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*FM90-13

Field Manual 90-13
Marine Corps Warfighting Publication 3-17.1
MCWP 3-17.1
Headquarters
Department of the Army
Commander, US Marine Corps
Washington, DC, 26 January 1998.

FM 90-13

RIVER-CROSSING OPERATIONS

Table of Contents


COVER

PREFACE

CHAPTER 1. CONCEPTS

General
Types of Crossings
Hasty
Deliberate
Retrograde
Crossing Fundamentals
Surprise
Extensive Preparation
Flexible Plan
Traffic Control
Organization
Speed

CHAPTER 2. TERRAIN AND ENEMY

General
Estimate of the Situation
Tactical Requirements
Terrain
Characteristics
Military Aspects
Current
Water Measurements
Water Changes
Obstructions
The Friendly Shore
The Enemy Shore
Intelligence
Priority Intelligence Requirements (PIR)
Information Collection
Threat
River Defense
Offensive River Crossing

CHAPTER 3. COMMAND AND CONTROL

General
Organization
Control Elements
Division Headquarters
Brigade Headquarters
Communications
Control Measures
Release Lines (RLs)
Crossing Areas
Waiting Areas
Engineer Equipment Parks (EEPs)
Traffic-Control Posts
Engineer Regulating Points
Crossing Plan
Crossing Control
Assault Across the River
Crossing-Area Operations
Transfer of Support Forces to Division
Movement Control
Retrograde Crossings

CHAPTER 4. PLANNING

General
The Planning Process
Analyzing the Mission
Developing COAs
Analyzing COAs
Comparing COAs
Producing Orders

CHAPTER 5. DIVISION DELIBERATE RIVER CROSSING

General
Phases of a Deliberate River Crossing
The River Crossing
Advance to the River (Phase I)
Assault Across the River (Phase II)
Advance From the Exit Bank (Phase III)
Secure the Bridgehead Line (Phase IV)
Continuation of the Attack

CHAPTER 6. RETROGRADE OPERATIONS

General
Retrograde Types
Delay
Withdrawal
Retirement
Denial Measures
Planning

CHAPTER 7. CROSSING SITES

General
Crossing-Site Selection
Planning
Requirements
Entry/Exit Routes or Paths
Routes and Approaches
Waiting Areas
River Conditions
Banks
Bottoms
Enemy Situation
Site Analysis
Field Calculations
Measuring the Current's Velocity
Determining Slopes and Degrees
Measuring the River's Width
Calculating Downstream Drift
Rafts
Site Preparation
Rafting Sites
Rafting Operations
Maintenance and Refueling
Bridges
Site Organization
Night Operations
Actions Under Fire
Vehicle Recovery
Other Gap-Crossing Equipment

CHAPTER 8. ASSAULT CROSSING

General
Types of Assault Crossings
Rubber-Boat Crossing
Air-Assault Crossing
Vehicle-Swim Crossing
Organization
Support Force
Assault Force
Engineers
Preparation Phase of the Operation
Far-Shore Reconnaissance
Far-Shore Preparation
Nearshore Reconnaissance
Assault-Force Rehearsal
Execution Phase of the Operation
Attack-Position Procedures
Embarking Procedures
Tactical Control Afloat
Watermanship
Obscuring With Smoke
Direct-Fire Reaction
Indirect-Fire Reaction
Debarking Procedures
Boat Return
Motor Procedures
Cargo Procedures
Casualty Procedures
Safety

CHAPTER 9. ENGINEER OPERATIONS

General
ERP Operations
Rafting Operations
Bridge Operations
Swimming Operations
Engineer Contingency Bridging Operations
Assault Bridges, Long-Term Use
Maintenance
Anchorage
Protective Systems
Approaches
Long-Term Gap-Crossing C2
Multirole Bridge Company (MRBC)
Organization
Basic Concept
Implications
Training

APPENDIX A. METRIC CONVERSION CHART

APPENDIX B. ENGINEER-PLANNING CALCULATIONS

General
Engineer Planning

APPENDIX C. CROSSING MEANS

General
Descriptions of Crossing Means
Fording Vehicles
Amphibious Vehicles
Aircraft
Boats
Assault Launched Bridges
Rafts
Bridges

GLOSSARY

REFERENCE

AUTHENTICATION




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