea Knight or four CH-53 Sea Stallion helicopters during normal operations. Can operate AV-8Bs following modifications to refine day/night capability. Each LPH can carry a Marine Expeditionary Unit, its guns, vehicles, and equipment, plus a reinforced squadron of transport helicopters and various support personnel. All have been used on many occasions as platforms for airborned minesweeping operations.

Complement: 686 (48 officers)

Military lift: l746 troops (l44 officers); l500 tons of aviation fuel; 2 LCPL.


 

Amphibious Assault Ships (LPH)

Iwo Jima Class

Guns: 4 - 3 inI5OMk 33; 85 degree elevation; 50 rds/min to l2.8 km (7 nautical

miles); weight of shell 6 kg. 2 - 20 mm 6 barrelled phalanx Mk l5; 3000 rds/min

combined to l.5 km. Up to 8 -l2.7 mm MGs.

Missiles: SAM: 2 GMLS Mk 25 octuple launchers; Sea Sparrow; semi-active radar

homing to l4.6 km (8 nautical miles) at 2.5 Mach; warhead 39 kg.

Combat Data Systems: SATCOM SRR-l, WSC-3 (UHF)

Fire Control: Mk ll5 MFCS. 2 Mk 7l directors.

Helicopters: Capacity for a mix of 24 helicopters.

Fixed Wing Aircraft 4 AV-8B Harriers in place of some helicopters.

Main Machinery: 2 boilers; l turbine; l shaft.

Structure: Two deck-edge lifts, one to port opposite the bridge and one to starboard aft of island. Full hangars are provided; no arresting wires or catapults. Two small elevators carry cargo from holds to flight deck. Stowage of 4300 sq ft for vehicles and 37400 cu ft for palletted stroes. Fitted with extensive medical facilities including operating room, hospital ward, isolation ward, laboratory, pharmacy, dental operating room, and medical store rooms.


 

Amphibious Assault Ships (LPH)

Iwo Jima Class

General Information: The LPH has been serving the United States since 1961.

These vessels were specifically constructed to operate helicopters. The LPH, while primarily serving as a platform for helicopters, has served as a platform for VSTOL aircraft, served as a sea control ship, and as a platform for minesweeping helicopter. The USS Guam is planned for decommissioning by FY 96, with the USS Inchon being converted to a mine warfare command ship by l996. The new WASP Class LHDs are scheduled to relace the remaining LPHs in the late 1990s


 

 

Multi-Purpose Amphibious Ship

(LPD l7)*

* Currently in the design phase.

Complement: 457 (34 officers)

Military Lift: 637 troops (66 officers); 2 LCACs.

Main Machinery: 4 diesels, 2 shafts.

Structure: LPD type vessel required to load, transport, offload troops, heavy vehicles, helicopters, landing craft, amphibious vehicles, and dry and liquid cargo. Designed to replace 4 classes of amphibious platforms: LPD 4, LST, LKA, and LSD 36.

General Information: Currently in preliminary design phase. Will not have flag

configuration of LPD, the over the side heavy lift capability of LKA, or have the ability to offload over the beach via causeways of LSTs. It will otherwise have most remaining capabilities of these 4 classes of ship.


 

 

Amphibious Transport Docks (LPD)

Austin Class

Names: USS Austin (LPD 4)

USS Ogden (LPD5)

USS Duluth (LPD 6)

USS Cleveland (LPD 7)

USS Dubuque (LPD 8)

USS Denver (LPD 9)

USS Juneau (LPD 10)

USS Shreveport (LPD l2)

USS Nashville (LPD l3)

USS Trenton (LPD l4)

USS Ponce (LPD l5)

Operational: A typical operational load might include one Seahawk, two Sea

Knight, two Twin Huey, and four Sea Cobra helicopters.


 

Amphibious Transport Docks (LPD)

Austin Class

Complement: 420 (24 officers)

Military Lift: 930 troops (840 in LPDs 7 through l3; 4 LCM 8 or LCU or

20 AAV. 4 LCPL/LVCP.

Guns: 2 or 4 - 3 in/50 Mk 33; 85 degree elevation; 50 rds/min to l2.8 km (7 nautical miles); weight of shell 6 kg. Local control only. 2 - 20 mm/76 6 barrelled phalanx Mk l5; 3000 rds/min combined to l .5 km.

Missiles: None.

Combat Data Systems SATCOM SRR-l, WSC-3 (UHF).

Helicopters: Up to 6 CH-46D/E Sea Knight can be carried. Hangar for only l light

(not in LPD 4).

Main Machinery: 2 boilers; two steam turbines; two shafts.

Structure: Enlarged versions of the earlier Raleigh class. LPD 7 - l3 have an

additional bridge and are fitted as flagships. One small telescopic hangar. There are structural variations in the positions of guns and electronic equipment in different ships of the class. Flight deck is l68 ft in length. Well deck 394 x 50 ft. This design is the model for the future LPD l7 class.


 

 

Amphibious Transport Docks (LPD)

Austin Class

General Information: These versatile ships replace amphibious transports (APA),

amphibious cargo ships (AKA), and the older LSDs. This class of ship ranges in

age from 2l to 30 years. The decommissioning of this class is expected to com-

mense in 2004.

 

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Dock Landing Ships (LSD/LSD-CV)

Whidbey Island and Harpers Ferry Class

Complement: 340 (2l officers)

Military Lift: 450 troops; 2 (CV) or 4 LCACs; or l (CV) or 3 LCUs; or 64 LVTs.

2LCPL.

Guns: 2 - 2- mm/76 6 barrelled phalanx; 3000 rds/min combinded to l.5 km.

2 Mk 68 Mod l 20mm. 8 - l2.7mm MGs. 2 Mk 88 25mm Bushmaster.

Combat Data Systems SATCOM SRR-l, WSC-3 (UHF), SSDS (ship self-defense

system) in LSD 41.

Helicopters: Platform only for 2 CH-53 series Stallion.

Main Machinery: 4 diesels; 2 shafts.

Structure: Based on the earlier Anchorage Class. One 60 and one 20 ton crane.

Well deck measures 440 x 50 ft in the LSD but is shorter in the Cargo Variant (CV). The cargo version is a minimum modification to the LSD 4l design. Changes to that design include: additional air conditioning piping and hull structure; the forward phalanx is lower; and there is only one crane. There is 90% commonality between the two ships.


 

 

Dock Landing Ships (LSD/LSD-CV)

Whidbey Island and Harpers Ferry Class

General Information: The Cargo Variant (CV) LSD will have greater cargo capacity, improved facilities for embarked troops, and a greater operating range. The diesel engine configuation makes the vessel more economical to operate than gas or steam engines.


 

 

 

Dock Landing Ships (LSD)

Anchorage Class

Names: USS Anchorage (LSD 36)

USS Portland (LSD 37)

USS Pensacola (LSD 38)

USS Mount Vernon (LSD 39

USS Fort Fisher (LSD 40)

 

Operational: Transport and launch loaded amphibious craft and vehicles with crews and personnel in amphibious assault and render limited docking and repair services to craft and small ships.

Complement: 374 (24 officers)

Military Lift: 366 troops (l8 officers; 2 LCUs and 2 LCM 8 or 3 LCACs or 9 LCM 8

or 50 LVTs; 2 CLPLs and l LCVP on davits. Carries 90 tons aviation fuel.

2 - 20 mm/76 6 barrelled phalanx Mk l5; 3000 rds/min combined to l.5 km.


 

 

Dock Landing Ships (LSD)

Anchorage Class

Combat Data Systems: SATCOM SRR-l; WSC-3 (UHF).

Helicopters: Platform only.

Main Machinery: 2 boilers; 2 turbines; 2 shafts.

Structure: Helicopter platform aft with docking well partially open; Docking well approximately 430 x 50 ft. Two 50 ton capacity cranes.

General Information: The LSDs ability to ballast down and flood a well deck makes possible the loading and assault launching at sea of LCU, LCAC, and other

amphibious craft and their cargo. Four of the class were involved in the war with Iraq in l99l.


 

 

Tank Landing Ships (LST)

Newport Class

Names: USS Frederick (LST 1184)

USS San Bernardino (LST l189)

USS La Moure County (LST ll94)

USS Harlan County (LST 1196)

 

Operational: The LST normally operates with 20 knot amphibious squadrons to

transport tanks, other heavy vehicles, engineering equipment, and supplies which

cannot be readily landed by helicopters or landing craft. ESM equipment has been

fitted in some LSTs.

Complement: 257 (l3 officers)

Military Lift: 400 troops (20 officers); 500 tons vehicles; 3 LVCPs and l LCPL

on davits.

Guns: 4 - 3 in/50 Mk 33; 85 degree elevation; 5O rds/min to l2.8 km (7 nautical

miles); weight of shell of 6 kg. Local control only. 1 - 20 mm phalanx Mk l5.


 

Tank Landing Ships (LST)

Newport Class

Combat Data Systems: SATCOM SRR-l, WSC-3 (UHF).

Helicopters: Platform only.

Main Machinery: 6 diesels; 2 shafts; bow thruster.

Structure: The hull form required to achieve 20 kts would not permit bow doors,

thus these ships unload by a l12ft ramp over their bow. The ramp is supported by

twin derrick arms. A tank deck with the main deck and a vehicle passage through the superstructure provides access to the parking area amidships. A stem gate to the tank deck permits unloading of amphibious tractors into the water, or unloading of other vehicles into an LCU or on to a pier. Vehicle stowage covers l9,000 sq ft. Length over derrick arms is 562 ft; full load draught is 11.5 forward and l7.5 ft aft. Bow thruster fitted to hold position offshore while unloading amphibious tractors.

General Information: The Newport Class LST was the first to depart from the bow

door design utilized in World War II. This design change allowed greater speed. The stern gate also makes possible the offloading of amphibious vehicles into the water. Built and commissioned from l966-l972. These are the only LSTs in the U. S. Navy.


 

 

Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC)

Operational: Ship classes capable of

carrying the LCAC are:

Wasp (3)

Tarawa *

Anchorage (3)

Austin *

Whidbey Island (4)

Harpers Ferry (2)

 

*LCAC can be used as lift but not embarked aboard.

 

The LCAC can access 70% of the world's coastlines compared to the previous

15% accessability via conventional amphibious craft. LCAC has some limitations

in rough seas. The performance and reliability of the LCAC has exceeded

expectations. The LCAC is designed to "lift" all equipment organic to the MAGTF.

Complement: 5

Military Lift: 24 troops; 1 MBT or 60 - 75 tons.


 

Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC)

LCAC-l Class

Guns: 2 - l2.7 mm MGs.

Speed: 40 knots (loaded)

Range: 300 at 35 knots and 200 at 40 knots

Main Machinery: 4 gas turbines (2 for propulsion and 2 for lift); 2 shrouded

reversable airscrews (propulsion). 4 double entry fans, centrifigal or mixed flow (lift).

Structure: Incorporates the best attributes learned from the over 5 years of

prototype testing. Bow ramp 28.8 ft, stem ramp 15 ft. Cargo space capacity is

1809 sq ft. Noise and dust levels are high and if disabled the craft is not easy to tow. Spray suppressors have been added to the skirt to reduce interference with the driver's vision.

General Information: LCACs, working in conjunction with helicopters, are expected to revolutionize amphibious warfare. The LCACs air- cushion allows it to proceed inland to discharge cargo and personnel on dry, trafficable terrain. The LCAC is not restricted by tides, gradients, and surf conditions.


 

 

Utility Landing Craft

LCU 1600 Class

Complement: l4

Military Lift: l70 tons; 3 Ml03 (64 tons)

or M48 (48 tons) or 350 troops.

Guns: 2 - l2.7 mm MGs.

Displacement: Tons: 200 Light; 375 full load

Main Machinery 2 diesels; 2 shafts.

General Information: This LCU is larger than

the previous series and is also utilized

Army.


 

 

Mechanised Landing Craft

LCM8 Type

Complement: 5

Military Lift: l M1-Al capable or lM60 tank

Or 200 troops.

Displacement: Tons: l O5 full load (aluminum)

Main Machinery: 2 diesels; 2 shafts.

General Information: LCM 8 are utilized

aboard amphibious vessels in conjuction with

other landing craft in various configuations.


 

 

United Kingdom

Amphibious Platforms

Helicopter Carrier (LPH)

Assault Ships (LPD)

Assault Ships (LPD (R) Programmed

 

Helicopter Carrier (LPH)

Name: HMS Ocean

Operational: The LPH is to provide a

helicopter lift and assault capability.

The prime role of the vessel will be

embarking, supporting and operating a

squadron of helicopters and carrying most

of a Royal Marine Commando

including vehicles, arms, and ammunition.

Sea Harriers can be carried but not support-

ed. Estimated commissioning Sep 1997.

Complement: 250 ships crew, 170 aircrew and 480 Marines.

Military Lift: 4 LVCP (on davits); 430 Marines plus vehicles and equipment for

most of a marine commando battalion. Up to 800 Marines could be carried.

Guns: 8 BMARC 30 mmI75 GCM; 3 phalanx Mk 15.

Combat Data Systems: ADAWS 2000; SATCOM; Merlin computer link.

Helicopters: l2 Sea King/Merlin.

Main Machinery: 2 diesels; 2 shafts; bow thruster.


 

 

Helicopter Carrier (LPH)

Structure: The hull form is based on the Invincible Class with a modified super-

structure. The deck will be strong enough to take Chinook helicopters. Six landing and six parking spots are required for the aircraft. Armament to consist of light guns only. The combat data system will be compatible with other RN ships.

General Information: A second of class is preferred to meet the operational

requirement but linkage with the new LPDs gives a single unit more credibility than it would have without the LPDs.


Assault Ships (LPD)

Names: HMS Fearless (L10)

HMS Intrepid (L11)

Operational: Each ship is fitted out as a

Naval Assault Group/Brigade Hdqtrs with

an Assault Operations Room from which)

naval and military personnel can mount and

control the progress of an assault operation.

Complement: 550 (50 officers) plus 22 (3 officers) air group and 88 Royal Marines.

Military Lift: 380-400 troops; overload 1000 troops; l5 MBTs; 7 - 3 ton trucks;

2 l/4 ton trucks (specimen load). 4 LCU Mk 9 (dock); 4 LCVP Mk 3 (davits).

Guns: 2 20 mm Mk 15 phalanx (L 10); 6 barrels per launcher; 3000 rds/min

combined to l.5 km. 4 30 mm/75 GCM-AO3 (L11; 80 degree elevation;

650 rds/min to 10 km (5.4 nautical miles) anti-surface; 3 km (l.6 nautical miles) anti-aircraft; weight of shell 0.36 kg. 2 20 mm GAM-80l; 55 degree elevation; 1000 rds/min to 2 km.


 

 

Assault Ships (LPD)

Missiles: SAM: 2 Seacat GWS 2O quad launchers; optical guidance to 5 km (2.7

nautical miles).

Combat Data Systems: Plessey Nautis M (L 10).

Fire control: GWS 20 optical directors for Seacat.

Helicopters: Platform for up to 4 Sea King HC 4.

Main Machinery: 2 boilers; 2 turbines; 2 shafts.

Structure: The two funnels are staggered across the beam of the ship. Landing

craft are floated through the open stem by flooding compartments of the ship and

lowering her in the water. They are able to deploy tanks, vehicles, and men and

have seakeeping qualities much superior to those of tank landing ships, as well as, greater speed and range. The helicopter platform is also the deckhead of the dock and has two landing spots.


 

Assault Ships (LPD (R)

Programmed

Operational: The LPD will be fitted to

replace the older LPDs in service. Each ship

will serve as a Naval Assault Group/Brigade

Hdqtrs with an Assault Operations Room

from which naval and military personnel can

mount and control the progress of an assault

operation.

Complement: 320

Military Lift: 300 troops; overload 600 troops; 70 support vehicles; 4 LCU (dock); 4 LCVP (davits).

Guns: CIWS supported by portable close range weapons.

Combat Data Systems: ADAWS 2000 or SSCS.

Helicopters: Platform for 2 medium.

Main Machinery: Diesel or diesel-electric; 2 shafts.

General Information: Substantial command and control facilities will be included. The ship is estimated to be in-service by the late 1990s.


 

 

 

Netherlands

Amphibious Platforms

Amphibious Transport Ship (LPD) Programmed

LCVP Mk II

LCVP Mk III


 

 

Amphibious Transport Ship (LPD)

Name: Rotterdam (L 800) Commissioning in tended to occur in l997.

Complement: 115 plus l2 spare.

Military Lift: 600 troops; l70 APCs or 33 MBTs. 3 LCVP and 2 LCU/LCM or

6LCVP.

Guns: 2 Signaal Goalkeeper 30 mm; 4 Oerlikon 20 mm.

Combat Data Systems: SATCOM.

Fire Control: Signal IRSCAN infra-red detector.

Helicopters: 6 NH 90 or equivalent; or 4 EH 101 or equivalent.

General Information: Collaborative project with Spain. Can be used to transport

a fully equipped battalion of Marines. Docking facilities for landing craft and a two-spot helicopter flight deck. Alternative employment as an SAR ship for

environmental and disaster relief tasks.


 

 

LCVP Mk II

Complement: 3

Military Lift: 35 troops; l land rover or

BV 202E Snowcat.

Guns: l FN FAL 7.62 mm MG.

Main Machinery: l diesel; l prop


 

 

LCVP Mk III

Complement: 3

Military Lift: 34 troops or 7 tons or 2 land

rovers or l Snowcat.

Guns: l - 7.62 mm MG.

Main Machinery: 2 diesels; 2 shafts.


 

 

Italy

Amphibious Platforms

San Giorgio Class (LPD)

Pedretti Class (Commando Support Craft)


 

 

 

San Giorgio Class (LPD)

 

Names: San Giorgio (L 9892)

San Marco (L 9893)

San Giusto (L 9894)

Operational: These LPDs have varied roles

which range from training to disaster relief.

All are based at Brindisi and assigned to

the Third Naval Division.

 

Complement: 170

Military Lift: Battalion of 400 plus 30 - 36 APCs or 30 medium tanks. 3 LCMs in

stern docking well. 3 LCVPs on upper deck. 1 LCPL.

Guns: l OTO Melara 3 in (76 mm)/62; 85 degree elevation; 60 rds/min to 16 km

(8.7 nautical miles); weight of shell 6 kg; 2 Oerlikon 20 mm. 2 - l2.7 mm MGs.

Combat Data Systems: Selenia IPN 20.

Fire Control: Selenia SPG 70 (RTN l0X); I/J band; range 40 km (22 nautical miles).

Helicopters: 3 SH-3D Sea King or 5 AB 2l2.


 

 

 

San Giorgio Class (LPD)

 

Main Machinery: 2 diesels; 2 shafts.

Structure: Aircraft carrier type flight deck with island to starboard. Three landing spots. Bow ramp for amphibious landings. Stem docking well 20.5 x 7m. Fitted with a 30 ton lift and two 40 ton travelling cranes for LCMs.


 

 

Pedretti Class

(Commando Support Craft)

Names: Alcide Pedretti (Y 499)

Mario Marino (Y498)

Operational: Utilized for assault swimmers.

Both contain decompression chambers.

Alcide Pedreffi has a floodable dock aft and is

used for combat swimmers and special oper-

ations. Mario Marino is fitted for underwater work and rescue missions.

Complement: 6

Main Machinery: 2 diesels; 2 shafts.


 

Spain

Amphibious Platforms

Newport Class (LST) (ex-Barnsable County)

Amphibious Transport Ship (LPD) Programmed

Edic Class (LCT)

Paul Revere Class (Attack Transports)

Terrebone Parish Class (LST)


 

 

Newport Class (LST)

Name: ex-Barnstable County

Complement: 257 (13 officers)

Military Lift: 400 troops (20 officers); 500 tons vehicles; 3 LCVP and 1 LCPL on

davits.

Helicopters: Platform only.

Main Machinery: 6 diesels; 2 shafts; bow thruster.

Structure: The ramp is supported by twin derrick arms. A ramp just forward of the superstructure connects the lower tank deck with the main deck and a vehicle

passage through the superstructure provides access to the parking area amidships. A stem gate to the tank deck permits unloading of amphibious tractors into the water or unloading of other vehicles into an LCU or on to a pier. Vehicle stowage covers 19000 sq ft. Length over derrick arms is 562 ft; full load draught 11.5 ft aft. Bow thruster fitted to hold position offshore while unloading tractors.

General Information: This LST as yet unnamed. The ship was purchased to replace

Velasco.


 

 

Amphibious Transport Ship (LPD)

Complement: 115 plus l2 spare.

Military Lift: 600 fully equipped troops or l70 APCs or 33 MBTs. 3 LCVPs and

2 LCUs/LCMs or 6 LCVPs in docking well.

Guns: 2 CIWS. l Oerlikon 20 mm.

Helicopters: 6 NH-90 or 4 EH-101.

Main Machinery: 4 diesels; 2 shafts.

General Information: Collaborative project with the Netherlands. The ship will be able to transport a fully equipped battalion of 600 Marines providing a built-in dock for landing craft and a helicopter flight deck for debarkation in offshore conditions. Alternatively the ship can also be used as a general logistic support ship for both military and civil operations, including environmental and disaster relief tasks. Commissioning is planned for mid-l998.


 

 

 

Edic Class (LCT)

Identification: A 06

A 07

A 08

Operational: Rated a logistic craft.

Complement: 23

Military Lift: 35 troops; 300 tons.

Guns: 2 - l2.7 mm MSs. l - 8l mm mortar.

Main Machinery: 2 diesels; 2 shafts.


 

Paul Revere Class

(Attack Transports)

Names: Castilla (L 2l) ex-Paul Revere

Aragon (L 22) ex-Francis Marion

(Transferred from US in 1980.)

Operational: Aragon serves as flagship for

Amphibious Command.

Complement: 6l0 (L 2l), 660 (L 22), (35

officers).

Military Lift: l657 troops; 7 LCM 6; 5 LCVP; 3 LCP.

Guns: 8 - 3 in/50; 85 degree elevation; 50 rds/min to l2.8 (7 nautical miles);

weight of shell 6 kg.

Fire Control: 4 SPG 50 or SPG 34; I/J band.

Helicopters: Platform for l AS 332 Super Puma type.

Main Machinery: 2 boilers; l turbine; l shaft.


 

 

Terrebonne Parish Class (LST)

Names: Velasco (L 11) ex-Terrebonne

Parrish

Martin Alvarez (L 12) ex-Wexford

County

(Ships transferred from US in l97l.)

Complement: l53

Military Lift: 395 troops; 10 Mk 48 tanks or

l7 LVTP; 3 LCVP; l LCP.

Guns: 6 - 3in/50 (3 twin).

Fire Control: 2 Mk 63 GFCS

Main Machinery: 4 diesels; 2 shafts.

General Information: These LSTs are planned to be replaced by 2 ex-Newport

Class US ships in l994/5.


France

Amphibious Platforms

Batral Type (Light Transports and Landing Ships)

Edic Class (LCT)

Edic 700 Class (LCT)

Foudre Class (Landing Ships (Dock)

Ouragan Class (Landing Ships (Dock)

Bougainville Class (BCT)


 

 

Batral Type

(Light Transports and Landing Ships)

Names: Champlain (L 9030)

Francis Gamier (L 903l)

Dumont D'Urville (L 9032)

Jacques Cartier (L 9033)

La Grandiere (L 9034) FS Francis Gamier (L-903 I)

Complement: 50 (5 officers).

Military Lift: l38 troops; l2 vehicles; 350 tons load; 10 ton crane.

Guns: l -8l mm mortar; 2 -l2.7 mm MGs.

Missiles: SAM: 2 Matra Simbad twin launchers.

Main Machinery: 2 diesels; 2 shafts.

Structure: 40 ton bow ramp; stowage for vehicles above and below decks. One

LCVP and one LCPS carried. Helicopter landing platform. Last three of class

have bridge one deck higher.

General Information: Ships of this class have been built for Chile, Gabon, Ivory

Coast and Morocco.


 

 

Edic Class (LCT)

Identification: L 9O7O

L 9O74

Complement: 17

Military Lift: 5 LVT or 11 lorries.

Guns: 2 Oerlikon 20 mm.

Main Machinery: 2 diesels; 2 shafts.


 

 

 

Edic 700 Class (LCT)

 

Identification: L 9051

L 9052

Complement: 17

Military Lift: 350 tons

Guns: 2-20 mm;2- l2.7 mm MGs.

Main Machinery: 2 diesels; 2 shafts.


 

 

Foudre Class

(Landing Ships (Dock)

Names: Foudre (L 90ll)

(L 90l2)*

*L 9012 expected to be commissioned in l999.

Operational: Two landing spots on the flight

deck plus one on deck well rolling cover. Can

operate up to 7 Puma Helicopters. Could carry

1600 troops in an emergency.

Complement: 210 (13 officers)

Military Lift: 470 troops plus 1800 tons load;

2 CDIC or 10 CTM or l P 400 patrol craft.

Guns: l - 40mm/60; 2 - 20 mm; 2-l2.7mm MGs.

SAM: 2 twin launchers; Mistral; JR homing to 4 km (2.2 nautical

miles); warhead 3 kg.

Combat Data Systems: SATCOM; OPSMER command support system.

Helicopters: 4 AS 332F Super Puma or 2 Super Frelon.

Main Machinery: 2 diesels; 2 shafts; bow thruster.


 

 

Foudre Class

(Landing Ships (Dock)

Structure: Designed to take a mechanised regiment of the Rapid Action Force and

act as a logistic support ship. Extensive command and hospital facilities include two operating theatres and 47 beds. Hangar capacity: two Super Frelons or four Super Pumas. Well deck is l22 x l4.2 x 7.7 m. Lift of 52 tons capacity. Flight deck 1450 meter sq with Samahe haul down system.

General Information: Sustainable to 30 days (with 700 personnel aboard). A 400

ton ship can be docked. Typical loads: One CDIC, four CTM, 10 AMX 10RC

amoured cars and 50 vehicles or total of 180-200 vehicles without landing craft.


 

 

 

Ouragan Class

(Landing Ships (Dock)

Names: FS Ouragan (L 902l)

FS Orage (L 9022)

Operational: Contains command

facilities for amphibious and helicopter

operations.

 

Complement: 213 (10 officers)

Military Lift: 343 troops (plus l29 short haul only); 2 LCTs (EDIC) with 11 light tanks each or 8 loaded CTMs; logistic load 1500 tons; 2 cranes (35 tons ea).

Guns: 2-4.7 in mortars; 42 rds/min to 2O km (lO.8 nautical miles); weight of shell

24 kg. 4-40mm; 300 rds/min to l2 km (6.5 nautical miles).

Missiles: SAM: 2 twin launchers; Mistral; JR homing to 4 km (2.2 nautical miles); warhead 3 kg; anti-sea skimmer.

Helicopters: 4 SA 32lG Super Frelon or Super Pumas or 10 SA 319B Allouette III.

Main Machinery: 2 diesels; 2 shafts.


 

 

Ouragan Class

(Landing Ships (Dock)

Structure: Normal helicopter platform for operating three Super Frelon or 10

Alouette III plus a portable platform for a further one Super Frelon or three

Alouette III. Bridge is on the starboard side. Three LCVPs can also be carried.

Extensive workshops.


 

 

 

Bougainville Class (BTS)

Names: FS Bougainville (L 9077)

Complement: 53 (5 officers)

Military Lift: 500 troops for 8 days; 1180 tons

of cargo; 2 LCU in support or 10 LCP plus

2 LCM for amphibious role.

Guns: 2 - 2.7 mm MGs.

Missiles: SAM: 2 twin launchers.

Helicopters: Platform for 2 AS 332B Super Puma.

Main Machinery 2 diesels; 2 shafts; bow thruster.

Structure: Well deck is 78 x 10.2 m. It can receive tugs and one BSR or two CTMs, a supply tender of the Chamois class, containers, mixed bulk cargo. Has extensive repair workshops and repair facilities for helicopters. Can act as mobile crew accomodation and has medical facilties. Storerooms for spare parts, food, and ammunition. Hull to civilian standards. Carries a 37 ton crane.


 

 

Command and Control

in the

Amphibious Operation

. Commander, Amphibious Task Force (CATF) and Commander,

Landing Force (CLF)

. Composite Warfare Commander (CWC) in the Amphibious Operation

Area (AOA)


 

 

Commander, Amphibious Task Force (CATF)

and

Commander, Landing Force (CLF)

. Introduction

. Key Roles and Responsibilities

. Command Relationships in the Amphibious Operation


 

 

Introduction and Definitions

This section addresses the roles, responsibilities, and relationships of the

Commander, Amphibious Task Force (CATF) and the Commander, Landing Force

in an amphibious operation. Understanding of their respective roles, responsibilities, and relationships is key to appreciating the amphibious operation and its complexities, as they relate to command and control in the amphibious operation area (AOA).

 

In order to place the CATF and CLF in the context of amphibious operations, the

following definitions are provided:

 

Amphibious Operation: An attack launched from the sea by naval forces and landing forces embarked in aircraft, ships and landing craft involving a landing on a hostile shore. Operations are conducted in several phases: planning, embarkation, rehearsal, movement, and assault (PERMA).

Planning: A continuous process from the receipt of the initiating directive to the termination of the operation. Results in:

-Landing Force (LF) concept of operations ashore


 

 

Introduction and Definitions

Amphibious Operation (cont'd)

-Amphibious Task Force (ATF) landing plan

-Loading plan

-ATF organization.

Embarkation: The period during which the LF is embarked in shipping.

-LF organized into assault echelon and follow-on echelon.

Assault Echelon (AE): The AE is the element of a force

that is scheduled for initial assault in the landing area.

Assault Follow-on Echelon (AFOE): The AFOE of the

amphibious assault consists of the troops, vehicles, aircraft, equipment and supplies which, though not needed to initiate the assault, is required to support and sustain the assault.

Rehearsal: Normally conducted during the movement phase to test the

adequacy of the landing plan, timing of detailed operations, combat readiness of

participating forces, and test communications.


 

 

Introduction and Definitions

Movement: The ATF departs embarkation/rehearsal area and proceeds to

the amphibious operation area (AOA). Organized into movement groups. Operations

occurring during movement are:

-Supporting operations

-Advance force operations.

Assault: Begins when enough of the ATF is in position in the

landing area to initiate the ship-to-shore movement and terminates with

accomplishment of the mission. Includes:

-Supporting arms

-Ship-to-shore movement (see Beachmaster and the Amphibious

Operation)

-Logistics/combat service support (CSS)

-Medical regulating (see Health Services Support in the

Amphibious Task Force).


 

 

Introduction and Definitions

Amphibious Warfare: The integration of all types of ships, aircraft, weapons,

landing craft and landing forces in a concentrated military effort against a hostile shore.

 

Amphibious Task Force(ATF): The task organization formed for conducting an

amphibious operation is the ATF. The ATF always includes Navy forces and a

Landing Force (LF), both of which normally have organic aviation. Other air and

Special Operation Forces (SOFs) may be included.

 

Commander Amphibious Task Force (CATF): A Navy officer charged with the

overall responsibility for an amphibious operation.

 

Commander Landing Force (CLF): A Marine or Army officer in overall charge

of the landing forces in the ATF.


 

 

Introduction and Definitions

Initiating Directive: An order to CATF to conduct an amphibious operation. It is

issued by the combatant commander, subunified commander, Service component

commander, or Joint Task Force (JTF) commander delegated overall responsibility

for the operation. The initiating directive contains the following information:

-Establishes the ATF.

-Assigns a mission.

-Provides forces to accomplish the mission.

-Assigns assault shipping for both assault echelon (AE) and assault

follow-on echelon (AFOE).

-Designates CATF, CLF, and other commanders as appropriate.

-Positively defines the AOA in terms of sea, land, and airspace.

-Sets target dates for execution of the operation.

-Provides special instructions pertaining to the planning, employment,

allocation, and control of nuclear and chemical munitions.

-Provides positive instructions governing the termination of the operation

and, if feasible, command arrangements and disposition of forces to be effective at that time.


 

Introduction and Definitions

Initiating Directive (cont'd):

-Provides information regarding operations to be conducted after termination of the amphibious operation.

-Assigns responsibility and provides necessary coordination instructions for the conduct of supporting operations.

-Provides cryptographic and OPSEC guidance.

-Provides a concept for military deception operations to be conducted in support of the amphibious operation.

-Provides code words for the operation name and for other key specifics

about the operation.

-Provides other information considered necessary.


 

 

Key Roles and Responsibilities

In order to understand the roles and responsibilities of the CATF and CLF, a

framework is needed of an amphibious operation which describes its phases and

required actions. The following describes a general scenario of an amphibious

operation.

 

The initiating directive is an order to CATF to conduct an amphibious operation.

Upon receipt, planning begins with the development of the LF concept of

operations ashore. This concept outlines the CLF's intent on how operations

ashore will be conducted. It includes the organization required for the landing

and the scheme of maneuver ashore. The scheme of maneuver ashore is CLF's

tactical plan for the LF to accomplish the assigned mission. It determines which

LF units are required at the various landing locations within the landing area. The scheme of maneuver ashore is used to assign LF units to landing craft, landing ships, and helicopters for the ship-to-shore movement. This concept is examined by all commanders for supportability and is approved by the CATF prior to commencement of detailed planning.


 

 

Key Roles and Responsibilities

With an approved concept of operations ashore, LF and naval requirements to accomplish the mission are consolidated and compared with the means available to CATF (forces, lift, logistics, etc.). If the means available do not satisfy these requirements, additional means are requested from higher authority. If this does not prove successful, the concept of operations is modified accordingly.

 

The ATF landing plan is prepared after the final allocation of means is made. The completed plan presents in detail the instructions to execute the waterborne and helicopterborne ship-to-shore movement. With the ATF plan completed, embarkation planning begins.

 

The assignment of personnel, equipment, and supplies to shipping with their sequence for embarkation constitutes the loading plan. The loading plan is derived from and totally supports the ATF landing plan.


 

 

 

Key Roles and Responsibilities

The ATF is a task organization of naval forces and a LF with organic aviation, formed to conduct an amphibious operation. The ATF is composed of amphibious assault ships and military sealift command (MSC) owned or chartered ships.

 

Following embarkation, the ATF moves from points of embarkation to the AOA. A

rehearsal to test the ATF landing plan is executed. For movement, the ATF may be

organized into movement groups. These groups consist of assault shipping with

escorts and combat logistics forces required for protection and sustainability. The LF is organized into echelons, assault echelon and assault follow-on echelon.

 

The AOA is a geographical area, delineated in the initiating directive, for the purposes of communication and and control within which is located the objective(s) to be secured by the ATF. The area must be of sufficient size to ensure accomplishment of the ATF'S mission and must provide sufficient area for conducting necessary sea, air, and land operations.


 

 

Key Roles and Responsibilities

The assault phase begins when enough of the ATF is in position in the landing area to permit CATF to commence the ship-to-shore movement. The landing area is that part of the objective area within which landing operations are conducted. This includes the beach, transport areas, fire support areas, air occupied by close supporting aircraft and land included in the advance inland to the initial objective. All operations are carefully executed to ensure success.

 

The command and control required to effectively execute an amphibious operation is enhanced through dynamic parallel chains of command, control groups, and clear communication. A clear understanding of command and control when reviewing

key roles and responsibilities is critical to appreciating their relationship to each other in an amphibious operation. Command and control is defined as, "the exercise of authority and direction over assigned forces in the accomplishment of the mission. Command and control is performed through an arrangement of personnel, equipment, communications, facilities and procedures employed by a commander in planning, directing, coordinating, and controlling forces and operations in the accomplishment of the mission." FMFRP l5-3


 

 

 

Key Roles and Responsibilities

The following provides the specific roles and responsibilities of the

CATF, CLF, and key organizational elements:

 

Commander, Amphibious Task Force(CATF): Assumes full responsibility for the

entire force within the AOA and for the operation. CATF is vested with commen

surate command authority to ensure success of the operation. CATF is designated in the initiating directive. CATF will excercise control, as prescribed by the initiating directive, over forces not a part of the ATF when such forces are operating within the AOA after the arrival of the advance force or the ATF.

 

Commander Force(CLF): Possesses operational command of the landing

force. Develops the concept of operations ashore for approval by the CATF. Subject to the overall authority of the CATF, responsible for the conduct of operations ashore, and for the security of all personnel and installations located within the area of operations ashore. The CLF assumes command ashore upon dissolution of the AOA.


 

 

 

Key Roles and Responsibilities

Naval Forces: Naval elements that are part of the ATF are organized into task

groups for the operation.

 

Transport Group - The transport group is a subdivision of the ATF, composed of

assault shipping which provides support for embarkation, movement,

and landing of the LF. If more than one landing area is contained in the AOA a

transport group will be formed for each landing area. Transport groups are combat loaded to support the landing plan.

 

Movement Groups: The ATF may be task organized into movement groups based

on ports of embarkation, individual ship's speed, mission, and when

they are required to arrive in the landing area. A movement group will include

all required screen and logistic support.


 

 

Key Roles and Responsibilities

Control Groups: Personnel, ships, and craft designated to control waterborne

ship-to-shore movement.

 

Tactical Air Control Group (TACGRU): A shipborne organization established to

operate a Tactical Air Control Center (TACC (afloat) and a Tactical Air Control

Direction Center (TADC) for control of air operations in the AOA.

Surface Fire Support Group(s): Surface combatants assigned to the ATF to provide

surface fire support of the assault landings and landing force operations ashore.

 

Tactical Air Group(s)shore based: Tactical air units assigned to the ATF that are land based within, or sufficiently close to, the AOA to provide tactical air support to the ATF.

 

Carrier Battle Group(s)(CVBG): CVBGs listed in the initiation directive assigned

to or in support of the ATF to provide air, surface, and subsurface protection and strike warfare.


Key Roles and Responsibilities

Screening Group(s): Groups whose function is to provide protection to the ATF en

route to and during operations in the AOA. Within the screening group, elements

are task organized to provide specific mission area functions; e.g., antiair warfare (AAW), antisurface warfare (ASUW), or antisubmarine warfare (ASW) in

accordance with the Navy's composite warfare commander (CWC) concept.

 

Mine Warfare Group: Mine warfare capable units assigned to the ATF that conduct

offensive and/or defensive naval mine operations in support of the ATF.

 

Reconnaissance and Special Warfare Group: Includes ships, embarked

reconnaissance troops, and sea-air-land (SEAL) teams conducting reconnaissance,

hydrographic surveys, demolition of natural and manmade obstacles, and other

special operations missions as assigned.

 

Tactical Deception Group: A task organization established within the ATF to

conduct tactical deception operations against the enemy.


 

 

Key Roles and Responsibilities

Inshore Undersea Warfare Group: One or more mobile inshore undersea warfare

(MIUW) units that provide surface and subsurface surveillance of enemy targets in seaward approach to the landing area.

 

Maritime Patrol Air Group: Maritime patrol air (MPA) units that conduct ASW and

surface-subsurface search and classification (SSSC) while the ATF is enroute to

and within the AOA.


Air Transport Group: Transport aircraft units that provide air transport for LF

elements and provide logistic support.

 

Naval Beach Group: A task organization that may consist of traffic control, communications, beach and surf salvage, fuel elements of the beach party, assault craft (not organic to assault shipping), and elements of the Navy Cargo Handling and Port Group (NAVCHAPGRU).


 

Key Roles and Responsibilities

Electronic Warfare: Group A task organization within the ATF established to

conduct electronic warfare operations.

 

Landing Force (LF): The LF is the highest troop echelon in the ATF which translates to a Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF). The MAGTF is structured and equipped to conduct expeditionary operations. It is composed of: the command

element (CE), ground combat element (GCE), aviation combat element (ACE), and

combat service support element (CSSE) under a single commander who has the

command and control assets to direct the force. MAGTFs can be task organized to

any size, but normally are a Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF), MEF (FWD),

Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU), or Marine Expeditionary Unit (Special Operations Capable) (MEU(SOC). Respectively, their sizes equate to a division, regiment, and a battalion (for a MEU and MEU(SOC).

 

The LF is specially organized for the following functions:

-Embarkation of troops, equipment, and supplies.

-Debarkation and landing of troops by air and/or surface units.


 

 

 

Key Roles and Responsibilities

Landing Force (cont'd):

-Conduct of air and waterborne assault operations.

-Control of naval surface fire support.

-Provision, as appropriate, and control of air support.

-Discharge of logistic and CSS elements and cargo from assault shipping

and establishment of throughput and service areas, beach support areas, landing

zone support areas, and ports.

 

Command Element(CE): The CE is the MAGTF headquarters. It is a permanent

organization composed of the commander, general, or executive and special staff

sections, the headquarters section, and the requisite communications and service

support facilities. The CE provides command, control and coordination that is

essential for effective planning and execution of operations by the other three

elements of the MAGTF. The CE staff liaisons with higher, adjacent, and

supporting commands.


 

 

 

Key Roles and Responsibilities

Ground Combat Element(GCE): The GCE is task organized to conduct ground

combat operations. It is constructed around an infantry combat unit and varies in size from a reinforced infantry battalion to one or more Marine divisions. It is through the GCE that the MAGTF generates combat power through the use of

firepower and mobility.

 

Aviation Combat Element(ACE: The ACE is task organized to provide all or a

portion of the functions of Marine Corps aviation based on the tactical situation and the MAGTF's mission and size. These functions are air reconnaissance, antiair warfare (AAW), assault support, offensive air support, electronic warfare (EW), and control of aircraft and missiles.

 

Combat Service Support Element(CSSE): The CSSE is task organized to provide

the full range of CSS necessary to accomplish the MAGTF mission. This CSS

includes supply, maintenance, deliberate engineering, transportation, and health

services.

 

 

Key Roles and Responsibilities

Landing Force Support Party(LFSP): The LFSP is a temporary LF organization

established to provide the LF with initial combat support and CSS during the ship-to-shore movement until relieved by CSSE.

 

Tactical Logistics (TACLOG)Group: The TACLOG group is a temporary LF

organization which advises the CLF and Navy control organization of LF require-

ments during ship-to-shore movement and assists in expediting the landing of

personnel, equipment, and supplies in accordance with the ATF landing plan.

TAC LOG detachments are collocated with CATF and CLF, Tactical Air Officer

(TAO) or Central Control Officer (CCO), Primary Control Officer (PCO), and

helicopter transport group commander.

 

Helicopter Support Team (HST): The HST is task organized and composed of

personnel and equipment from the helicopterborne force and the LFSP. Normally,

an HST is assigned to each helicopter landing zone and provides support to units

operating in and around that zone. The HST consists of an advance party, head

quarters, helicopter control element (HCE) and a landing zone platoon.

 

Key Roles and Responsibilities

Tactical Air Officer(TAO): The TAO is a naval aviator or naval flight officer

responsible for coordinating the planning of all phases of air participation in the amphibious operation and air operations supporting forces en route to and in the AOA. Until air control is phased ashore, the TAO is charged with control of:

-All aircraft in the AOA assigned for tactical air operations, including

offensive and defensive air.

-All other aircraft entering or passing through the AOA.

-All air warning facilities in the AOA.

During helicopterborne ship-to-shore movement, the TAO is responsible for:

-Planning and supervising the helicopterborne ship-to-shore movement.

-Organizing the TACGRU to support the ATF landing plan.

-Coordinating with the central control officer (CCO).

-Maintaining liaison with the TACLOG group.

Tactical Air Control Center Afloat(TACC afloat): The principle air operations

installation from which all aircraft and air warning functions of tactical air operations in the AOA are controlled. All tactical aircraft and helicopter operations are coordinated with supporting arms and other air operation through the TACC afloat.


 

 

 

Key Roles and Responsibilities

Helicopter Coordination Section Officer(HCSO): The HCSO is a naval aviator

or naval flight officer responsible for the operation of the helicopter coordination section of the TACC afloat. The HCSO coordinates the planning and execution of the helicopterborne ship-to-shore movement for the TAO.

 

Helicopter Coordination Section(HCS): The HCS is an integral part of the TACC

afloat. It coordinates all helicopter operations conducted by subordinate air traffic control agencies.

 

Primary Helicopter Direction Center (HDC): The primary HDC is responsible for the air traffic control of helicopters operating within its assigned sector. In situations where multiple landing zones are used, one HDC in each helicopter transport unit is designated by the TAO as the primary HDC. The primary HDC controls its part of the helicopterborne ship-to-shore movement by combining positive radar control with procedural control and providing air traffic control for helicopter from a rendezvous point to a landing zone and from a landing zone to a breakup point. Facilities for primary HDC's are located in LHD, LHA, and LPH class ships.


 

Key Roles and Responsibilities

Central Control Officer (CCO): A CCO is designated by CATF to plan and conduct

the waterborne ship-to-shore movement. The CCO is embarked in a central control

ship and responsible for:

-Planning and supervising the waterborne ship-to-shore movement.

-Organizing the Navy control group to support the ATF landing plan.

-Maintaining liaison with the tactical air officer (TAO).

-Maintaining liaison with the TACLOG group.

 

Primary Control Officer(PCO): A PCO is designated for each colored beach and is

responsible for:

-Providing detailed plans, called PCO instructions, to conduct the ship-to

shore movement for amphibious assaults across a colored beach.

-Maintaining current locations and status of all ships, landing craft, and boats assigned to conduct the landing on the assigned beach.

-Monitoring surf conditions and weather predictions and recommending

the termination of boating when conditions warrant.

-Maintaining the status of debarkation or embarkation.

 

Key Roles and Responsibilities

Primary Control Officer (cont'd):

-Landing scheduled waves at the correct beach at the specified time.

-Arranging for fueling boats and providing rest and food for boat crews.

-Providing liaison to the surfaceborne landing team TACLOG detachment.

-Conducting assault craft salvage operations.

-Coordinating the employment of landing ships and craft within his area

of responsibility following the initial assault.


 

 

Command Relationships

in the

Amphibious Operation

The command relationships between the CATF, CLF and their respective counterparts is critical to the success of an amphibious operation. While planning, embarkation, rehearsal, and movement are key phases of any amphibious operation, the culmination of those four phases is the assault. No where during the amphibious operation is command and control more critical than during the assault phase and the ship-to-shore movement. This phase is where all of the planning and rehearsal payoff, while it is also where the largest threat may exist to create friction and fog to confuse and break down command and control.

 

The ship-to-shore movement during the assault phase of an amphibious operation is the deployment of the LF from assault shipping to designated areas ashore. Its objective is to land troops, equipment, and supplies at prescribed times and places in order to support the scheme of maneuver ashore. The ship-to-shore movement is a key facet of the relationship between CATF and CLF. While CATF is in overall control of the operation due to the naval nature of the operation, the support provided is aimed at total support of the CLF and his scheme of maneuver once the landing


 

 

 

Command Relationships

in the

Amphibious Operation

force has begun landing.

 

The ship-to-shore movement is waterborne, helicopterborne, or a combination of both. It is initiated from beyond the enemy's visual and ground based radar range or "over the horizon" (OTH), near shore, or a combination of both. It commences when CATF orders the execution of signaling, "Land the landing force." It concludes when the unloading of all assault shipping is complete. Unloading operations take place in two periods. The initial unloading period is tactical and provides for rapid buildup of combat power ashore and quick response to LF tactical and logistical requirements. The general unloading period is primarily logistical and emphasizes the rapid unloading of personnel remaining in AE and AFOE shipping required to support LF operations ashore.

 

Ship-to-shore movement is the most critical part of an amphibious operations. Close coordination between the helicopterborne and waterborne movements and supporting, preassault, prelanding, and in-stride operations with the flexibility to change the ATF

 

Command Relationships

in the

Amphibious Operation

landing plan is required to ensure maximum tactical effectiveness during the assault and maximum buildup of combat power ashore. Positive centralized control through control groups and temporary organizations with the execution of the waterborne and helicopterborne ship-to-shore movements delegated to subordinate commanders.

 

The interrelationships of Navy and LF tasks during planning and execution of

amphibious operations requires the establishment of parallel chains of command with corresponding Navy and LF commanders designated at various echelons for planning, command, control, and coordination. matters that affect both the Navy and LF are dealt with by the parallel chains of command. Corresponding commanders maintain a close relationship to ensure that no commander makes a decision that ultimately affects the corresponding commander without consultation.

 

Establishment of parallel Navy and LF chains of command normally follow a

sequence of:

 

 

Command Relationships

in the

Amphibious Operation

-CLF develops the concept of operations ashore and obtains CATF's

approval of that concept.

-The LF is task organized into tactical combat organizations to support

the CLF's concept of operations ashore.

-The sequence of movement ashore of the LF's tactical combat organizations

is developed (organization for landing).

-CATF establishes a Navy chain of command to parallel each LF tactical

combat organization that executes the ship-to-shore movement (surface and

helicopterborne).

-Each LF tactical combat organization commander establishes a TACLOG

Detachment to represent the commander and be collocated with the corresponding

Navy commander in the parallel chain of command.

 

The initial stage of ship-to-shore movement is characterized by decentralized

execution of the landing plan by subordinate commanders with CATF and CLF

maintaining centralized control through their respective control groups.


 

 

Command Relationships

in the

Amphibious Operation

The CATF maintains centralized control of the ship-to-shore movement through the

Navy control group and TACGRU. The ship-to-shore movement of a large LF may

involve multiple colored beaches and landing zones. Depending on the size of the

amphibious operation and location of beaches and landing zones, several control

units may be organized to provide precise control functions. A central control officer (CCO) and tactical air officer (TAO) plan and conduct the waterborne and helicopter-borne assaults. If several colored beaches are specified in the landing plan, the CCO will designate a primary control officer (PCO) at each colored beach for coordination and control of the waterborne assault (see The Beachmaster and the Amphibious Operation). For planning the air assault the TAO is assisted by the helicopter coordination section officer (HCSO). The HCSO is generally the officer-in-charge of the helicopter coordination section (HCS) of the tactical air control center afloat (TAG C afloat). If several landing zones are specified in the landing plan, the TAO will designate a primary helicopter direction center (HDC) to provide air traffic control of the helicopterborne assault into each landing zone.


 

 

Command Relationships

in the

Amphibious Operation

The waterborne ship-to-shore movement from assault shipping to colored beaches

is controlled by the Navy control group. Organization of this group is based on the location and number of beaches.

 

The helicopterborne ship-to-shore movement from assault shipping into the landing zones is controlled by the TACGRU. CATF controls all air operations in the AOA through the TACC afloat. Air traffic control functions for the helicopterborne ship to-shore movement are delegated from the HCS of the TACC afloat primary HDCs the air traffic control agency for helicopter transport group/unit commanders. Figure 1.0 depicts the control organization during ship-to-shore movement.

The termination of the amphibious operation is the final aspect of the assault. It is predicated upon the successful accomplishment of the ATF mission and must

be in accordance with the initiating directive. The firm establishment of the LF

ashore is usually a primary condition to termination. This usually infers that


 

 

Command Relationships

in the

Amphibious Operation

-The beachhead is secured.

-Sufficient tactical and supporting forces are established ashore to ensure the continuous landing of troops and material requisite for subsequent operations.

-Command, communications, and supporting arms coordination facilities

are established ashore.

-CLF is ready to assume full responsibility for subsequent operations.

 

When CATF and CLF are satisfied that the conditions have been met, CATF , depending on the operation, will report the meeting of conditions to the commander designated in the initiating directive. This authority will then terminate the amphibious operation, disestablish the AOA, dissolve the ATF, and provide additional instructions, as required, to include command arrangements and disposition of forces.


Image

 

Composite Warfare Commander

in the

Amphibious Operation Area

. Introduction

. Key Roles, Responsibilities, and Definitions


 

 

Introduction

The Composite Warfare Commander (CWC) concept is key element in the protection

of the amphibious operation area (AOA). Active and passive protective measures

in the AOA cover the complete warfare spectrum. Protective measures are developed within this concept for antiair warfare (AAW), antisurface warfare (ASUW), antisubmarine (ASW), and electronic warfare (EW) offensive and defensive

operations. This section will define terms and provide information on key roles and responsibilities in the combined warfare commander organization during an

amphibious operation.


 

 

 

Key Roles, Responsibilities, and Definitions

Protective measures are implemented by the Commander, Amphibious Task Force

(CATF) to enhance the Amphibious Task Force's (ATF's) survivability, particularly during ship-to-shore movement when the ATF is at its most vulnerable. The CATF is concerned with threats beneath the surface, on the surface and above the surface, as well as, shore based threats. These threats can also include nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons if hostile forces are in possession of same. Except for limited self-defense capabilities, amphibious ships are ill-suited to counter a sophisticated air, surface, and subsurface threats by their own means. For this reason, the ATF requires assigned screening assets, both during the movement and assault phase and while conducting operations in the AOA. Depending on the size and scope carriers may be assigned to the ATF.

 

The integration of the CWC doctrine with existing amphibious doctrine, due to its "blue water" Navy orientation, becomes a difficult problem because of the wide variety of tactical situations that may be encountered. It is, therefore, critical that the common superior ordering formation of the force specifically indicate what command relationships will apply.


 

 

Key Roles, Responsibilities, and Definitions

In defining command relationships, the common superior must:

-Understand that under all circumstances , upon activation of the AOA, unity of command within the AOA must be maintained to ensure that the CATF retains that degree of authority necessary to ensure success of the operation. CATF will normally be designated CWC within the AOA and receive or be given associated or mutual support to the CWC outside the AOA.

 

-As the operation progresses from phase to phase, transition from one CWC

relationship to another is possible and may, in fact, be required to optimize the protection and employment of forces in the most efficient manner as the tactical situation evolves.

 

-The carrier baffle group (force) may be assigned the single mission of

providing dedicated support to the amphibious operation, but more likely, this force will be assigned multiple missions in support of the larger joint operation which will significantly affect command relationships and coordination requirements. Therefore, the common superior must define the relationships concisely within the initiating directive to clarify responsibilities and ensure effective command and control.


 

 

 

Key Roles, Responsibilities, and Definitions

The CWC organization is based on the theory that decentralized command and

command by negation is the only practicable way to respond to the anticipated

rapidly changing tactical situation in a fleet action. Elements of the ATF

can be effectively divided into mission areas that are directly involved in the direct amphibious assault of the beaches, and those providing combat support to the AOA perimeter and ASW, ASUW, and AAW support inside the AOA.

 

The Battle Group Commander will, under the CWC organization, have charge of the

various screening groups protecting the AOA: air support carriers, fire support units, and other units assigned by higher authority. The initiating directive is a key facet to ensuring Battle Group and ATF forces have defined command relationships during the amphibious operation. The CATF must have the ability to direct support elements which may reside under the command of a Baffle Group or a Naval Expeditionary Force (NEF). The CATF must be the supported commander until such time as the AOA has been disestablished and command has been transitioned ashore. CATF must be able to operate in a threat reduced environment.


 

 

Key Roles, Responsibilities, and Definitions

Amphibious Defense Zone Coordinators (ADZC): The ADZC provides antiair

warfare (AAW) defense for the ATF while also assisting the tactical air control

center afloat (TACC afloat) in managing high volume of air traffic in the

amphibious operation area (AOA). (See Figure 2-0) The ATE AAW defense is

based on the baffle group or force AAW plan and is fully integrated with the

overall battle group or force AAW defense. To achieve this integration a primary

AAW platform, normally a Cruiser (CG) is designated as the ADZC. The ADZC

functions as CATF's antiair warfare commander (AAWC) and as a sector of AAWC

for the baffle group or force CWC. The AOA is included in the sector AAWC's area

as shown in figure 3-0.

 

As Commander, Landing Force (CLF's) air defense capability becomes operational

ashore the Tactical Air Operations Center (TAOC) reports to the ADZC as a landward sector AAW coordinator for integration into the AOA defense. When air control is phased ashore the ADZC reports to the TACC ashore as a seaward sector AAW coordinator. In joint operations under an air component commander, a similar

relationship is established to fully integrate the AOA into the force AAW defense.


Key Roles, Responsibilities, and Definitions

Inshore Undersea Warfare(IUW)Forces The mission of JUW forces is to utilize the

capabilities of surveillance and intelligence assets coupled with an organic command, control and communications capability to detect, localize, and report surface and subsurface activity within a specific area of responsibility. The organic command, control, and communications capability allows IUW forces to interact with the ATF or warfare commanders where shallow water environment in the AOA precludes the effective use of deep water assets. The purpose of IUW forces is to:

 

-Provide surface and subsurface surveillance in AOAs, harbors, approaches,

and roadsteads.

-Detect, identify, and track high speed surface craft and hostile submarines.

-Collect and disseminate visual, acoustic, and electromagnetic intelligence data.

-Support surface or airborne mine countermeasures operations.

-Provide command, control, and communications assets to tactical

commanders.

-Provide navigation data to afloat units.

-Control ship movements within harbors/anchorages.


 

 

Key Roles, Responsibilities., and Definitions

Defense Against Sneak Attack: Attacks can be expected from high-speed surface

craft, midget submarines, and swimmers while the ATF is in the landing area.

Attack from missile firing surface ships/submarines is also given consideration.

Protection measures against these threats include but are not limited to:

 

-Effective use of supporting forces/IUW forces/electronic warfare support measures (ESM) to detect submarines and high speed surface craft.

-Mining the flanks of the AOA from the shore seaward to 100 fathoms.

-Maintaining proper lighting conditions.

-Close-in picket boat patrols.

-Periodically dropping hand grenades or explosive charges.

-Keeping screws slowly turning over is anchored and periodically veering

or heaving around anchor chains.

-Helicopter patrols

-Special boat squadron patrols for coastal interdiction of small craft and

intelligence gathering.

-Search and destroy operations against enemy missile firing platforms.


 

 

Key Roles, Responsibilities, and Definitions

Defense Against Sneak Attack (cont'd):

-Maintaining appropriate readiness conditions.

-Stationing additional lookouts equipped with night observation devices.

-Operating sonars in the active mode.

-Operating bow thruster intermittently.

-Remaining underway or periodically shifting anchorages.

-Deploying the ATE in a sea echelon for force dispersion and to remain over the horizon.

 

Sneak Attack Defense Coordinator (SADC): Defensive measures employed against

small technologically unsophisticated forces conducting a sneak attack against the ATF operating in the landing area requires well defined command and control

procedures. Small forces employed in this manner could remain undetected by

warfare commanders postured to encounter traditional AAW, ASUW, and ASW

threats. GATE designates a SADC to concentrate on detecting and destroying this

type of threat. Responsibilities of the SADC include:


 

 

Key Roles, Responsibilities, and Definitions

Sneak Attack Defense Coordinator (cont'd):

-Developing plans for detecting and countering sneak attacks by swimmers,

surface craft, and aircraft in the assault area.

-Establishing threat thresholds for increasing or decreasing the ATF 'S sneak attack readiness posture.

-Coordinating search and attack procedures with warfare commanders and

IUW forces.

 

Defense Against Enemy Meaconing, Interference, Jamming, Intrusion (MIJI): In

order to minimize enemy disruption from MIJI on communication nets used during

the ship-to-shore movement. CATF may direct quiet landing procedures (QLPs) be

used.

 

Operational Deception (OPDEC): OPDEC measures that CATF may direct are:

-Emission control (EMC ON).

-Force dispersion

-Electronic deception

-Deceptive lighting


 

 

Key Roles, Responsibilities, and Definitions

Chemical, Biological, and Radiation (CBR)Countermeasures: In the event that

CBR weapons are employed against the ATF, the ability to sustain operations,

particularly during ship-to-shore movement, presents significant challenges to CATF and CLF. The CBR environment differs from the conventional assault environment in the following areas:

 

-The primary challenge to sustained operations is the survivability of people.

-CBR detection requires specialized equipment.

-Optimum personnel protective measures may degrade mission capability.

 

Enhanced survivability is achieved by timely and complete intelligence data, use of protective equipment and clothing, and employment of countermeasures. The key

to successful CBR countermeasures is preparation. This includes verifying that the appropriate equipment is properly maintained, operable, and personnel are trained to use it.


 

 

Key Roles, Responsibilities, and Definitions

Risk Assessment: Risk is the assessed difference between the threat level and the use of appropriate levels of countermeasures. The risk of casualties and contamination is evaluated and weighed against the potential mission degradation from mission oriented protective posture (MOPP) measures implemented, such as personnel heat stress from reduced ventilation or protective clothing. A risk assessment begins with an intelligence assessment describing the threat with a time frame for employment. Intelligence information consists of:

 

-Status of enemy CBR warfare capability.

-Assessment of the political will to employ CBR weapons under the

current and projected tactical situation.

-Ranges of CBR delivery systems.

-Threat axis and potential attack patterns.


 

Key Roles, Responsibilities, and Definitions


CBR Risk Levels: The risk of encountering a CBR attack is categorized into four

levels of increasing probability. These levels constitute decision points for

implementing corresponding MOPP countermeasures. The risk categories are:

 

Suspected - The enemy possesses a CBR capability. Implementation of

MOPP - l countermeasures is warranted.

MOPP -l - Individual protective equipment and medical supplies are

issued to personnel.

 

Possible - The political will to use CBR weapons exists. Implementation

of MOPP-2 is warranted.

MOPP -2- The protective mask is worn by all personnel. Primary and

secondary decontamination stations and routes are designated. Appropriate CBR

supplies are prepositioned. Material condition ZEBRA (modified) is set

throughout the ATF.


Key Roles, Responsibilities, and Definitions

CBR Risk Levels (cont'd):

Probable - A statement of intent to employ CBR weapons, changes in

political or military posture, or the use of CBR weapons in the objective area

has already occurred. Implementation of MOPP-3 is warranted.

MOPP-3- Protective overgarments are worn and readiness condition II is

set for any unit in the ATF operating within effective range of CBR delivery

systems.

Imminent - Confirmation of increased activity for immediate employment

Of CBR weapons. Implementation of MOPP-4 is warranted.

MOPP -4- Attack is imminent. Readiness condition I and

circle WILLIAM are set. All countermeasure systems are operating.


 

 

Key Roles, Responsibilities, and Definitions

CBR Defense Plan: A CBR defense plan is prepared when the risk level is

suspected or higher. Some of the factors considered in developing a plan are:

 

-Developing an alternate landing plan to exploit landing craft air cushion

(LCAC) and helicopter speed and maneuverability to avoid contaminated areas.

-Identifying alternate landing areas to take advantage of prevailing wind

conditions.

-Utilizing a sea echelon for ATF dispersal.

-Reducing the number of exposed personnel on ships and craft to the

minimum number to sustain the assault.

-Establishing decontamination teams for the boat group and shore party to

conduct personnel and equipment decontamination and monitoring.

-Promulgating prophylaxis procedures for nerve agent pretreatment

medicinals.

-Identifying casualty receiving and treatment ships (CRTS) to receive

contaminated helicopters and landing craft.


Key Roles, Responsibilities, and Definitions

CBR Defense Plan (cont'd):

-Establishing procedures in the medical regulating (MEDREG) plan

to decontaminate casualties during triage.

-Establishing permissible levels of CBR contamination.

-Designating areas where the residual contamination prohibits access or

access is permitted on a controlled or nonstop basis only.

-Defining courses of action for CBR warning conditions white, yellow, and

red for the following situations: before scheduled waves have landed, while the ship to-shore movement is in progress, and during general unloading. Courses of action are developed for each warning condition for:

-The transport group

-Naval surface fire support ships

-Landing craft

-Helicopters

-Beach party team/shore party team


 

Key Roles, Responsibilities., and Definitions

CBR Defense Centers: CATF, CLF, and each ship-to-shore movement control

agency establishes a CBR defense center. The CBR defense center contains a display of the transport area where ground zero or initial estimates of chemical or biological contamination can be plotted. Monitoring by CBR teams is directed from the CBR defense center. The resulted are plotted on the display evaluated, and disseminated. The evaluated information forms the basis for CATF and CLF's decision to continue with or alter the assault.

 

The joint intelligence center (JIC) is an integral part of CATF's CBR defense center. The JIC provides intelligence estimates and assessments on the enemy' s CBR warfare capability and political will to employ these weapons, and evaluates information from theater and national sensors to provide early warning on the potential employment of CBR systems.


 

Image

Amphibious Operation

Definitions and Terms

Amphibious Objective Area AOA: Defines the Amphibious Task Force's area

of authority. This area is defined by the Initiating Directive.

Colored Beach: Beach designation of areas for helicopter and surface assaults.

Depending on the size of the operation they can be subdivided into numbered

beaches. One pair of control units are assigned to each colored beach: a Primary

Control Ship (PCS) and an Helicopter Direction Center (HDC).

Line of Departure: The boundary between the boat lane and the approach lane

which marks the beginning of direct wave control. Primary Control Ship and

Secondary Control Ship are typically anchored to the flanks of the LOD, marking it for landing craft.

Boat Lane: Area in which assault vehicles and landing craft waves are directed

to the beach by the Control Ship.

Approach Lane: The lane through which landing craft move from the rendezvous

circles to the line of departure. It is in the approach lane that landing craft are maneuvered into a wave formation.

Beachmaster: Commands the Naval Beach Group and landing craft operations in

the surf zone and on the beach for a numbered beach.


 

Amphibious Operation

Definitions and Terms

Central Control Officer: Coordinates the surface ship-to-shore movement in the

AOA. The PCO, for each colored beach, makes reports on the progress of the

assault. Located with the Commander Amphibious Task Force (CATF). Assigned

when more than one colored beach is designated.

Primary Control Officer: Designated by Central Control Officer to direct

ship-to-shore movement of a landing team. Embarked upon the PCS near the LOD.

Boat Group Commander: Embarked on an LCPL. Commands the Boat

Group outside the surf zone. Leads the first landing craft to the surf zone of the landing beach. Marks the return lane for landing craft retracting from the beach.

Assistant Boat Group Commander (ABGC): Embarked on a LCPL with salvage

equipment. Primary function is to ensure waves depart rendezvous circle on time.

After scheduled waves land, the ABGC reports to the PCO for salvage operations

seaward of the surf zone and reports to Beachmaster as Senior Salvage Officer

Afloat for salvage operations inside the surf zone.


 

 

Amphibious Operation

Definitions and Terms

Landing Craft Air Cushion Control Officer(LCO): Embarks in the LCAC

Control Ship (LCS) and controls LCAC operations from LCAC departure point

(CDP) to LCAC penetration point (CPP). LCO reports to the PCO and is

responsible for LCAC instructions, execution of ship-to shore movement, and

monitoring of surf and weather conditions.

LCAC Group Commander(LGC): Embarks in LCAC with Global Positioning

System (GPS) for USQ-90 position locating and reporting system (PLRS) for

command and control.

Control Areas: Displacement craft and LCAC control areas and positions are

established in the landing area to deconflict tactical operations, define transit lanes for the LCAC and boat groups, identify geographic positions and timing, and to position control ships/boats to guide the waterborne ship-to-shore movement. Displacement craft control areas are the approach lane, LOD, and boat lane. LCAC control areas are the LCAC launching area (CLA), LCAC departure point (CDP), transit lane, LCAC control points (CCPs), LCAC penetration point (CPP), and LCAC landing zone (CLZ). See figure 1-0.


 

Image

 

Image

Beachmaster Role and Mission

Role: Commands the Naval Beach Group and landing craft operations in the surf

zone for a numbered beach. Reports to PCO.

 

Mission: Controls the beach for the PCS. Lands after the last wave of AAVs.

Responsibilities:

-Directs the landing craft/LCAC unloading.

-Directs salvage efforts.

-Directs barge operations.

-Interfaces with Marine Service Support Group.

-Reports surf observations to PCS.

-Reports progress of offload to PCS.

 

Naval Beach Group Organization Consists of:

-Beachmaster Unit (BMU)

-LCAC Control Team (CCT)

-Assault Craft Unit (ACU)

-Amphibious Construction Battalion (PHIB CB)


 

Beachmaster Role and Mission

Beachmaster Unit BMU : Conducts beach party operations to facilitate the landing

and movement of troops, equipment and supplies across the beach, the evac-

uation of casualties, and the evacuation prisoners of war.

 

LCAC Control Team (CCT): Controls seaward of LCAC penetration point

to CLZ for unloading and back to surf zone. Comprised of members of BMU and

Marine LCAC Support Team (CST).

 

Beach Party: The naval element of the shore party which provides close

offshore control to facilitate beaching of landing craft, landing ships, and amphibian vehicles. It assists as required in the retraction and salvage of landing craft and landing ships and provides facilities for communicating with naval forces afloat.

 

Shore Party: A task organization of the landing force formed for the purpose of facilitating the landing and movement off the beaches of troops, equipment, and supplies; for the evacuation from the beaches of casualties and prisoners of war; and for facilitating the breaching, retracting and salvaging of landing ships and craft. It is comprised of both naval and landing forces.


 

 

Beachmaster Role and Mission

Assault Craft Unit(ACU): A permanently commissioned naval organization,

subordinate to the Commander Naval Beach Group, provides displacement landing

craft, landing craft air cushion (LCAC) to the ATF for ship-to-shore movement,

general off-load, MPF or military sealift command operations, withdrawl and back

load operations. Also provides emergency repair to landing craft/LCAC on the beach.

 

Amphibious Construction Battalion: A commissioned naval unit of the

Naval Beach Group, designed to provide personnel and equipment to appropriate

commanders to operate pontoon causeways, transfer barges, fuel systems, warping

tugs, and to meet salvage requirements of the Naval Beach Party as the Beach

Support Unit. Conducts construction and engineering operations to support beach

activities. Ensures beach trafficability and reliability of beach egress. Comprised of:

Fuels Platoon: Installs the Amphibious Assault Bulk Fuel System

(AABFS).

Camp Support Platoon: Provides limited beach construction to establish

camp and communications support.

As beach support unit, they provide:

-Roll on/Roll off discharge facility.

-AABFS and off shore POL discharge system (OPDS)

-Camp support and limited construction.


 

 

Beachmaster Role and Mission

Landing Craft Operations in the Surf Zone:

As landing craft approach the surf zone, the Boat Group Commander turns away

and marks the return lane. The surf zone marks the boundary between the two

landing craft control agents - Boat Group Commander and Beachmaster. The

Beachmaster directs operations from the surf zone to the beach. Once in the surf

zone, landing craft steer directly for the beach.

 

Salvage Operations: The intent of salvage operations is to ensure that the move-

ment rate of landing craft is maintained and that the availability of landing craft is maximized. Under the direction of the Beachmaster, the Assistant Boat Group Commander assists in salvage operations which can include:

-Pick up of survivors;

-Rescue of broached boats;

-recovery of supplies and equipment from sunken craft.

The salvage section is also comprised of Amphibious Construction Battalion

equipment and personnel that assist landing craft to beach and retract,

accomplish minor beach improvements, and salvage landing craft and

amphibians from inside the surf zone.


 

Command, Control, and Communication

for the

Beachmaster

Command and control in an amphibious operation is the ability to make critical

decisions at the appropriate time to directly impact the effectiveness of the

amphibious operation. This is accomplished through the key command relationships

operating within various aspects of the landing. The Beachmaster is a critical link in the command and control structure of the assault. His command and control of of elements within the operating area from the surf zone to the beach is a linchpin to the success of the operation. The ability to offload without hazard is central to his mission. His observations of the surf directly impacts the decisions of the Primary Control Officer. His throughput and speed of the offload is vital to establishing the beachhead. This is accomplished through clear lines of command, control, and effective communication utilizing the BRAVO net.

 

The Beachmaster reports directly to the Primary Control Officer, keeping him

informed of surf conditions and progress of the landing and offload. The

Beachmaster meanwhile directs the operations of the BMU, ACU, and PHIB CB


 

 

Command, Control, and Communication

for the

Beachmaster

in their efforts to ensure a hazard free landing area; recovery of broached vessels; recovery of personnel and cargo from sunken craft; and the trafficability of the beach and beach exits.

 

The Beachmaster relies on radio communication but must be prepared to utilize

visual methods of communications if the operational environment requires it such

as infra-red signalling or signal lamp.

Image


 

 

Command, Control, and Communication

for the

Beachmaster

The following provides the communication nets utilized by key personnel and org-

anizations during an amphibious operation:

 

Control Ship Coordination Net: Utilized for overall coordination of waterborne

ship-to-shore movement.

 

Primary Control Net: Utilized to exchange command and control information for

coordinating the ship-to-shore movement to a colored beach.

 

Beach Boat Control(ALFA Net): Utilized during near shore ship-to-shore move-

ments to provide vector information to scheduled waves for a numbered or colored

beach. AAVs shift to Landing Force tactical and displacement landing craft shift

to beach boat operations (BRAVO Net) circuits on beaching.


Command, Control, and Communications

for the

Beachmaster

Beach Boat Operations (BRAVO Net): Utilized to coordinate the initial and general off-load at a numbered or colored beach.

 

LCAC Control Net: May be UHF/VHF clear voice net or data link system. If

position locating and reporting system (PLRS) is in place, the PLRS Master Station to LCAC user link may perform the function. An E2C or SH-60 in an LCAC

airborne control role guards this net. It is used to provide vector information to LCAC groups in route to and from LCAC landing zones supporting a numbered or

colored beach.

 

CLZ Control Net: Utilized to control LCACs form LCAC penetration point (CPP).


 

Key Health Service Support

Organizational Elements,

Definitions, and Responsibilities

Echelon III (cont'd): Combat Zone Fleet Hospitals, and augmented (personnel)

CRTS.

 

Echelon IV: Defined as treatment received in a general hospital, within the

communications zone, staffed and equipped to provide definitive care. The mission of these hospitals is rehabilitation of casualties to duty. If rehabilitation cannot be achieved at this facility, then the patient is evacuated to Echelon V facility in CONUS. Echelon IV capabilities are resident in medical treatment facilities outside CONUS, Communication Zone Fleet Hospitals, and Hospital Ships.


Health Service Support

Execution in the

 

Amphibious Objective Area

 

Introduction: In order to fully understand health service support implementation

in the Amphibious Objective Area the following presents the execution aspect of

the MEDREG plan and MEDEVAC procedures. It is important to note that once

control has been established ashore, the Commander, Amphibious Task Force

(CATF) passes command of the assault operation to the Commander, Landing Force.

Coupled with the transfer of operational command, to the Commander, Landing

Force, is the transfer of MEDREG control ashore to the CLF.

 

Execution: As the ship-to-shore movements progress, beach evacuation stations

(BESs) and helicopter landing zone evacuation stations (HESs) are established

at each colored beach and landing zone, collocated with the shore party and helicopter support team (HST) respectively, by the landing force support party (LFSP). The shore party or HST use the BRAVO or helicopter request (HR) net to relay MEDEVAC requests from the BES or HES. Requests from the BES are processed

by the Primary Control Ship (PCS) Medical Regulating Team (MR.) which uses


 

 

Health Service Support

Execution in the

Amphibious Objective Area

Execution(cont'd): the Medical Regulating Net (MRN) to advise the ATF Medical

Regulating Control Officer (MRCO) of the requirement. The ATF MRCO recom-

mends a CRTS that is capable of receiving and treating the casualties and the

transportation mode. With PCS or helicopter coordination section (HCS) detach

ment concurrence for transportation, the PCS MRT advises the CRTS of incoming

casualties and mode of transportation. Requests from an FTES are processed by

the primary helicopter direction center (HDC) MRT which uses the MRN to advise

the ATF MRCO of the requirement. The ATF MRCO recommends a CRTS. A

helicopter is normally provided for urgent and priority precedence casualties located at an HES. With HCS detachment or PCS concurrence for transportation, the primary HDC MRT advises the CRTS of incoming casualties and mode of trans-

portation.

 

Casualties may be placed onboard helicopters or in medical boats as lifts of

opportunity prior to the establishment of a BES or HES. The helicopter or medical


 

 

Health Service Support

Execution in the

Amphibious Objective Area

Execution (cont'd): boat advises the primary HDC or PCS of the MEDEVAC

situation and the primary HDC or PCS acting on the advice of the ATF MRCO

directs the helicopter or medical boats to a CRTS.

 

CRTSs display a MIKE flag by day and, when tactical conditions permit, a blinking green light at night to indicate that they may receive further casualties. The flag is hauled down and the light extinguished when CRTSs are unable to accommodate further casualties.

 

As the assault progresses, the medical battalion establishes MTFs ashore to augment CRTSs. Hospital ships (TAHs) enter the AOA as the tactical situation permits. When within helicopter range the ATF or LF MRCO can direct casualties to the TAH.


 

 

Health Service Support

Execution in the

Amphibious Objective Area

Execution (cont'd): When the LF Medical Regulating Control Center (MRCC) is

established and air control has been passed to the Direct Air Support Center (DASC), control of MEDREG may be formally passed ashore to the CLF. With MEDREG

control ashore, CRTSs and MTFs ashore advise the LF MRCO of their current

capabilities through facilities spot status reports.


New Definition of Health Service Support

for the MAGTF

 

in the Amphibious Objective Area

 

Background: Health Services Support capabilities for Marine Corps operations

experienced significant expansion during the Vietnam War due to a stable

operating environment and introduction of Advanced Trama Life Support

technologies into the Medical Battalion. These factors coupled with a lack of

deployable Navy echelon III platforms, encouraged Marine Medical Battalions

to build echelon III capability beyond their doctrinal requirements. What resulted was an exponential increase in the Medical Battalion's weight and cube,

with echelon III equipment and supplies to compensate for the deficit. This also

resulted in the current configuration of the Medical Battalion that is unable to

maintain pace with the modem Ground Combat Element due to lack of mobility

because of its current footprint.

The current level of echelon III facilities within the Navy has filled the void which previously existed. The echelon III support available during a regional conflict has enabled the Marine Corps to restructure its echelon II footprint to be more in line with task orientation of the MAGTF.


 

 

Health Service Support

in the

Amphibious Task Force

. Introduction to Health Service Support in the Amphibious Objective

Area (AOA)

. Key Health Service Support Organizational Elements, Definitions, and

Responsibilities

. Health Service Support Execution in the Amphibious Objective Area

(AOA)

. New Definition of Health Service Support for the MAGTF in the

Amphibious Objective Area (AOA)


Introduction

to Health Service Support

in the Amphibious Objective Area (AOA)

Health Service Support is a key facet of any hostile conflict where casualties may occur. The effective and rapid handling of casualties is critical from a national, operational and tactical perspective. Any amphibious operation must have an efficient and aggressive plan in place for medical facilities, treatment and casualties evacuation prior to any amphibious operation commencing.

 

The Commander, Amphibious Task Force (CATF) is responsible for developing and

implementing a medical plan which ensures adequate medical treatment facilities are available in the AOA. The CATF is also responsible for ensuring that a medical regulating (MEDREG) organization has been established and that a plan addressing the treatment and movement of casualties has been developed and is in place prior to an Amphibious Task Force (ATF) assault.

 

Additionally, just as the CATF passes command ashore to Commander, Landing

Force (CLF), upon the securing of force beachhead line and the preponderance

of troops ashore, so does he pass MEDREG control to the CLF.


Key Health Service Support

Organizational Elements,

Definitions, and Responsibilities

The primary responsibility of the CATF is to ensure an ATF MEDREG

Organization is established to coordinate the movement of casualties by surface

or air means to casualty receiving and treatment ships (CRTS) in the AOA. The

following describes the mission and responsibilities of individuals and

organizational elements of the Amphibious Task Force:

 

Commander, Amphibious Task Force(CATF)Surgeon: Acts as senior medical

officer on CATF's staff and represents the commander in all matters pertaining to medical support required for an amphibious operation. Responsible for:

-Ensuring the OPORD provides guidance for the proper functioning of the

MEDREG organization.

-Coordinating medical planning with adjacent and higher

headquarters, to include the Landing Force Surgeon.

-Coordinating with Navy operations for designating primary and second-

ary CRTSs (PCRTs and SCRTs), locating medical augmentation with Navy ship-to

shore control agencies.


Key Health Service Support

Organizational Elements,

 

Definitions, and Responsibilities

CATF Surgeon (cont'd):

-Training personnel assigned MEDREG duties to ensure that all personnel

involved understand the concepts and procedures employed in this system.

 

MEDREG Plan: CATF promulgates the MEDREG Plan which sets policy for

casualty evacuation within the ATF. The MEDREG Plan includes:

-A compilation of the medical resource capabilities in the ATF, including

the number of medical personnel embarked and their qualifications, patient care

beds, operating rooms, clinical laboratory capabilities, x-ray equipment available, whole blood and blood products available and storage capacity.

-The precedence for evacuating casualties.

-A primary evacuation plan which describes procedures for regulating

the flow of casualties to the CRTS for early definitive medical care.

-A secondary casualty evacuation plan for evacuating casualties to rear

area Medical Treatment Facilities (MTFs) or outside the AOA.

-A mass casualties plan.


Key Health Service Support

Organizational Elements,

Definitions, and Responsibilities

MEDREG Plan (cont'd):

-The location and responsibility of each unit in the MEDREG organization.

-The listing of all MTFs with normal and maximum casualty capacities.

Primary Casualty Evacuation Plan: This plan addresses:

-The moving of casualties from the baffle area to evacuation stations (ESs) with subsequent movement to CRTS or MTFs ashore.

-The moving of casualties from the baffle area directly to CRTSs or MTFs

ashore.

-The moving of casualties laterally between CRTSs or MTFs ashore.

Secondary Casualty Evacuation Plan: The secondary plan describes the movement

of casualties to in theater MTFs, such as fleet hospitals or TAHs, or the MTFs out of theater.


Key Health Service Support

Organizational Elements,

 

Definitions, and Responsibilities

 

Medical Emergency Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Assets:

-Medical Boats: Display the MIKE flag over the beach flag and contain

hospital corpsman, first aid supplies, 20 lifters with floatation equipment, voice and visual communications equipment, lifejackets, and tarpaulins for inclement weather.

 

Well deck configured CRTSs normally direct the medical boat into the well deck

for discharge of casualties at the ramp. CRTSs without well decks direct the medical boats alongside and hoist casualties aboard by lifter or collar slings.

 

Medical boats are designated in the landing craft availability table and maintain positions off the beach in accordance with the beach approach diagram.

 

-Helicopters: Provide the most rapid and least traumatic means of

MEDEVAC and are normally the preferred option for transporting seriously injured

casualties to CRTSs or MTFs ashore.


 

Key Health Service Support

Organizational Elements,

Definitions, and Responsibilities

Helicopters (cont'd): All helicopters are normally committed in the

helicopter employment and assault landing table for transporting scheduled waves. Helicopter MEDEVACs are conducted on a lift of opportunity basis.

MEDEVAC Precedence: Any MIEDEVAC from a combat area poses varying

degrees of risk. The risks which are assumed by accomplishing the MEDEVAC

will depend on the urgency of the medical care required. For this reason, casualties are prioritized strictly on the basis of their medical treatment requirements. The following MEDEVAC precedence is used:

 

-Urgent: Assigned to emergency cases that should be evacuated as soon

as possible, but not delayed longer than two hours, in order to save life, limb, and eyesight.

 

-Priority: Assigned to sick and wounded personnel requiring prompt

medical care. The individual should be evacuated within four hours or the medical condition could deteriorate and an urgent precedence will be assigned.


Key Health Service Support

Organizational Elements,

Definitions, and Responsibilities

 

Routine: Assigned to sick and wounded personnel requiring evacuation

but whose condition is not expected to deteriorate significantly. This category

should be evacuated within 24 hours.

Medical Regulating Teams(MRTs): Consist of medical regulators, provided from

the FST, embarked unit's medical personnel, and radio operators that are assigned to CRTSs, MTFs ashore, and ship-to-shore movement control agencies. MRTs report to the ATF or LF MRCO and are responsible for:

-Guarding the MRN.

-Maintaining spot status board.

-Providing current medical capabilities and casualty evacuation status.

-Providing advice to HCS detachments with primary helicopter direction

centers (HDCs) and PCOs on moving casualties.


Key Health Service Support

Organizational Elements,

Definitions, and Responsibilities

 

Fleet Surgical Teams (FST): An FST is a team permanently assigned to a fleet

commander (Atlantic and Pacific) to support deployed medical commitments. FSTs

provide the nucleus for ATF medical support during amphibious operations.

 

ATF Medical Regulating Control Center (MRCC): The ATF MRCC coordinates

movement of casualties within the AOA. The MRCC is responsible for MEDREG

and medical status maintenance.

 

ATF Medical Regulating Control Officer (MRCO): The ATF MRCO is a medical

service corps (MSC) officer who regulates the movement of casualties within the

ATF. The ATF MRCO directs the operation of the ATF MRCC medical regulating

teams (MRTs), and is net control for the Medical Regulating Net (MRN), the

communications net. The ATF MRCO reports to the CATF surgeon and is

responsible for:


 

Key Health Service Support

Organizational Elements,

Definitions, and Responsibilities

ATF MRCO (cont'd):

-Initiating advance planning and coordination with the Landing Force and

advising the CATF surgeon on MEDREG matters.

-Acting on requests for MEDREG from Medical Regulating Teams

(MRTs) by recommending the preferred CRTS and transportation mode for

casualty movement. The Helicopter Coordination Section (HCS) detachment

with primary helicopter direction center (HDC) or primary control officer (PCO)

can accept or reject the recommendation based upon tactical circumstances. The

HCS detachment maintains liason with the medical regulating team (MRT)

to direct MEDEVAC helicopters to the appropriate CRTS.

-Notify CRTS of inbound casualties.

-Maintaining the master facilities spot status board.

-Arranging for lateral casualty movement between CRTS to match treat-

ment needs with medical capabilities.

-Coordinating casualty evacuation outside the AOA with JMRO.


 

Key Health Service Support

Organizational Elements,

Definitions, and Responsibilities

Landing Force(LF) MEDREG Organization: The LF MRCC embarks in the same

ship, lands in the same serial, and collocates ashore with the direct air support center (DASC). The phasing ashore of MEDREG control may occur after the

DASC is operational and air control has been phased ashore. When MEDREG

is phased ashore, the LF MRCO assumes net control of the MRN and requests

facility spot status reports from all MTFs to bring the master facility spot status board up-to-date. The ATF MRCC becomes the alternate control agency and

continues to monitor the MRN.

 

LF Surgeon: The LF Surgeon is the senior medical officer in CLF's staff and

represents the commander in all matters pertaining to LF medical support required for an amphibious operation. The LF surgeon' s responsibilities are similar to the CATF surgeon for organizing, implementing, and monitoring the LF MEDREG.


Key Health Service Support

Organizational Elements,

Definitions, and Responsibilities

LF MRCC: Normally collocated with the DASC and performs the same functions

as the ATF MRCC.

 

LF MRCO: Supervises the LF MRCC and when MEDREG is phased ashore has

responsibilities similar to the ATE MRCO. The LF MRCO recommends the

preferred destination for casualty treatment and transportation mode to the DASC

or PCS and advises CRTSs or MTFs ashore of inbound casualties

 

Line Company Hospital Corpsman: Hospital corpsman assigned to the LF are

trained in emergency care and life support. They are the first echelon of medical treatment to go ashore. They provide direct support to platoons, squads, and BASs.


 

Key Health Service Support

Organizational Elements,

Definitions, and Responsibilities

Battalion Aid Stations(BAS): BASs are highly mobile medical units that provide

initial resuscitation to traumatic casualties and limited routine health care.

Evacuation Stations (ESs): Beach evacuation stations (BESs) and helicopter

landing zone evacuation stations (HESs) provide collection, triage, emergency treatment, and they coordinate with the shore party to move casualties to CRTSs or MTFs ashore.

 

Casualty Receiving and Treatment Ship (CRTS): A CRTS has the required oper-

ational capability and resources to provide medical treatment to casualties.

Primary Casualty Receiving and Treatment Ship (PCRTS): Possesses the best medical treatment capabilities and resources when compared with other ships in the ATF. The LHD, LHA, or LPH class ships are normally designated as PCRTSs.


Key Health Service Support

Organizational Elements,

Definitions, and Responsibilities

Secondary Casualty Receiving and Treatment Ship(SCRTS): A SCRTS has

reduced medical treatment capabilities and resources when compared to a PCRTS.

Example: LPD or LSD.

 

Hospital Ships (TAHs): TAHs have extensive medical capabilities that are equiva-

lent to a CONUS based hospital. They are MSC chartered ships designed to support

amphibious operations. (USNS Comfort and USNS Mercy)

 

Medical Regulating Net (MRN): The MRN is a dedicated communications net that

provides rapid communications between the ATF or LF MRCO and MRTs. It is

used for MEDREG, blood reporting, blood requests, and providing status reports so that the ATF or LF MRCO has current information on the capabilities of each MTF.

Medical Care Echelons: (Per DOD Medical System Standardized Clinical Data Base

and STANAG 2068)

-Echelon I: Defined as care provided by the Corpsman in the field, as well

as Battalion Aid Stations (BAS). Comprised of essential emergency treatment


 

Key Health Service Support

Organizational Elements,

Definitions, and Responsibilities

-Echelon I (cont'd): that allows the return of the Marine to duty or the preparation of the casualty for evacuation to the rear. The BAS are capable of establishing and maintaining an airway, controlling a hemorrhage, applying field dressings, administering analgesic, the initiation and maintenance of intravenous fluid therapy, and be integrated into a theater-wide evacuation system. Mobility is key to the BAS. It must be capable of mirroring the mobility of the supported forces.

 

-Echelon II: Defined as care necessary to examine and evaluate the general

status of the patient, establish a priority for return to duty or further evacuation, and the provision of emergency care, including resuscitative surgery. No care is provided that goes beyond saving life and limb, and facilitate the patient's safe evacuation to a more capable medical facility.

 

-Echelon III: Defined as care necessary to treat the casualty in a medical

facility that is staffed and equipped to provide resuscitation, initial wound surgery, and post-operative treatment. These facilities resident onboard hospital ships,


New Definition of Health Service Support

for the MAGTF

in the Amphibious Objective Area

Concept of Operations: The mission and strength of the Marine Corps is its' ability to perform expeditionary missions and be responsive to regional conflicts where the National Command Authority directs. In the context of the expeditionary nature of the Marine Corps and in light of the current limited level of amphibious lift, the Marine Corps medical community is realigning itself to the doctrinally accepted echelons of care. The widely accepted definitions of echelon care, including by the Department of Defense, have not changed. What is changing is the Marine Corps' view of the echelons of treatment and how the Marine Corps is bringing its' definition back in line with the accepted standards. Not only will this restructuring streamline treatment capabilities, it will reduce the weight and cube being lifted during an amphibious operation, allow the health service support providers to be task organized, and increase mobility with the Ground Combat Element.

 

The following provides the echelon definitions accepted by the Department of Defense which have been published by the Deployable Medical Systems Standardized Clinical Data Base and in the Standard North Atlantic Treaty Organization Agreement 2068:


 

New Definition of Health Service Support

for the MAGTF

in the Amphibious Objective Area

-Echelon I: Defined as care provided by the Corpsman in the field, as well

as, Battalion Aid Stations (BASs). Comprised of essential emergency treatment

that allows the return of the Marine to duty or the preparation of the casualty for evacuation to the rear. The BASs are capable of establishing and maintaining an airway, controlling a hemorrhage, applying field dressings, administering analgesic, the initiation and maintenance of intravenous fluid therapy, and be integrated into a theater-wide evacuation system. Mobility is key to the BAS. It must be capable of mirroring the mobility of the supported forces.

 

-Echelon II: Defined as care necessary to examine and evaluate the general

status of the patient, establish a priority for return to duty or further evacuation, and the provision of emergency care, including resuscitative surgery. No care is provided that goes beyond saving life and limb, and facilitate the patient's safe evacuation to a more capable medical facility.


 

New Definition of Health Service Support

for the MAGTF

in the Amphibious Objective Area

-Echelon III: Defined as care necessary to treat the casualty in a medical

facility that is staffed and equipped to provide resuscitation, initial wound surgery, and post-operative treatment. These facilities resident onboard hospital ships, Combat Zone Fleet Hospitals, and augmented CRTS.

 

-Echelon IV: Defined as treatment received in a general hospital, within the communications zone, staffed and equipped to provide definitive care. The mission of these hospitals is rehabilitation of casualties to duty. If rehabilitation cannot be achieved at this facility, then the patient is evacuated to Echelon V facility in CONUS. Echelon IV capabilities are resident in medical treatment facilities outside CONUS, Communication Zone Fleet Hospitals, and Hospital Ships.

 

The following describes the concept of operations envisioned for Health Support

Services:

MEU - Echelon I: Battalion Aid Stations organic to Ground Combat

Element. Providing care to the injured and either returning them to duty or

evacuate to the rear.


 

New Definition of Health Service Support

for the MAGTF

in the Amphibious Objective Area

Echelon II: Shock/Trauma Platoons will be organic to Combat Service

Support Elements. Providing limited echelon II care to collect casualties, stabilize their conditions, and evacuate them to more capable MTFs or return them to duty. The BAS and Shock/Trauma Platoons will be integrated into the theater wide Patient Evacuation System. Temporary Casualty Receiving and Treatment at the echelon III level of care resident onboard CRTS of the LHD, LHA, and LPH class.

 

It is expected that during follow-on phase of operations or if the mission is task organized for a MEF(FWD), the medical resources will reflect that mission.

Echelon I: Battalion Aid Stations organic to Ground Combat Element.

Providing care to injured Marines to return to duty or evacuate to the rear.

Echelon II: Medical Battalion (-) located in the Force Service Support

Group rear area. Providing echelon II care through the employment of Shock!

Trauma Platoons to collect and clear casualties, providing initial stabilization surgery, and temporary patient holding for evacuation.


 

New Definition of Health Service Support

for the MAGTF

in the Amphibious Objective Area

Echelon III: Provided onboard CRTS of the LHA, LHD, and LPH class

ships, hospital ships or other MTFs ashore. All assets will be integrated into a

theater wide Patient Evacuation System.

It is envisioned that the task organization will drive the composition of the

medical assets deployed and be reflected accordingly. It is also assumed that

larger operations will take on a joint complexion which will bring various echelon III and echelon IV assets to the theater of operations the Marines could not have readily available as an expeditionary force.


Bibliography

Barger, Melvin D. Large Slow Target, A History of the LST. Dallas, TX: Taylor

Publishing Company, 1986.

 

Bartlett, LtCol Merrill L. USMC (Ret) Assault from the Sea, Essays on the History of Amphibious Warfare. Annapolis, MD: United States Naval Institute Press, l983.

 

Commanding General, Marine Corps Combat Development Command. Letter to

Commandant of the Marine Corps. 3900 C425. Subj: "Medical Battalion

Mobility, Structure, and Organization." l6 February l994.

 

Ireland, Bernard. Seapower 2000. London: Arms and Armour Press, 1990.

Jane's Fighting Ships 1994-95, Alexandria, VA, 1994.

 

Joint Publication 3-02, Joint Doctrine for Amphibious Operations. Washington,

D.C.: The Joint Chiefs of Staff 8 October 1992.

 

Kingsley, R. A. Amphibious Staff Functional Relationships and Activity Patterns. No. 109. Chief of Naval Analysis Research Contribution. 21 August 1969.

 

Ladd, James D. Modern Military Techniques, Amphibious Techniques. Minneapolis:

Lerner Publications Company, l985.

 

Ladd, J. D. Assault from the Sea 1939-45, The Craft, The Landings, The Men. New

York: Hippocrene Books, Inc. 1976.

 

Naval Warfare Publication (NWP) 22-3 (Rev. B). Ship-to-Shore Movement. Norfolk,

VA: United States Navy, August, 1993.

 

OH 1-100, Joint Doctrine for Landing Force Operations. Quantico, VA: United States Marine Corps, 2l December 1989.

 

U. S. Army War College Reference Text. Forces/Capabilities Handbook, Vol II

Weapons Systems. Carlisle Barracks, PA: United States Army War College,

13 September 1993.


 

 

 

References

 

Section I: Amphibious Warfighting Platform Information

 

Jane's Fighting Ships 1994-95, Alexandria, VA, 1994.

 

U. S. Army War College Reference Text. Forces/Capabilities Handbook, Vol II

Weapons Systems. Carlisle Barracks, PA: United States Army War College,

13 September 1993.

 

Section 2: Command and Control in the Amphibious Operation

 

Joint Publication 3-02, Joint Doctrine for Amphibious Operations. Washington,

D.C: The Joint Chiefs of Staff 8 October 1992.

 

Naval Warfare Publication (NWP) 22-3 (Rev. B). Ship-to-Shore Movement. Norfolk,

VA: United States Navy, August 1993.

 

OH 1-100, Joint Doctrine for Landing Force Operations. Quantico, VA: United States Marine Corps, 2l December l989.

 

Section 3: The Beachmaster and the Amphibious Operation

 

Naval Warfare Publication (NWP) 22-3 (Rev. B). Ship-to-Shore Movement. Norfolk,

VA: United States Navy, August, 1993.

 

Section 4: Health Services Support in the Amphibious Task Force

 

Commanding General, Marine Corps Combat Development Command. Letter to

Commandant of the Marine Corps. 3900 C425. Subj: "Medical Battalion

Mobility, Structure, and Organization." 16 February l994.

 

Naval Warfare Publication (NWP) 22-3 (Rev. B). Ship-to-Shore Movement. Norfolk,

VA: United States Navy, August, l993.



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