Force Structure Realignments And The Marine Corps/Department of State Security Forces CSC 1993 SUBJECT AREA - Manpower EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Title: Force Structure Realignments and the Marine Corps/ Department of State Security Forces Author: Major M. M. Oliver, United States Marine Corps Thesis: Due to Force structure reductions and the reduced security threats faced by United States embassies abroad, the Marine Corps and Department of State should establish procedures for the deactivation of Marine Security Guard forces. Background: The United States Marine Corps has assisted the Department of State with internal security and protection of United States embassies and consulates on a formal basis since 1948. The program has grown from an initial 300 Marines to its current strength of more than 1400 officers and enlisted Marines. Command relationships require Marine Security Guard Battalion to work in direct support of the Department of State. The Department of State had sole responsibility for the security of American embassies abroad. A recent study conducted by the Department of State and Marine Security Guard Battalion concluded that 20 Marine Security Guard detachments could be deactivated due to manpower and fiscal constraints, and more importantly the reduced threat to American embassies abroad. By deactivating Marine Security Guard forces abroad, the Marine Corps would be able to reassign these manpower assets to the war-fighting units of the Fleet Marine Force. Recommendations: The Department of State and United States Marine Corps must create procedures for the deactivation of needless Marine Security Guard forces. Additionally, the Department of State and United States Marine Corps must conduct triennial studies to ensure Marine Security Guard forces are assigned only where needed. FORCE STRUCTURE REALIGNMENT AID THE MARINE CORPS/ DEPARTMENT OF STATE SECURITY FORCES Thesis: The United States Marine Corps and Department of State must ensure that Marine Security forces, located at diplomatic facilities worldwide, are assigned only where needed. I. Background A. Present force structure situation B. Historical overview C. Command relationships D. Memorandum of agreement II. Mission A. Department of State B. Headquarters Marine Corps C. Battalion D. Company E. Detachment III. Problem A. Department of State security program B. Department of State issues C. United States Marine Corps issues D. Department of State deactivation study E. United States Marine Corps deactivation study IV. Solution A. Threat list B. Triennial United States Marine Corps/Department of State security force validation C. Deactivation procedures FORCE STRUCTURE REALIGNMENTS AND THE MARINE CORPS/DEPARTMENT OF STATE SECURITY FORCES by Major M. M. Oliver The end of the cold war and break up of the Soviet empire have offered the United States a historic opportunity to reshape its strategy and military forces. In response to this changing environment, the Department of Defense has tasked the military services to reduce their force structure while still maintaining a readiness and capability posture to defend our national interests worldwide. The Marine Corps has already begun adapting to this changed world, launching a careful and deliberate effort to reduce and restructure its forces. Most Marine Corps planners suggest that the Marine Corps personnel "end strength" will be reduced from a current level of 189,000 Marines to approximately 159,100 Marines by fiscal year 1997. (6:26) Accomplishing this force structure without impairing the Marine Corps war-fighting capability requires a critical review of the mission and table of organization (T/O) of each operating force and support establishment within the Corps. The Marine Corps challenge is to redefine its force structure, but not create a dangerous "hollow force" such as resulted from defense realignments in the pact. One Marine Corps supporting establishment that requires careful examination is the Marine Security Guard Battalion. Marine Security Guard Battalion operates in direct support of the Department of State. The primary mission of the Battalion is to provide internal security for the chancery or principal building(s) on the Diplomatic and/or Consular grounds. The security services' work includes preventing the compromise of classified material and protecting United States citizens/property within the principal building(s) of the mission. (9:2-3) If this tasking is accepted as a viable Marine Corps mission, the question arises as to what criteria should be used in determining where a Marine Security Guard detachment is assigned. Although the current Department of State/Marine Corps Memorandum of Agreement outlines prerequisites for the activation of Marine Security Guard detachments, there are no established procedures for the deactivation of Marine Security Guard detachments. The Marine Corps should be concerned with this deficiency because of pending monetary and manpower constraints. If Marine Security Guards were assigned only where needed, this would enable the Marine Corps to shift more of its manpower resources to its war-fighting units. Since the relief and subsequent, investigations into activities of Marine Security Guards serving at the American embassy in Moscow in 1987, the Department of State and the United States Marine Corps have continued to evaluate the purpose and scope of the Marine Security Guard program. Never has the need for this type of self evaluation been more timely. Both the Department of State and the United States Marine Corps face the potential of severely limited resources (people and money) during the last decade of the 20th century and beyond. The Marine Corps remains first and foremost a war-fighting organization. Its primary purpose must be to prepare for and conduct successful combat operations as directed by proper political authority. Thus, any support activity that detracts from the organization's ability to perform its primary function should be reduced in status or eliminated. (5:15) Neither the Department of State nor the United States Marine Corps can afford to expend resources as they did during the last two decades. Ensuring the future vitality of the Marine Security Guard program requires regular evaluation by the Department of State and United States Marine Corps of the missions and locations of Marine Security Guard detachments. The Department of State and the Marine Corps must ensure that they assign Marine Security Guards only where required. Reviewing how the Department of State and the United States Marine Corps can reduce the number of Marines needed to support the Marine Security Guard Battalion warrants a familiarity with the Marine Security Guard program. This can be accomplished by reviewing the history, command relationships, and mission of Marine Security Guard Battalion. The close relationship between the Department of State and the United States Marine Corps is almost as old as the Corps itself. For over 200 years, Marines have served "In Every Clime and Place" at the request of various Secretaries of State. After World War II the Department of State requested support from the Department of the Navy to provide an alert, disciplined security force to protect American embassies, consulates and legations throughout the world. The Department of State's request, cited Section 562 of the 1946 Foreign Service Act, which states: The Secretary of the Navy is authorized, upon request of the Secretary of State, to assign enlisted men of the Navy and Marine Corps to serve as custodians under the supervision of the principal officer at an embassy or consulate. (2) Following the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding between the Department of State and the Department of the Navy on December 8, 1948, the Marine Security Guard program was formally established in January 1949. The conditions and procedures under which the United States Marine Corps will provide direct support to the Department of State for its overseas security program is called the Memorandum of Agreement. (4:18) Since the implementation of the first Memorandum of Agreement in 1948, there have been seven major revisions to this document. Each revision created a system of checks and balances outlining a set of standing operating procedures which directed the Marine Corps and Department of State to carry out their assigned security missions. The vitality of the Marine Security Guard program is embedded within the Memorandum of Agreement. Changes to the mission of Marine Security Guard detachments and modifications to operating procedures or command relationships begin with a rewrite to a specific section of the Memorandum of Agreement. Command relationships between the Department of State and United States Marine Corps, regarding the Marine Security Guard Battalion are complex and sometimes confusing. The Secretary of State is responsible for: -Establishing and operation of embassy and protection functions -Development and implementation of communications, computer, and information security -Emergency evacuation plans -Establishment and operation of local guard services -Supervision of the United States Marine Corps Security Guard program (15:5-6) The Commandant of the Marine Corps will provide direct support to the Department of State by assigning Marine Security Guard detachments to United States diplomatic and consular facilities abroad. The Marine Corps will select and train Marines assigned to the program and also will advise the Department of State on issues concerning the proper utilization, morale, welfare, safety, conduct and appropriate living conditions of Marine Security Guards. (7:3) This will ensure that policies concerning these issues are consistent with those of the Department of Defense and Department of State. The Chief of Mission (Ambassador) at any United States post overseas is the personal representative of the President of the United States. Embassy security is the Chief of Mission's direct responsibility. The Chief of Mission will ensure the proper utilization, welfare and living conditions of the Marine Security Guard detachment assigned to the embassy. The Chief of Mission has ultimate operational control of all Marine Security Guards assigned to his/her embassy. (10:15) The Regional Security Officer is the principal professional security advisor to the Chief of Mission. This officer determines Marine Security Guard requirements and advises the senior Marine of the local Marine Security Guard detachment. The Regional Security Officer is the immediate operational supervisor of the Marine Security Guard detachment and will ensure that the Marines are assigned duties within the parameters set forth by the Department of State and United States Marine Corps. The Commanding Officer, Marine Security Guard Battalion is responsible for the training, assignment, administration, logistics (support of Marine Crops unique items), and discipline of Marines assigned to the battalion. The Commanding Officer works directly with the Department of State and Headquarters Marine Corps officials in establishing policies that effect the coordination necessary to administer the Marine Security Guard program. When required, the Commanding Officer confers with Department of State and Headquarters Marine Corps officials to resolve Marine Security Guard issues. The Commanding Officer also meets with Chiefs of Mission and Regional Security Officers to discuss pertinent issues during command visits to Marine Security Guard detachments. Commanding Officers of Marine Security Guard companies exercise command, less operational control, of Marines assigned to the Marine Security Guard detachments in their respective companies. (13:3) Along with the normal duties associated with command, Commanding Officers of Marine Security Guard companies have two unique tasks. The first is to ensure that each Marine Security Guard detachment under his/her command is performing to the standards and regulations of the United States Marine Corps and Department of State. The second is to report to the Commanding Officer, Marine Security Guard Battalion on situations where support (for Marine Security Guard detachments) is not forthcoming, either from the Marine Corps or Department of State, or where Marines are not utilized appropriately. This process will be followed only after the Company Commander has consulted with the Regional Security Officer and the Chief of Mission for reconciliation at their level. Command visits and inspection trips are the primary means by which Company Commanders accomplish their tasks. Each Marine Security Guard detachment is visited by the Company Commander or his/her staff four times per year. These visits are used to conduct two formal inspections and two command visits. It is during these visits that Company Commanders or their staff meet with embassy officials to discuss requirements, use, and performance of Marines in support of the embassy's security program. Embassy officials and Company Commanders will also review the nature of the security threat at embassies and arrive at appropriate manning levels. If Company Commanders and embassy officials cannot agree on how best to resolve Marine Security Guard issues, they are forwarded to the Department of State and Marine Security Guard Battalion for resolution. Marine Security Guard detachments are the frontline units of the Marine Security Guard Battalion. Each Marine Security Guard detachment will have a minimum T/O of a Detachment Commander (Staff Non Commissioned Officer) and five Marine Security Guard watch-standers. The size and organization of each detachment is determined by a joint Diplomatic Security and Marine Corps review of the specific duties expected to be performed. Determinations also include the size of the embassy; the political, military and threat conditions in the country; and the embassy's ability to support and utilize the detachment. Marine Security Guards that form these detachments perform the general daily tasks required to prevent the compromise of classified material and protect United States citizens within the Foreign Service Missions. However, their primary mission is preventing the compromise of classified material; Marines no longer "man the walls." Today, Marine Security Guards accomplish their mission by performing five basic security functions: -Exercise access control and provide stationary guard coverage of the chancery or principal building(s) -Conduct inspections within the building(s) for which Marines are responsible to ensure the proper safe guarding of classified material and equipment -Perform interior escort of non-cleared laborers and other service personnel to access areas -Conduct visual inspections of controlled access areas to detect possible physical or technical penetrations -Provide temporary emergency controlled access areas, and area contiguous to, during renovations or repairs (8:9-11) With this description of how the Marine Security Guard Battalion functions, I will take a closer look at the challenge of assigning Marine Security Guards only where needed. It must be emphasized that Marine Security Guards form only a portion of the mission's security program. The host-nation retains responsibility for the protection of American diplomatic facilities within the country using its police force or in some instances paramilitary forces. These forces conduct security outside of the mission while Marine Security Guards conduct security inside the mission. The Regional Security Officer hires local contract guards to bridge the protection provided by the host nation and the internal security services performed by Marine Security Guards. Physical security upgrades and technological advances in security equipment (used to assist with access control) also contribute to an effective security program. Marines are not the sole means of protection for diplomatic facilities abroad. In essence, only 139 of 250 Foreign Service posts have a Marine Security Guard detachment assigned to them. (14:2) Considering the evolved role of the Marine Security Guard program, and the end of the Cold War which has created new security challenges, embassies or consulates assigned a Marine Security Guard detachment in the 1950's may not require a Marine Security Guard detachment in 1993. Deactivating unnecessary Marine Security Guard detachments will contribute to the Department of State and Marine Corps efforts to reapportion their two most critical resources, money and manpower. (11:3) The Department of State is pro-active in reducing United States presence overseas. Marine Security Guards are listed as a member of the administrative and technical staff of the embassy or as a consular employee if assigned to a consular post. Marine Security Guards have full immunity from the criminal jurisdiction of the receiving state. They cannot be prosecuted in criminal proceedings and may not be arrested or detained. (3:27) Thus, Marine Security Guards claim a diplomatic status consistent with international law. If the Department of State and United States Marine Corps eliminate unneeded Marine Security Guard detachments, United States official presence overseas would be reduced, fewer Marines would need to be housed and logistical support could also be reduced. A reduction in Marine Security Guard detachments would also allow the Marine Corps to realign manpower assets. This manpower realignment would enable more Marine Security Guards to be reassigned to the Fleet Marine Force, thus enhancing the Marine Corps war-fighting capability. Manpower alone is not the only benefit the Fleet Marine Force will recoup. The Marines available for reassignment to the Fleet Marine Force would be highly skilled small-unit leaders in the Staff Non-Commissioned Officer/Non-Commissioned Officer grades. The reassignment of these Marines could result in a significant boost to the number of proven leaders within the Marine Corps war-fighting units. Two recent independent studies were conducted by the Department of State and the Marine Security Guard Battalion. Both concluded that there is an excessive amount of Marine Corps money and manpower used to support the Marine Security Guard program. (12) Both studies used the Department of Defense's initial-threat list in determining their conclusions. Their studies concluded that 20 Marine Security Guard detachments could be deactivated without adversely affecting the security posture of the selected embassies or consulates. Technological advances in security equipment, changes to the operating procedures at these posts, and physical security upgrades combined to negate the need for the Marine Security Guard detachments. From a fiscal standpoint there were no substantial, unfunded requirements to fulfill prior to effecting the deactivation. Marines from these deactivated units would be available for immediate reassignment to the Fleet Marine Force. The question is, what means do we have to achieve these deactivations? A plan could be developed readily enough. The Department of State publishes a quarterly threat list which evaluates the security threat at each embassy throughout the world. Four categories of threat are reviewed within the quarterly threat list and are assigned to a level of low, medium, high and critical. Information compiled from each Security Officer and the various United States intelligence agencies determines the specific threat for each embassy. Combatting the threat envisioned by the quarterly checklist should become the focus of effort for a joint Department of State/United States Marine Corps evaluation of needs for Marine Security Guard detachments. The Marine Security Guard Company Commander and the Regional Security Officer from each embassy should evaluate the requirements for Marine Security Guards based on the quarterly checklist. These reviews should be completed during the Company Commander's quarterly inspection/visit of the Marine Security Guard detachment. Results of these reviews would then be sent to the Department of State and Marine Security Guard Battalion for review. During this review process, the Department of State and Marine Security Guard Battalion could solicit recommendations and opinions from various United States intelligence agencies on the feasibility of the Security Officer and Company Commander's recommendations. If a concurrence is given by the intelligence agencies, and if the Department of State and Marine Security Guard Battalion are in agreement, deactivation procedures could be initiated. The planning of required actions necessary to effect the deactivation process and the redistribution of Marine Corps personnel, equipment and property is identified at Figure 1 on page 14. The deactivation procedures outlined above could be incorporated into the Memorandum of Agreement and a review process conducted on a triennial basis. Details on how to deactivate Marine Security Guard detachments and the timetable to effect these changes remain undetermined. They both must allow for flexibility. However, this does not negate the need to institute such procedures. It must be remembered that the Department of State is the ultimate authority on when to deactivate Marine Security Guard detachments. (10:15) Marine Corps leaders must heed the warnings sounded by a former Secretary of Defense: "Today, defense is the minority partner in the federal budget; less than one in every five federal dollars and still headed down. In fiscal year 1993 we are spending less on defense than on interest payments on the federal debt." (1.viii) Before the Marine Crops further downgrades its war-fighting capabilities, it must ensure that the T/O's of supporting activities are tailored to meet essential missions. A failure to assign Marine Security Guards only where needed will result in fewer combat forces prepared to meet upcoming contingencies. Neither the Marine Corps nor the Department of State can allow that to happen. The problem remains that a formal mechanism is not in place to deactivate needless Marine Security Guard detachments, and Marine Corps personnel are not being used in the best interest of the country. If the mechanisms discussed in this paper are adopted, needless Marine Security Guard detachments would be deactivated and more Marines would be reassigned to the war-fighting units of the Fleet Marine Force. D = Deactivation Date Event D-39 MSG Bn S-4 cancels all pending backorders D-37 MSG Bn S-1 forwards message to post for reassignment of Marines to the Fleet Marine Force D-36 Detachment Commander provides embassy General Supply Officer with a listing of all Marine Corps property that will be shipped back to MSG Bn D-32 MSG Bn S-4 cancels all detachment's periodic subscriptions D-30 MSG Bn S-1 forwards message to Headquarters Marine Corps requesting deletion of Plain Language Address D-14 Detachment Commander ships "detachment owned property" to Marine detachments that still exist and need the property D-10 MSG Bn S-1 forwards message to COMNAVTELCOM Washington, D.C requesting Address Indicator Group modification and message to Headquarters Marine Corps requesting deletion of ALMARS and associated Marine Corps publications D-7 Detachment Commander sends new mission-essential equipment to MSG Bn S-4 D-Day Marine Security Guards less Detachment Commander are transferred to Fleet Marine Force D+3 Detachment Commander ships mission- essential equipment to MSG Bn S-4 D+5 Detachment Commander departs for new assignment Figure 1. Letter of Instruction on Deactivating Marine Security Guard Detachments. Bibliography 1. Annual Report to the President and Congress. Message From the Secretary of Defense. January 1993, p. viii. 2. Dupree, Willard, Undersecretary of Department of State for Manpower, Washington, D.C. Letter to the Commandant of the Marine Corps about assignment of Naval personnel to the Department of State, February 13, 1987. 3. MSG Bn Policy Paper Number 27, Subj: MSG Immunities, January 8,1991. (Correspondence Files, MSG Bn, Quantico, Virginia). 4. MSG Bn Policy Paper Number 18, Subj: History of the Memorandum of Agreement, December 21, 1992. (Correspondence Files, MSG Bn, Quantico, Virginia). 5. Shelton, Capt. David L. "Thoughts on the MSG Program." Marine Corps Gazette, (15 June 1987), 15. 6. "The New Smaller Marine Corps To Be Rebuilt From The Ground Up," Union Tribune, May 3, 1992, Section A., p. 26. 7. U. S. Department of State. Department of State and United States Marine Corps Memorandum of Agreement, November 25, 1991, p. 3. 8. U.S. Department of State. Department of State and United States Marine Corps Memorandum of Agreement, November 25, 1991, pp. 9-11. 9. U. S. Department of State. Department of State and United States Marine Corps Memorandum of Agreement, November 25, 1991, pp. 2-3. 10. U.S. Department of State. Department of State and United States Marine Corps Memorandum of Agreement, November 25, 1991, p. 15. 11. U.S. Department of State. Study. Marine Security Guard Deactivations. June 22, 1991, p. 3. 12. U.S. Department of State. Study. Marine Security Guard Deactivations. June 22, 1991. U.S. Marine Corps. Study. Marine Security Guard Battalion Detachment Review. July 31, 1991. 13. U.S. Marine Corps. Marine Security Guard Battalion. Standing Operating Procedures for Operations, BnO P3501.1E. Quantico, Virginia, 1992, p. 3. 14. U.S. Marine Corps. Headquarters, United States Marine Corps Position Paper, Marine Security Guard Detachment Deactivations, (POS-20), October 22, 1991, p. 2. 15. U.S. Marine Corps. Origins of the Marine Security Guard Battalion. Reference Section, History and Museums Division, Headquarters, United States Marine Corps, October, 1986, pp. 5-6.
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