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Marine Corps Medium Lift:  How Do We Keep The H-46
Flying Into The Twenty-First Century?
CSC 1995
SUBJECT AREA - Aviation
                            EXECUTIVE  SUMMARY
Title:   Marine Corps Medium Lift:  How Do We Keep The H-46
              Flying Into The Twenty-First Century?
Author:  Major Anthony M. Haslam, United Stated Marine Corps
Thesis:  To date the V-22 is the aircraft that will replace
the H-46.  In order for the H-46 to continue to bridge the
critical gap in Marine Corps Medium lift, a dedicated effort
is required to keep this thirty year old aircraft flying
into the Twenty-First Century.
Background:   The H-46 Sea Knight is a product of Boeing
Helicopter Division and was built for the Marine Corps in
1962 to replace the H-34.  The H-46 has been the workhorse
for the Marine Corps, providing assault support to the fleet
for over thirty years.  As one of the six functions of
Marine Aviation, the assault support mission is defined as
the transport of personnel, supplies, and equipment into or
within the battle area.  The Marine Corps has been trying to
field a new medium lift replacement for the H-46.  The V-22
Osprey is the aircraft that will replace the H-46, but the
Initial Operational Capability (IOC) is not until 2001 with
425 expected aircraft deliveries through 2026.
Recommendation:  The aging H-46 will require special
programs to ensure the integrity of its airframe, avionics,
engines, and dynamic components.  Some of these programs are
currently funded with program deliveries commencing in
December 1995.  A dedicated effort must be focused on all
funded H-46 programs to ensure on time deliveries.  A
Service Life Extension Program (SLEP) must be funded to
capture all cost associated with the extension of a thirty
year old aircraft into the Twenty-First Century.
                Marine Corps Medium Lift
  How Do We Keep The Marine Corps H-46 Flying Into The
                   Twenty-First Century?
     The H-46 Sea Knight has been the workhorse for the
Marine Corps for over thirty years.  It has been an
invaluable asset in the success of the Marine Corps mission,
providing assault support to the Marine Air Ground Task
Force(MAGTF).  Under Title 10, U.S. Code and DOD Directive
5100.1, the Marine Corps has a long standing operational
requirement to provide the capability to conduct assault
support operations in support of our national military
strategy.  As one of the six functions of Marine Aviation,
the assault support mission is defined as the air transport
of personnel, supplies, and equipment into or within the
battle area.
     To meet future assault support requirements, the Marine
Corps has been trying to field a new medium lift replacement
for the H-46.  To date the V-22 Osprey is the aircraft that
will replace the H-46, but the Initial Operational
Capability (IOC) is not until 2001.  The Initial Operational
Capability will stand up HMT-204 with twelve (12) V-22
aircraft in 2001 for conversion training.  The total of 425
V-22's will be delivered to the fleet over the next twenty-
five years.1  In other words, the get-well for the Marine
Corps is still twenty-five years away.  I will address how
to keep the H-46 flying into the Twenty-First Century to
bridge a critical gap in the Marine Corps medium lift
requirement until the V-22 can be successfully fielded in
operational fleet squadrons.
     The H-46 is a product of Boeing Helicopter Division and
was built for the Marine Corps in 1962 to replace an aging
H-34.  Six hundred and twenty-four H-46 helicopters were
produced and the production line was shut down in 1971.  The
H-46 was tried and tested in the jungles of Vietnam and
became a respected asset throughout the war.
     Since 1962 the H-46 has provided combat assault
transport of Marines in the initial assault waves and
follow-on stages of amphibious operations and subsequent
operations ashore.  Besides its primary mission of combat
troop transport, it has provided a reliable platform to
accomplish all missions associated with assault support to
include: aerial delivery of cargo, search and air rescue,
and medevac.  Since 1962, 2.99 million flight hours have
been flown by the H-46 fleetwide.2  The current utilization
rate for the H-46 is 25.6 hours per month.3
     In 1982 the H-46 reached the twenty year mark and its
technology and capability began to be a limiting factor.
The need for an aircraft that could conduct over the horizon
missions, fly at an excess of 250 kts, carry twenty-four
combat loaded Marines, remain airborne for over three hours,
and have a range of over 2,000 miles were the requirements.
In 1982 an operational requirement document (ORD) for a new
medium lift replacement aircraft was formalized.4  The V-22
will be the new medium lift aircraft that will replace the
H-46.  This program has been in a state of uncertainty for
the last ten years.  The status is that the V-22 will be
procured for the Marine Corps and delivery will commence to
the fleet with an IOC of 2001.5  Over the last ten years the
H-46 has suffered the neglect of a weapon system that should
have reach its retirement age and sent to the desert five
years ago.  At that time all plans for logistic support of
the H-46 stopped because it was an aircraft that was going
away.  It is 1995 and the V-22 is still six years away.  The
H-46 must continue to provide the essential assault support
to the fleet.
     In order to extend the H-46 into the Twenty-First
Century there are several areas that must be addressed.  The
first area concerns airframe service life.  The H-46 service
life was established at 10,000 hours that was recently
extended to 12,500 hours.  The average age of the Marine
Corps H-46 fleet is 8,500 hours.  The majority of the Navy's
H-46 fleet has over 10,000 hours and approaching the
extended service life of 12,500 hours.6 An official Service
Life Assessment Program (SLAP) is underway at the Naval
Aviation Depot, Cherry Point to determine what depot level
rework must be performed to an H-46 airframe in order to
extend its service life to 20,000 hours.  With a new service
life of 20,000 hours, this would enable the H-46 airframe to
continue to operate for an additional twenty-five years.7
Once this study (SLAP) is completed then a Service Life
Extension Program (SLEP) will have to be developed to
accomplish what is needed to extend the H-46 service life to
20,000 hours.  Funding for SLEP has not been identified but
is a critical program for the survival of the H-46 in the
future.
     The H-46, with an extended service life, will need to
get established on a fixed Standard Depot Level Maintenance
(SDLM) cycle.  Current Navy and Marine Corps policy for SDLM
induction states that the aircraft must be inspected by a
depot level team.  If the aircraft fails this inspection it
is authorized to be sent to the depot for SDLM.  This
inspection process is called Aircraft Service Period
Adjustment (ASPA) and is used to extend the service period
of an aircraft if the material condition warrants extension.
The service period for the H-46 is thirty months.  This
figure indicates the time that should elapse between SDLM
inductions.  The ASPA program extends the thirty month
service period by twelve months every time the aircraft
passes an ASPA inspection.
     The H-46 is averaging thirty-six months of extension
time on the ASPA program.  This results in an aircraft that
does not get to the depot for SDLM until five and a half
years.  A five and a half year interval for SDLM is
excessive for a thirty year old airframe that is subject to
the constant exposure of a salt water environment on all
deployments aboard amphibious ships.
     The ASPA program saves money, it enables an aircraft to
be extended beyond its service period postponing SDLM
induction cost.  The current SDLM induction cost for the
H-46 is $475,000 dollars.8  There comes a time when the age
of an aircraft and its operating environment must be taken
into account, especially when the aircraft is bridging a
critical gap in Marine Corps medium lift.  I recommend the
H-46 be removed from the ASPA program and placed on a fixed
thirty six month SDLM Phase Depot Maintenance (PDM) cycle.
This move would enable the H-46 to receive depot level
maintenance every three years and would help preserve a very
tired airframe.  NADEP Cherry Point has the capacity to
handle the increased H-46 workload.9  This change would
increase the H-46 SDLM inductions from fifty aircraft to
approximately a hundred aircraft per year.  This would
generate a twenty-four million dollar increase in the
funding required for the H-46 SDLM budget, a cost well worth
the price for operating the H-46 safely into the
Twenty-First Century.
     The next critical area that must be addressed is the
dynamic components, which encompasses the components,
subcomponents, and rotating flight controls of the drive
system on rotary wing aircraft.   The H-46 has been plagued
with numerous dynamic components failures over the last five
years, some of these resulting in aircraft mishaps and loss
of life.  Due to the problems associated with the dynamic
components, the H-46 has been placed under weight and
maneuver restrictions.10  These restrictions have
drastically effected the operational capability of the Navy
and the Marine Corps.11  Besides the restrictions, the
requirement to perform Non Destructive Inspections (NDI) of
rotor head components at intervals of three to ten hours has
increased scheduled maintenance and decreased aircraft
readiness.
     The Dynamic Component Upgrade Program (DCUP) is a $400
million dollar funded program which will start delivery in
December 1995.12  The program is designed to replace current
rotor heads with new corrosion resistant stainless steel
rotor head components, replace synchronizing and vertical
shafts, and install rate gyros in the AFCS computers.  The
DCUP program will eliminate all weight and maneuver
restrictions and eliminate all dynamic component NDI
inspections.  The program commences in December 1995 and
will complete all fleet aircraft by 2000.13  This program
should ensure the safety of the H-46 dynamic components into
the future.
     The next issue that must be addressed is the weight
carrying capability of the H-46.  The current maximum gross
weight of a Marine H-46 is 24,300 pounds.14  The aircraft's
basic weight, plus the weight of the fuel, passengers, and
cargo cannot exceed the maximum gross weight of 24,300
pounds.  Over the last fifteen years the aircraft's basic
weight has increased over 2,000 pounds with new aircraft
modifications.  Along with this there has been an
enhancement to the fuel capacity on the H-46, increasing the
fuel tank capacity from 356 gallons to 660 gallons.  This
adds an additional 2,400 pounds of fuel that can be carried
by the H-46.  This increase in fuel capacity is a step in
the right direction.  This gives the H-46 longer range and
more time on station which is critically needed.  However,
with an increased aircraft basic weight of 17,500 pounds
plus 4,800 pounds of fuel this leaves only 2,000 pounds
remaining to carry troops or cargo.  This equates to only
eight combat loaded Marines which is totally unsatisfactory
when the requirement is for fifteen.
     The current procedures for the Bullfrog aircraft
(H-46's with new extended range fuel tanks with 4,800 pounds
of capacity) are to take on 3,000 pounds of fuel.  This
gives the aircraft an endurance of about two hours before it
has to be refueled and enables the additional 1,800 pounds
for carrying troops or cargo.  This figure enables the H-46
to carry fifteen combat loaded Marines, fly for two hours
before having to refuel, and stay below the maximum gross
weight of the aircraft of 24,300 pounds.
     The goal should be to increase the carrying capability
of the H-46.  This can be accomplished in one of two ways.
First, the basic weight of the aircraft can be reduced,
giving a bigger delta between the aircraft's basic weight
and the maximum gross weight.  Due to new aircraft
modifications, the aircraft's basic weight has been
increasing vice decreasing over the years.  Some options in
this area are to replace the aircraft's steel armor plate
with lightweight composite armor, remove armored seats and
replace them with lightweight crash worthy armored pilot
seats, and replace all analog avionics with new lightweight
digitized avionics (i.e, the high frequency radio).  These
steps would reduce the aircraft's basic weight by 600
pounds.15
     The second option to increase the carrying capability
of the H-46 is to increase the maximum gross weight of the
aircraft.  After DCUP replaces the H-46's dynamic components
with new stainless steel components the maximum gross weight
could be increased 26,000 lbs.  This increase would give an
additional 1,700 lbs of payload capacity that would solve
the H-46 payload problem.  The aircraft has sufficient
engine power to carry the additional weight but the drive
train (transmissions and drive shafts) is torque limited not
to exceed 24,300 lbs.  In order to accomplish this the drive
system would have to be tested to determine if these
components could be rated at 26,000 lbs.16  If the drive
train cannot be rated at the new weight, then a drive system
upgrade would be required for this option to occur.  The
cost for a drive system upgrade has not been determined, but
it could eliminate this option due to cost.
     The last option is to replace the existing rotor blades
with new Boeing advance technology composite rotor blades
that would generate an additional 1,200 lbs of lift for the
same amount of torque at 24,300 lbs.17  This option cost
$70,000 dollars per rotor blade (six blades per a/c) for a
total cost $420,000 dollars per aircraft.18   This is a
viable option, because new H-46 rotor blades will be needed
for the fleet in the near future.  Current pricing for a
replacement rotor blade is $40,000 dollars per blade.
However, this replacement blade does not generate the
additional 1,200 lbs of lift needed.
     The avionics system currently on the H-46 is 1960
analog technology.  The need for high tech digital
technology is critical on the modern day battlefield.  The
areas of concern are in navigation and communication.  GPS
is the way of the future and without any other navigational
aid except for tactical navigation (TACAN) the H-46's crews
have to rely on detailed terrain navigation and time
distance calculations.  GPS technology, with accuracy down
to 16 meters, will enable aircrews to concentrate on other
aspects of the flight profile besides knowing exactly where
they are and if they are dropping the troops off in the
right zone.  The Department of Defense is going to a
standard GPS unit that will be procured for all aircraft.
This system is scheduled for incorporation into the H-46
starting in December 1995.19
     The ARC-210 radio will give the H-46 communication
capabilities that are far superior to the current systems.
It is a full digital radio that covers AM through UHF
frequencies ranges.  The ARC-210 will provide superb
anti-jamming capability through its Have-Quick frequency
hopping feature.  The ARC-210 will also provide excellent
secure voice capability through the KY-58's already
installed in the aircraft.  The current plan is to install
two ARC-210 radios per aircraft with installations
commencing in December 1995.20
     The Communication Navigation Control System (CNCS)
provides state of the art digital technology into the
cockpit of the H-46.  It minimizes cockpit workload by
integrating all radios into a single control head.  CNCS
provides two flat panels that indicate an aircraft's heading
along with navigational information from the GPS system.  A
prototype system has been installed and flown at NADEP,
Cherry Point.  The system is on contract with kit delivery
and installation schedule to commence in December 1995.21
This system will cost $200,000 dollars per aircraft and
require 1,400 depot level man-hours for installation.22
     When the Marine Corps fights, it will fight at night.
It is essential that all aircraft are modified to be
compatible for night vision goggle operations.  This process
is already underway with a new blue light cockpit
modification.  This modification should be completed in all
Marine H-46 aircraft by August 1995.  The last step of this
process is the fielding of the Night Vision Goggle Heads Up
Display (NVG-HUD).  This change will enable each pilot to
view flight instrument and navigational information through
his night vision goggles.  The HUD will display attitude,
altitude, heading and navigational information to each
pilot.  This configuration will eliminate the need for the
pilot to look inside at his instruments and break his
outside visual scan.  The NVG-HUD will reduce cockpit
workload and fatigue thus enhancing aircrew safety.
Installation of the NVG-HUD is scheduled for March 1996 at a
cost of twenty five thousand dollars per aircraft.23
     The Marine H-46 is equipped with two General Electric
T58-16 engines, each rated at 1870 shaft horsepower.24
These engines have been installed in Marine H-46 helicopters
since 1977.  Over the years there has been some degradation
of power due to worn and loose tolerance of subcomponents
within the engine.  Most major components on an aircraft are
placed on an overhaul cycle in which those components go
through an overhaul process determined by specific Time
Between Overhaul (TBO).  Once that component reaches its TBO
it is removed from the aircraft and sent to the depot for
overhaul.  At the depot the component is disassembled and
reworked with new sub components and all tolerances are
brought back to specification.  When it leaves the depot it
is like a new component.
     The T58-16 engine is not on an overall cycle, but an
inspection cycle.  These engines are removed from the
aircraft every 1,200 hours and sent to a first degree repair
facility which could be a depot, a Aircraft Intermediate
Maintenance Activity (AIMD), or a Marine Aviation Logistic
Squadron (MALS) that has first degree repair capability.
This inspection is called a Hot Section Inspection.  The
compressor section is removed and disassembled, turbine
blades inspected, bad blades removed and replaced, and the
compressor section reinstalled.  Next the engine is run on a
test cell, if it meets required horsepower it is signed off
and Ready For Issue (RFI).  The horsepower required for an
engine to be RFI has a wide range.  If an engine does not
meet the power requirements, further maintenance is
performed on the engine until it can meet the published
specifications.
     On occasion engines are RFI on the test cell and
rejected by squadron functional check pilots for not meeting
power required specifications during the test flight.  This
situation of low power engines in the fleet would not occur
if the T58-16 engine was on an engine overall cycle.  If the
GE-T58-16 engine was on an overall cycle it would be sent to
the depot at a specified interval for total overall.  When
the engine is run on the test cell it would have to meet the
power required specifications of a new engine, which is much
higher than what is currently tested to.  If the H-46 is
going to remain in service for another twenty-five years the
engine program's funding must be increased in order to
establish this engine on an overall cycle.  The H-46 program
office is currently researching this issue and trying to
determine both the funding required and the capacity needed
at NADEP Cherry Point to establish an overall process for
the T58-16 engine.25
     The installation of the above aircraft modifications
can be conducted by two different methods.  The first method
is to have the aircraft modification conducted at the depot.
The most cost effective means is to modify the aircraft when
it is already at the depot for SDLM.  During the SDLM
process the aircraft is already disassembled, so it requires
less man-hours to install most modifications.  The other way
is to send the aircraft to the depot specifically for the
modification.  This is called a Drive Inn Modification
Program.  The benefit of the Drive Inn Modification Program
is selected aircraft can be modified and returned to a
specific squadron for a standard aircraft configuration
within that squadron.  This program establishes a separate
modification line at the depot that runs concurrently with
the SDLM line.  This program has been very successful in the
past.  It is an optimum way to get aircraft modified that
has not been through SDLM or not scheduled to go to the
Depot for SDLM for the next couple of years.
     The second method to modify aircraft is sending depot
field modification teams out in the fleet to modify
aircraft.  This method is cheaper than the Drive Inn
Modification Program but more expensive than the SDLM
Modification Program.26  Field teams are sent from the depot
to fleet activity where they set up shop in a hanger and
conduct aircraft modifications until all aircraft are
modified.  This is another great program that is used
extensively in the fleet.  This program gives the fleet
extra flexibility, it keeps the aircraft at home, and the
squadrons usually get their aircraft back quicker.  Despite
these advantages, this program is limited to certain
modifications.  Some modifications require special tooling,
specific depot facilities, and a significant amount of
man-hours.  These modifications are restricted from field
team incorporation (i.e. CNCS).
     Besides NADEP, Cherry Point, there are other facilities
that can perform the drive inn modification program or send
out field modification teams.  One is the Bluegrass Army
Depot in Lexington, KY.  This facility has performed depot
level repair and modification incorporation on the H-53's
and the UH-IN's and is available to the H-46 program office
to provide services.  So far the depot at Cherry Point has
produced the best product at the lowest cost.
     Funding is the main driver in the solution.  In a time
of austere budget constraints all programs are under the
microscope.  The H-46 program has received a great deal of
support within the Beltway and funding has been very
positive over the last few years.  Some of the major
programs like the Dynamic Component Upgrade Program (DCUP)
and the Communication Navigation Control System are fully
funded and will commence delivery in December 1995.  Funding
must be identified for the Service Life Extension Program
(SLEP) in order to extend the life of the H-46.  The SLEP
funding requirement should capture all cost associated with
the extension of the service life of the aircraft.  This
should include the cost of purchasing Boeing's advance
technology rotor blade, placing the GE-T58-16 engine on an
engine overhaul cycle, and establishing the H-46 on a fixed
thirty-six month SDLM Phase Depot Maintenance cycle.
     Another area of funding that must be addressed is
supply support.  The logistic effort that is needed to keep
a thirty year old aircraft flying is tremendous.  Funding is
required not only to keep sufficient stock of current supply
items but funding must be provided to purchase sufficient
spares for all of the current and future air frame
modifications.
     The last issue we need to discuss is the H-46
inventory.  The question is with the H-46 being extended
into the Twenty-First Century do we have enough H-46's in
the current inventory to meet our requirements?  The current
H-46 inventory is 241 aircraft in the Marine Corps.27  The
requirement is composed of the Primary Authorized Aircraft
(PAA) plus pipeline aircraft.  PAA for the H-46 is 231
aircraft, this gives each Marine tactical squadron twelve
aircraft and the training squadron twenty aircraft.28
Pipeline aircraft are spare aircraft within the fleet.  They
are used to replace crash/damage aircraft or provide
aircraft to squadrons when their PAA drops below twelve
aircraft due to SDLM/modification programs.  The number of
pipeline aircraft is equal to nine percent of the H-46 PAA
(231 times nine percent equals twenty one aircraft).29  With
an inventory of 241 H-46's, the Marine Corps is eleven
aircraft short of total requirement.  This shortage in
inventory has not been a major factor in being able to
provide the required PAA to our deploying squadrons.
     Looking into the future, inventory could be a factor if
the V-22 has any significant delays.  The H-46 has an
attrition rate of two point five (2.5) aircraft per year.30
With this attrition rate if the V-22 production is halted or
delayed the H-46 inventory could fall below required PAA in
Marine tactical squadrons.  The H-46 production line at
Boeing Helicopter Division has been closed for some time
now, so there is no way to procure extra aircraft.  To
procure a different type of aircraft such as the H-60 or
other medium lift alternative would not be cost effective
since the V-22 will be the Marine Corps medium lift aircraft
in the future.
     One option that is viable, if this situation develops,
is to replace the Marine Reserve H-46's with CH-53D's.
There are two Marine Reserve H-46 squadrons with a total of
twenty-five H-46's assigned.  If the inventory of the fleet
tactical squadrons dropped below PAA, H-46's could be
transferred from the Reserve squadrons and replaced with
CH-53D's.  Currently there is an excess of CH-53D's, twenty
of which are in preservation in the desert at the Aircraft
Management and Rejuvenation Center (AMARC), Davis Monthan
AFB.31  I do not feel that the H-46 inventory will be a big
issue in the future.  Once V-22 deliveries commence in 1999
with an IOC of twelve V-22's to HMT-204 in 2001, H-46's will
become available to fill any shortfall in aircraft
inventory.
     In conclusion, it is a proven fact that the H-46 has
been an invaluable asset to the Marine Corps for over thirty
years providing assault support operations in the support of
our national military strategy.  The V-22 will replace the
H-46 in the future, but until then the H-46 is the aircraft
that can bridge this critical gap in Marine Corps medium
lift until the V-22 is fielded in Marine operational
squadrons.  In order for the H-46 to be safe and productive
in the Twenty-First Century, special programs must be
formulated to ensure the integrity of its air frame,
avionics, engines, and dynamic components.  Programs and
funding have already been established in some of these areas
with fleet deliveries commencing in December 1995.  A
combined effort by all involved in the H-46 program will be
required in order to champion the cause and battle through
the budget constraints of the future.  The H-46 can continue
to provide assault support to the fleet only if a dedicated
effort is focused on current funded H-46 programs and a
Service Life Extension Program (SLEP).  The SLEP must be
fully funded to capture all cost associated with the
extension of a thirty year old aircraft into the Twenty-
First Century.
                          ENDNOTES
     1.  Chief of Naval Operations (N880G), "U. S. Navy
Aircraft Inventory Budget Exhibit A2," January 1995.
     2.  Michael Borowasky, Statistics Analyst at Naval
Safety Center, interviewed by author, 10 February 1995.
     3.  Commander Naval Air Force Atlantic, "3M Aviation
/SER / Utilization / Maintenance History Report," 25
November 1994.
     4.  Chief of Naval Operations, "Joint Services Advanced
Vertical Lift Aircraft (JVX) Operational Requirement
Document (ORD)," 14 December 1982.
     5.  Chief of Naval Operations (N880G), "U. S. Navy
Aircraft Inventory Budget Exhibit A2," January 1995.
     6.  Naval Air Systems Command, PMA-226, "H-46 Program
Review," Time Since New, January 1995.
     7.  Maj. Bob Hellar, H-46 Class Desk at Naval Air
Systems Command, Det. PMA 226, interviewed by author, 12
January 1995.
     8.  Naval Aviation Depot Operations Center, "NADEP
Cherry Pt., Aircraft SDLM Cost Report," January 1995.
     9.  LtCol. Gene Conti, Production Officer at Naval
Aviation Depot, Cherry Pt., interviewed by author, 18
January 1995.
     10. Commander Naval Air Systems Command message to the
Commanders of Naval Air Forces,  Subject: "Flight
Restriction for H-46 Helicopters," 292007Z July 1993.
     11. Commander Marine Forces Atlantic message to
Commander Naval Air Systems Command, Subject:
"COMNAVAIRSYSCOM Restriction on CH-46E," 131454Z August
1993.
     12. Naval Air Systems Command, PMA-226, "H-46 Program
Review," Dynamic Component Upgrade Status, January 1995.
     13. Ibid.
     14. NATOPS Flight Manual, Al-H46AE-NFM-000, 20 August
1993.
     15. Boeing Defense and Space Group (Helicopter
Division), "H-46 Payload Recovery Study," October 1994.
     16. John Taylor, H-46 Chief Drive Systems Engineer at
Product Support Division, NADEP Cherry Pt., interviewed
by author 10 February 1995.
     17. Boeing Defense and Space Group (Helicopter
Division), "H-46 Payload Recovery Study," October 1994.
     18. Maj. Bob Hellar, interviewed by author on 12
January 1995.
     19. Naval Air Systems Command, PMA 226, "H-46 Program
Review," Communication Navigation Control System,
January 1995.
     20. Ibid.
     21. Ibid.
     22. Maj. Bob Hellar, interviewed by author on 12
January 1995.
     23. NASC Det. PMA-226 "H-46 Program Review," Night
Vision Goggle Heads Up Display, (AFC-439), January 1995.
     24. NATOPS Flight Manual, Al-H46AE-NFM-000, 20 August
1993, p.2-1.
     25. LtCol. Gene Conti, interviewed by author 18 January
1995.
     26. Mary Bender, Assistant Program Manger for Logistics
at Naval Air Systems Command Det. PMA 226, interviewed by
author 3 February 1995.
     27. Maj. Rob Renken, Aviation Plans and Support Systems
Officer at Chief of Naval Operations, interviewed by author
20 January 1995.
     28. Naval Air Systems Command, "Weapons System Planning
Document," NAVAIR Notice C13100. March, 1994.
     29. Ibid.
     30. Ibid.
     31. Aircraft Management and Rejuvenation Center
(AMARC20), "Inactive Navy Aircraft," NAVAIR 4850, January
1995.
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     November 1994.
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     Depot, Cherry Pt.  Interviewed by author, 18 January
     1995.
Hellar, Maj. Bob.  H-46 Class Desk at Naval Air Systems
     Command.  Det. PMA 226.  Interviewed by author, 12
     January 1995.
NATOPS Flight Manual.  A1-H46AE-NFM-000.  20 August 1993.
Naval Air Systems Command.  "Weapons System Planning
     Document."  NAVAIR Notice C13100.  March, 1994.
Naval Aviation Depot Operations Center.  "NADEP Cherry Pt.,
     Aircraft SDLM Cost Report."  January 1995.
Renken, Maj. Rob.  Aviation Plans and Support Systems
     Officer at Chief of Naval Operations.  Interviewed by
     author, 20 January 1995.
Taylor, John.  H-46 Chief Drive Systems Engineer at Product
     Support Division, NADEP, Cherry Pt.  Interviewed by
     author, 10 February 1995.



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