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CHAPTER 5

EOD UNIT OPERATIONS

EOD supports the national security strategy during peacetime, conflicts, operations-in-war, and OOTW. The EOD mission is to reduce or eliminate the hazards of domestic and foreign conventional, nuclear, chemical, biological and improvised explosive ordnance that threatens personnel, operations, installations, or material. During war, EOD preserves and protects the commander's combat power. During OOTW, EOD supports national security through security, antiterrorism, counterdrug, and domestic civil authority operations. This chapter discusses some of the ramifications of and requirements for providing this support.

Section I

General Considerations

FORCE PROJECTION

Entry into the area of operations (deployment) is not enough to accomplish the mission; it is just the first step. Force projection is a complex process. Each action, from the first on, impacts many others. The transition from one phase of deployment to the next is more obscure because of simultaneous planning and execution of other phases in the deployment process. Successful force projection depends on fully trained, well-led, and properly equipped and sustained units.

EOD AND FORCE PROJECTION

EOD has to execute multiple concurrent activities. For example, EOD may have to support both deployed forces and the CONUS support base. Whether in support of a humanitarian relief mission, a peacekeeping mission, or an actual wartime operation, EOD plays an important role in providing support to the deployed force.

READINESS

Anticipation demands that a unit expect alerts and deployments. Meeting the physical and mental challenges of anticipation depends on the preparedness of the EOD company. Physical preparedness includes the following:

  • Creating load plans for all movement contingencies.
  • Conducting EDREs.
  • Having tested load plans.
  • Conducting liaison with commands that deploy the unit.
  • Conducting liaison with units designated for deployment.
  • Preparing plans that identify command, intelligence, and other support relationships.
  • Ensuring soldier and equipment readiness.

Mental preparedness comes with understanding the Army is more than a job and that its mission is to be able to respond to any situation worldwide. Mental preparedness includes:

  • Receiving briefings by MILPO personnel, Army Community Services, and other agencies to deal with deployment issues.
  • Including dependents in these briefings.
  • Conducting liaison with the installation for rear detachment support during a deployment.

If the EOD company establishes a rear detachment or has backstop personnel provided, an SOP should be prepared and the dependents of deploying soldiers given a briefing on its contents.

TRAINING

The EOD company must cooperate with all Army units to be effective. This cooperation is reinforced by including the EOD company in general training exercises. These exercises can provide many benefits (for example, the display of EOD capabilities and support requirements). As a result, the Army commander learns how an EOD unit operates, and the EOD soldier learns how non-EOD units operate. The interaction provided by training exercises increases total effectiveness on the battlefield. Since conducting training exercises with every unit is impossible, regular contact at the commander and operations levels is important. It leads to better understanding, trust, and cooperation.

RESPONSE TEAM DEVELOPMENT

The EOD mission demands much of the response team leader. He must make many important decisions on his own. He is responsible both for his own life and the lives of his team members. Additionally, the team's actions could have a large impact on battlefield operations. Consider the information below when organizing and deploying response teams.

Spread the experience to all response teams. Consider experience and past job performance when assigning personnel to response teams. The best response team leader should have the least experienced team members. Conversely, the team leader who has the least experience should have the most experienced team members. This results in a balanced performance from all teams.

Do not have the response teams specialize. Teams must be able to handle any situation. They may not get to pick the incident to which they are assigned. Some situations may demand a more experienced team be dispatched. However, in most cases the team initially dispatched must accomplish the mission.

Build strong teams by making the response team leader responsible for his team. The key to well-trained and motivated teams is the team leader. Given proper supervision and guidance, the team leader should be held responsible for the condition of the team's equipment, training, and morale.

Ensure response teams are used most efficiently. The battlefield dictates the activities of EOD. Being able to handle high incident rates is the goal of each EOD company. To do this, the CP must carefully monitor the work load of the response teams. The CP must also ensure each team performs with minimal personal risk and maximum effectiveness.

METL

Unit mission-essential task lists must include appropriate mobilization (for the National Guard EOD companies) and deployment (both active and NG companies) tasks that support force projection.

SAFETY

Safety, including risk assessment and accident reporting, is an inherent duty at all levels of command. This is especially true for units and personnel engaged in EOD-related activities. The following discussion provides safety-related guidance of both a general and EOD-specific nature.

Responsibilities

We must all strive for safety in the workplace and in day-to-day operations. Each of us must ensure that we maintain a proactive posture towards safety and that this is evident to those in our charge. Specific responsibilities, from commander to individuals, are detailed below.

Commanders. Safety is a command responsibilities at all echelons. Commanders must take an active and aggressive leadership position toward safety. They need to appoint a safety officer or NCO IAW AR 385-10 and DA Pamphlet 385-1. They must determine the causes of accidents and take necessary corrective measures.

Safety Officer/NCO. Typical duties of the safety officer or safety NCO include:

  • Preparing a unit safety program and a field safety SOP geared towards proactive safety awareness (instead of reactive safety reporting).
  • Reviewing regulations and TMs for changes, recommendations, and procedures for increasing safety in unit operations and EOD response operations.
  • Recommending safety-related suggestions to the commander for review and adoption and inclusion, as necessary, in unit SOPs.

Leaders. Leaders must ensure that soldiers perform their duties safely by--

  • Keeping soldiers aware.
  • Stressing safety in operations.
  • Halting unsafe operations.
  • Preventing accidents through proactive planning and preparation.

Team leaders. EOD team leaders--

  • Retain ultimate responsibility for the safety of their team members.
  • Must be knowledgeable of both EOD and tactical operations.
  • Inform the supported unit on safety issues of the ordnance involved. The supported unit is responsible for the safety of its personnel and equipment, based on the information provided by the team leader.

Individuals. As individuals, we retain some degree of personal responsibility for ensuring our own safety. This includes--

  • Being familiar with the Army's general safety policies, including policies for ammunition, explosives, and related operations (AR 385-64 and TM 9-1300-206).
  • Knowing explosive ordnance specific safety precautions for ammunition and explosive operations covered in TMs 60A-1-1-22 and 60A-1-1-31.

Safety SOP

Each unit should have on hand a current, detailed (as much detail as needed) safety SOP. This safety SOP should include:

  • Safety education and promotion plans.
  • Safety requirements and training frequency.
  • Procedures to detect potential safety violations and ensure that corrections are made.
  • Provisions for periodic updating sessions and briefings conducted by the unit command on new ordnance items and technical intelligence reports. This is an effective method of keeping soldiers informed and the safety awareness level high.

Risk Assessment and Management

Risk management is a decision-making process that balances operational demands against risks. Doing risk assessment and then applying risk management should become fully integrated parts of operational planning and execution. A good example of risk assessment and management is presented later in this chapter.

Identification of hazards and the effects they may have is called risk assessment. Leaders must learn to assess risks during training events and then apply the same techniques during combat operations. During combat risks must be taken, but only after the mission is evaluated and weighed as practiced during training.

Team leaders must use the risk assessment process in both their EOD operations and their safety briefing to the supported unit.

The supported unit must use the risk assessment process when faced with a UXO hazard. The EOD team leader will provide the commander with accurate information on the hazards or risks. It is the supported unit that must make the final decision on acceptable risks based on its current and projected tactical mission load.

Risk management is taking steps to eliminate, reduce, or control the amount of risk. It allows leaders to execute more realistic training scenarios not otherwise possible because of the high probability of accidents.

Accident Reporting

In addition to the recognition and control of safety hazards, it is essential, at every level, that the causes of accidents be determined. This will help to identify accident trends, unsatisfactory work performance, personnel losses, and property damage. Therefore, all accidents resulting in injury or property damage must be reported.

DA Form 285 is the primary means of reporting accidents. For information on preparing this form, see AR 385-40.

When an accident happens, it is important to gather all essential information for reports and possible corrective action, the following information should be recorded:

  • Who was injured or what damaged.
  • Time and place of the accident.
  • Severity and cost (in personnel or material) of the accident.
  • Nature of the accident or injury.
  • How and why the accident occurred.

Corrective action is based on specific facts about the accident or injury. Corrective actions can be in the form of removing hazards, improving operations, or training personnel. Moreover, the corrective action must be supplemented by proper management on the part of the unit leadership to ensure that familiarity with operations does not lead to complacency or contempt for safety awareness.

COMMAND POST SETUP

Two main factors--communications and the need for 24-hour service--govern the setup and operation of the CP. The only standard is that the unit be able to provide EOD support effectively. The fact that EOD supports larger units may dictate the location of the EOD CP. However, the supported unit may be flexible in other factors of setup and operation.

Communications is the most important factor in establishing a CP. The CP must have communications with the supported CP, with its own HQ, and with the rest of the company. The communications should be a combination of radio and land lines. During periods of nonmovement, the CP should link into the ACUS. This allows EOD rapid and direct communication within the theater. Because of the importance of communications, the recommended location of the EOD CP is near the supported unit's CP.

Section II

The EOD Response

ACCIDENT/INCIDENT DEFINED

Every time EOD responds to a reported UXO, it is an incident. Most incidents are caused by accidents, thus the two are commonly thought of together, as in accident/incident. Each EOD incident is unique because minor changes in tactics, variations in IED or UXO construction, fuzing design characteristics, human error, and the type of target and its surroundings can affect the situation. It is impossible to insist on the application of inflexible rules for an accident/incident. It is possible, however, to develop a technique that identifies immediate threats to safety. This enables the EOD team leader to make a thorough evaluation of the situation and to execute the plan with the greatest chance for success.

RESPONSE PLANNING

The rules and guidance provided below will help increase the chances of developing a realistic, safe plan of attack. They must always be kept in mind when conducting EOD operations. Together with the information provided in the following paragraphs, they give EOD personnel a sound basis on which to plan operations.

  • Do not perform an RSP when a disposal can be performed.
  • Always consider protective works, evacuation, or other procedures to reduce the category of the incident.
  • Establish safe approach and exit routes for both remote and manual attacks. This is most important for manual attacks because of the possibility of secondary hazards such as trip wires, pressure mats, or other hidden devices.
  • Resort to a manual approach only if a remote approach is not possible and only after waiting the minimum wait time (for Category A incidents wait times do not apply). If a technician makes a manual approach, he should try to take all tools and equipment needed and make only one approach. This will limit his exposure time. During a manual approach, take all personal protective measures available that will not physically interfere with the safe application of procedures. Perform all actions possible in a safe area to reduce time exposed to danger. Exposure time begins when the EOD technician steps from protective cover and lasts until he regains cover.
  • Do not move an item, manually or remotely, until the item has been identified and the effects of movement (detonation or contamination, for example) have been estimated.
  • If a RSP is to be performed, a separate member of the team should then perform a second reconnaissance to ensure a positive identification of the UXO. Some UXO situations may present an unacceptable risk in performing a second recon. This might occur if long-delay or influence-type fuzing is involved.

RSP TACTICS AND PLANNING

A number of factors should be considered before implementing a RSP. The first question the EOD team leader should ask is, "Can I do the RSP remotely?" If the answer is yes, consider all possible remote methods of attack. This thought process entails listing every weapon in the remote attack armory and asking of each:

  • What is the best that can happen?
  • What is the most likely thing that can happen?
  • What is the worst that can happen?

If the worst that can happen carries an unacceptable risk, choose another method to reduce the risk. Only when every remote method has been considered. and improvisations thought about, can the team leader make the final choice. The method giving the best chance of success and the minimum risk is the best choice. Do not accept the decision without double-checking the whole process. If the second decision matches, proceed with the detailed planning. Consider a manual approach only when you have exhausted all avenues of remote attack.

Implementation of the RSP through remote or manual methods may need to be reevaluated after making the initial approach to the device. The EOD team leader should ask if the proposed RSP is still feasible. New factors may make it impossible for the team to implement the original plan. The EOD team leader must then consider other options.

If the EOD team leader ever feels that he is spending too much time at the incident scene, it is most probably true. It may indicate some weakness in the plan or implementation of the plan. The EOD team leader should stop, reevaluate, and develop another plan.

The EOD team leader should continuously ask if any action is likely to disturb the device. He should be sure the robotics equipment is placed to give the best results. If it is not, the EOD team leader must take corrective action.

The EOD team leader must never totally commit to one plan but should remain flexible, keeping safety paramount. Develop a contingency plan as a backup should it be necessary to abandon the initial plan.

MULTIPLE-UXO RESPONSE

The new UXO scenario is not just one EOD response team working on one bomb. It is multiple-team operations on dozens of UXO items with support from non-EOD units. Multiple-UXO incidents can happen in many situations: ASPs, FARPs, ammunition convoys, aircraft accidents, airfield recovery, and ordnance left after combined arms operations, both friendly and enemy. The paragraphs below provide useful information for EOD on procedures dealing with multiple-UXO scenarios.

It would be impossible to cover every scenario an EOD unit could face. Instead, the general methodology for conducting EOD operations at a multiple-UXO incident is described. This methodology can be applied to all multiple-UXO incidents with only a slight tailoring to fit each situation.

In the past, EOD units have handled multiple-UXO incidents without any solid written guidance. While on the whole EOD units and teams have excelled in one-on-one ordnance incidents. the multiple-UXO incident presents new challenges. The following paragraphs of this chapter will establish procedures for the execution of the different phases of a multiple-UXO incident. The three generally recognized phases include: the initial planning phase, the hasty recon/immediate action phase (HRIAP), and the RSP/disposal phase.

The information presented here should be used as a guide by EOD units and teams involved in multiple-UXO incidents. Applicable procedures from this FM can be used as is or can be extracted. expanded, or modified to fit each multiple-UXO incident. A multiple-UXO procedural checklist is provided below (Table 5-1).

Initial Planning Phase

The initial planning phase of a multiple-UXO incident includes gathering critical information. identifying and coordinating necessary support, determining equipment and personnel requirements, receiving area priorities, establishing an RCP, and gridding the affected area. Since initial planning is so important to success, it requires command emphasis within the EOD company. The company commander and NCOs must effectively interface with the division or area support group or higher commands and their affected units and supervise the overall operation.

Gathering information. Unlike single ordnance incidents, the multiple-UXO incident requires an extreme amount of legwork in gathering accurate information. Initial information is likely to be sent by radio to the division or area support group and then to the EOD company. However. this information may be very vague and not too useful.

If information and EOD communications are limited, the EOD commander, company NCO, or operations NCO may have to coordinate (through the division or area support group communications system) back to the affected local area commanders to get more information. It is essential to get information such as size, location, and markings of the UXO: approaches; protective works; and proximity to vital facilities. Depending on the amount of ordnance and number of affected units, this information may have to be gathered by the individual EOD teams who respond.

The type of information requested for single-ordnance incidents should also be requested for multiple-UXO incidents. However, the possible magnitude of the ordnance and affected areas may require an extensive information-gathering process. This information will require in-depth correlation and evaluation to be understandable for later use by the RCP and EOD team leaders. Additional information may need to be asked for, such as ordnance stores lists from aircraft, inventory of what was stored in the ASP, or ordnance types being transported in the convoy.

Determining area priorities. The division or area support group should be the primary prioritization authority for multiple-UXO incidents because these incidents may affect not only large areas but also several combat elements within the division or area support group. Since all the units may claim to be the most important to the war effort, EOD commanders and senior NCOs must closely coordinate with the division or area support group on what the actual priority is.

Responding teams may receive secondary priorities from the affected subordinate or local area commanders who have been identified by the division or area support group. For example: The division has identified the 4/7th Cavalry's area as having the first priority because it needs to move to a vital forward location. When six EOD soldiers arrive at the battalion headquarters, the battalion commander tells the EOD team leader that he needs A Troop's area cleared first so it can do a route recon for the battalion.

It is important for the EOD company commander, company NCO, and the RCP supervisor to remember that, while the division or area support group sets the priorities by area or unit, the EOD company also has to factor two things into the prioritization: the ordnance encountered and its hazards to EOD personnel during the RSP/implementation phase (discussed later).

Coordinating support. Coordinating support for a multiple-UXO incident is a multiechelon task shared by the CP, RCP, and EOD team leaders. Some types of support can be obtained by the on-site EOD team or by coordination with the affected local area commanders, such as aerial reconnaissance by helicopter. Teams must be able to request additional support, going through the RCP to the CP. The CP may more easily obtain the requested support from the division area support group. Teams should know that if the local area commander cannot provide the requested support, the division or area support group might.

Determining equipment and personnel needs. Each multiple-UXO situation requires different levels of personnel and equipment. If the incident is too large for the EOD company to handle alone, it must coordinate through the EOD battalion for additional EOD resources.

When the incident is within the EOD company capability, the commander and senior NCOs determine the best number of soldiers to deploy. Many times multiple-UXO incidents require all of the company's available personnel resources and a large amount of its equipment. The number of EOD soldiers and the amount of EOD equipment deployed is based on the type of ordnance expected to be encountered, the amount of ordnance, scheduled rest for soldiers, and the size of the affected area. However, EOD commanders and senior NCOs should be aware that the level of EOD soldier and equipment resources required may change as the incident goes through the HRIAP to the RSP/disposal phase.

Setting up the RCP. Setting up a RCP close to the affected area, yet outside the blast/fragmentation radius, is a must. Considering the amount of ordnance and the area covered, the commander should decide the proper manning requirements for the RCP. An incident may require the commander to remain at the division or area support group for coordination while the company NCO and recorder establish the RCP, with all remaining assets deployed to affected areas. Decisions will be based on the various factors previously discussed.

The RCP will be the center of information for the HRIAP and RSP/disposal phase. It is also the coordination point for all EOD teams involved in the operation. It must be the focal point in the planning and implementation of the next two phases. It is also the intermediary between the teams, EOD battalion, division or area support group, and, in many instances, the local area commanders. External pressures placed on the RCP are considerable and must be handled so that EOD response teams can continue their missions. The RCP supervisor may have to visit the affected areas if information is too unclear. He then can adjust plans and overlays and pass on accurate information to the division or area support group and other involved parties.

Establishing grid system. Once all the planning is complete, the RCP and EOD team leaders should prepare some type of grid system to help organize and control response to the incident. This grid may be an overlay.

The grid is based on the size of the affected area, quantity of ordnance, number of responding EOD soldiers, and area priorities. The numbers in each grid correspond with the division or area support group priority and provide the RCP with a control, planning, and reference measure. For instance, an airfield is designated number 1, which means its clearance is the division or area support group's first priority. Each successive number is the next priority. The RCP may also use the overlay to plot approximate ordnance locations. There may be many separate elements within an affected area. If this is the case, the RCP might decide to use all teams, two teams on the airfield and one team each in the remaining areas for the HRIAP.

When the grid has been established, the RCP needs to make EOD personnel assignments for each section of the grid. Included should be an overall team leader for each grid. The RCP supervisor should also conduct a briefing for all EOD soldiers involved in the operation. The briefing should include all available information and safety factors. The grid should be used throughout the operation, with the RCP making any necessary adjustments to the overlay as they occur. The grid and briefing should be available in writing at the RCP for all personnel working the incident. An important and mandatory part of the briefing is the safety plan for the site. This plan must include all known safety problems and other mitigating factors. All personnel, not just EOD, must be briefed and show they understand the situation before they are allowed onto the site.

Hasty Recon and Immediate Action Phase

Once the RCP is operational, the RCP and EOD team leaders should develop the overall plan for the conduct of the HRIAP. This plan should be put into writing at the earliest opportunity to ensure continuity of the operation. The purpose of the HRIAP is to do a quick visual recon, to determine the need for any immediate action, and to classify the ordnance and fuzing by type and function.

Responsibilities. The RCP supervisor, grid team leaders, and individual team members all have specific duties and responsibilities during the HRIAP. These are covered in some detail below.

RCP Supervisor. The RCP supervisor must assign EOD personnel to each of the grids. He must ensure that each grid has an overall team leader designated as more than one staff sergeant may be assigned to it. He needs to maintain a log (by name) of who is operating in what grid. He also needs to ensure that all tools, both EOD-peculiar and common, are evenly distributed among the different grids. Where these tools are needed will depend on the ordnance being reported. For example, alien wrenches for fin removal will be needed where bombs are being reported.

The RCP supervisor must establish an effective communication system among himself, the EOD soldiers, affected local area commanders, and the division or area support group. It may require some external support from the area commander to be effective. If the RCP or EOD teams need more radios, the RCP supervisor should request them from either the affected local area commanders or the division or area support group. The consequence of failure to provide such support should be clearly made known.

The RCP supervisor sets reporting requirements from the grid team leaders. Following commonsense battlefield procedures, radio traffic should always be kept to a minimum. The RCP supervisor establishes who will communicate with the affected area commanders. This could be a joint responsibility shared by the RCP and grid team leaders. In any event, the RCP leader should provide as much of a buffer as possible between external elements and the teams working the grids.

Grid Team Leader. The grid team leader conducts a detailed briefing for all team members working in his grid. He should paint the "big picture" with all the information that is available. Ideally, this information includes reported ordnance locations, types of ordnance expected, safety precautions, size of grid, who is assigned to that grid, and the plan of attack. Grid team leaders may get more information from any guides provided by the affected local area commanders.

Grid team leaders may choose to break down their grid into smaller subgrids to make individual team member assignments. A rally point should be established where all team members will meet when they complete their area's HRIAP. Other than for any required "immediate action," no other hands-on procedures should be performed.

The grid team leader, along with the RCP leader. may establish a marking system for the ordnance encountered. This system may simply be to mark all ordnance with red flags and those that have had an immediate action performed with a yellow flag. Just remember to make the marking system simple enough so that it will not be confusing to the team members. Even with a marking system, the team leader must require team members to keep an accurate notebook or log of what type of ordnance they encountered and where. This is so he can put all the information together at the rally point and give the RCP leader an accurate picture of the situation in each grid.

The grid team leader must establish the communications system for his grid. This system may include hand-held radios, verbal signals, or hand signals. The type of communication needed will vary based on the size of the grid. If hand signals are to be used by team members close to each other, they should be standardized so that all members can understand them.

The team leader sets up contingency plans for all potential problems the team members may encounter. These should include the plan of action if a member encounters an immediate action fuze while other members are close by. The answer may be to give verbal or hand signals to those members close by to seek the best available cover immediately. Also included should be the plan of action in case a detonation in the grid causes the death or injury of a team member.

The grid team leader shoulders most of the responsibility for the incident's successor failure. He must be flexible enough to modify plans of attack based on the actual situation once he gets downrange. He needs to be an effective communicator, organizer, leader, and technician.

Team Members. Team members operating in the HRIAP perform independently. These soldiers must have skills normally associated with those of the team leader.

Team members are the workhorses of the operation. They will, however, have greater responsibilities in a multiple-UXO incident than in the normal EOD single incident. These responsibilities include maintaining their own logs and drawings, performing hasty recon, deciding if an immediate action is required, performing that immediate action, and marking the ordnance.

To keep an accurate log and drawings, the team member must be able to make quick, accurate notes and drawings about the type of ordnance he encounters. These notes should include the ordnance type by function, fuze type by function. and any immediate action applied. The team member must also be able to make an area sketch showing the location of the ordnance.

When an immediate action is required. the team member must be able to do it quickly. He must be aware of his environment and of any other team members close by. If other team members are close by, they must all communicate according to the prearranged system.

Finally, the team member must mark the ordnance item using the method established in the plan for the HRIAP.

Implementation. Once the RCP supervisor is satisfied that all the planning is complete, he dispatches the teams to their assigned grids to begin the HRIAP.

Upon arrival at the RP, the grid team leader deploys all team members to their assigned area of responsibility. He makes certain that the team members know to return and wait at the rally point when they have surveyed their areas.

When all team members have completed their hasty recon and immediate actions and have returned to the RP, the grid team leader and team members consolidate all the logs and sketches and add mental notes to the log. From this information, the team leader updates his grid overlay. He may add such features as new pieces of ordnance and their locations, ordnance classification type by function, and actual locations of reported ordnance. New ordnance should be photographed for the recon report to the RCP. Before returning to the RCP, the grid team leader should ensure that he and his team have made the picture of their grid as detailed as possible. This sketch and the other grid sketches are key to planning the last phase of the operation.

RSP and Disposal Phase

The ultimate goal of multiple-UXO incidents is to complete the RSP/disposal phase. This phase includes three steps: assembling all information from the HRIAP, planning, and implementing.

Gathering information. Once all the grid team leaders have returned (from the HRIAP) to the RCP, the RCP supervisor and grid team leaders will need to plot all gathered and researched information to map the entire affected area.

The RCP plots the location of all ordnance found on the overlay and devises a system to identify the ordnance and fuze by type and by function. This may be as simple as numbering the ordnance on the overlay and making a log using those numbers to identify the ordnance. During this period, the team members research UXO to positively identify as much of the ordnance as possible. Photographs of the ordnance found will help speed this process.

As planning progresses, team members from the various grids should be reporting the positive identification of as many pieces of ordnance as possible. Some pieces of ordnance may not be positively identified. If not, a second recon is needed to positively identify the UXO. The other team members must also know the exact situation of the UXO in order to fully advise and assist the team leader. This follows the old adage "Two heads are better than one." Team leaders may still accept a single recon in extremely hazardous situations.

When a more detailed recon is needed because of the priority of the area where the ordnance is or when vital facilities are nearby, the RCP leader dispatches a team to the ordnance to get a positive identification. This may be done while planning for the RSP/disposal continues or during its implementation, depending on the situation. Before a team actually departs to conduct a more detailed recon, the RCP leader should ensure that the team member who did the hasty recon has actually seen positively identified ordnance. It is very possible that while one team member cannot identify a certain piece of ordnance, another may be able to. This is especially true in multiple-UXO incidents.

The grid team leaders should tell the RCP of any new information they have that could affect the planning of the RSP/disposal phase. This information would include any unit movements that may have occurred within the grids, locations of vital facilities not previously identified, or anything else that helps provide an accurate picture of the situation.

Planning. Planning the RSP/disposal phase again requires the RCP leader and grid team leaders to work together. Planning should include prioritization, resources needed, additional detailed recon needed, simultaneous operations projected, and any outside support necessary. This planning should take less time than planning for the HRIAP because such things as communication, grids, and other considerations have already been set up.

Should the size and terrain of the affected area make simultaneous operations possible, the RCP supervisor briefs the team leaders who will be performing those operations. This briefing includes the specific details of how the operation will be carried out. The topics of team location, the type of ordnance and fuzing involved, the type of RSP/disposal to be performed, safety factors, and the location of facilities around the operations area must be included. The RCP supervisor should make it clear that he is the central point of control and that all teams should coordinate their actions through the RCP. If the plan of attack is to set up two or three RSPs simultaneously and perform them separately but in a sequence, team leaders need to understand exactly what the sequence is and how they are to be prompted to proceed. The RCP should also coordinate between the affected area commanders and the teams.

Prioritizing. At this point, the RCP supervisor must set priorities. These priorities are based on any additional guidance received from the division or area support group, the information received from the HRIAP, area priorities assigned by the division or area support group, and the hazards of the ordnance found. The guidance received from the division or area support group and their areas of priority will be straightforward and easy to use. It is the ordnance-related information that requires some thought as to what to attack first. The RCP supervisor needs to identify ordnance item by item in the sequence of the plan of attack. Doing this, he needs to consider which items of ordnance are the most hazardous and which pose little or no real hazard to the area.

Distances between the various pieces of ordnance must be considered. For example: There is an item in an area that the division or area support group has identified as the number one priority. But another item has been found in an area identified as the group's priority number two. The second item has a fragmentation radius covering item one and contains a more hazardous fuzing, such as clockwork or delay. In this case, the RCP supervisor would attack the priority two item first. Any such EOD decision that seems to contradict the group's priority needs to be explained to the group.

Based on the size of the affected area, the RCP supervisor may decide to attack more than one piece of ordnance at a time. The teams can perform simultaneous operations provided they are outside each other's areas of responsibility and there is adequate cover between them. These simultaneous operations may be in the same or in different areas of priority. The RCP supervisor also decides how many teams are necessary for the mission. In most situations, the RCP supervisor can release some teams back to the division or area support group, but he should not do so until the RSP/disposal phase teams have departed. This is done so that all necessary information is passed on to those remaining and the RSP/disposal phase teams have all the equipment they need. It is ill-advised to have only one team complete the entire RSP/disposal phase of the operation unless only a few UXO require RSP or disposal. If multiple teams are to perform procedures simultaneously, they may have to swap various EOD tools between them.

Determining additional support. The RCP supervisor needs the grid team leaders to determine required support. This should include the additional EOD and non-EOD support they will need to deal with each piece of ordnance they will encounter.

The RCP supervisor also needs to determine what specific types of external support are needed for the RSP/disposal phase. Additional non-EOD support should be requested from the area commander. Careful analysis of the total operation is needed to ensure that valuable support assets are released back to the area commander as safely and quickly as possible.

The RCP supervisor must plan how and when to use the support he has requested. Most likely, engineer support will be needed for the construction of protective works. To be effective, the support plan has to go hand in hand with the prioritization and simultaneous operations plans.

The RCP supervisor must determine the most effective use of the limited external support personnel and equipment. The first thing to be considered is keeping exposure of support personnel to the bare minimum. Using external support is complicated when two or more external support units in different areas are used at the same time. To simplify the situation, team leaders can coordinate these elements' actions to coincide with the plan for simultaneous operations.

Some support needs more time and manpower than others. The RCP supervisor, team leaders, and support element leaders must coordinate to estimate support completion time. This factor must be included in the overall plan to have an effective operation.

The RCP supervisor ensures that each support element is aware of any special hazards and protective equipment required.

Implementing. Once the RCP supervisor finishes the plan, he should begin to implement it. During implementation, there are two areas of emphasis--command and control and team operations.

The RCP must exercise command and control of the deployed teams. To do this, the RCP must become a proactive element. If teams remain out of contact for long periods of time without explanation, the RCP makes contact with them to verify their status. This is extremely important when implementing simultaneous operations. Team leaders often be come so engrossed in their operations that they forget communications with the RCP. However, team members should operate the radios and update the RCP as necessary. The RCP updates the affected area commanders on progress and keeps acting as a buffer for the team leaders. Also, the RCP provides the division or area support group with regular updates.

Unlike in the HRIAP, the implementation of the RSP/disposal phase must use the normal team operation concept. Team members not working must stay in the safe area outside the fragmentation radius with adequate frontal and overhead cover. Once the RSP/disposal has been attempted, the team leader must check the results. One team member should perform as the RTO to keep the RCP leader up-to-date. The only variation from normal team operations is the requirement to stay in communication with the RCP. All other aspects of this phase are done as with conventional incidents.

Completing. After the teams have completed the RSP/disposal of the required ordnance, they should again rally at the RCP. The RCP supervisor should then conduct an outbriefing to be sure his after-action report accurately describes the incident's results.

The RCP supervisor should then inform the affected area commanders that EOD operations in their areas are finished. He should also identify the exact locations and precautions for any ordnance left in the area. The RCP should ensure that any ordnance not disposed of is clearly marked. If all pieces of ordnance reported and found were taken care of, the RCP should advise the affected local area commanders accordingly with the warning that other ordnance may still be in the area.

The RCP supervisor should then update the area commander and establish a plan of disposition for any remaining ordnance. This could include ordnance that was RSP'd but not taken to a safe holding or disposal area. The RCP supervisor must readjust the category of any remaining ordnance that has been RSP'd and left in place or any other hazardous residue left in place. The RCP must then determine the new priority of these items IAW procedures in Chapter 1. If they remain at a higher priority than other incidents that have been reported to the CP, the RCP supervisor and his teams continue to reduce the hazards of the ordnance.



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