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*FM 7-98
Headquarters
Department of the Army
Washington, DC, 19 October 1992

FM 7-98

OPERATIONS IN A LOW-INTENSITY CONFLICT

IMPORTANT
U.S. Army Infantry School Statement on
U.S. NATIONAL POLICY CONCERNING ANTIPERSONNEL LAND MINES


Table of Contents

  1. PREFACE

  2. CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

    Section I. BACKGROUND

    1. 1-1. NATURE OF LOW-INTENSITY CONFLICT
    2. 1-2. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
    3. 1-3. MILITARY ROLE IN LOW-INTENSITY CONFLICT

    Section II. IMPERATIVES

    1. 1-4. POLITICAL DOMINANCE
    2. 1-5. UNITY OF EFFORT
    3. 1-6. ADAPTABILITY
    4. 1-7. LEGITIMACY
    5. 1-8. PERSEVERANCE

    Section III. OPERATIONAL CATEGORIES

    1. 1-9. SUPPORT FOR INSURGENCY AND COUNTERINSURGENCY
    2. 1-10. COMBATTING TERRORISM
    3. 1-11. PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS
    4. 1-12. PEACETIME CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS

    Section IV. LEADERSHIP CHALLENGES

    1. 1-13. FORCE PROTECTION
    2. 1-14. FORCE SUSTAINMENT
    3. 1-15. DISCIPLINE MAINTENANCE
    4. 1-16. FRATRICIDE PREVENTION

  3. CHAPTER 2. SUPPORT FOR INSURGENCY AND COUNTERINSURGENCY

    Section I. THE NATURE OF INSURGENCY

    1. 2-1. GOALS
    2. 2-2. ENVIRONMENT
    3. 2-3. CHARACTERISTICS
    4. 2-4. POPULAR AND LOGISTIC SUPPORT
    5. 2-5. GUERRILLA TACTICS
    6. 2-6. DEVELOPMENT PHASES

    Section II. BRIGADE AND BATTALION TASK FORCE IN COUNTERINSURGENCY

    1. 2-7. FOREIGN INTERNAL DEFENSE AUGMENTATION FORCE OPERATIONS
    2. 2-8. CONDUCT OF TACTICAL OPERATIONS
    3. 2-9. PLANNING
    4. 2-10. OPERATION PRINCIPLES
    5. 2-11. TASK ORGANIZATION

    Section III. OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS

    1. 2-12. PHASE I - LATENT AND INCIPIENT INSURGENCY
    2. 2-13. PHASE II - GUERRILLA WARFARE
    3. 2-14. PHASE III - WAR OF MOVEMENT

    Section IV. DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS

    1. 2-15. BASE DEFENSE
    2. 2-16. FUNDAMENTALS OF BASE DEFENSE
    3. 2-17. PATROLS
    4. 2-18. SECURITY OF LINES OF COMMUNICATION
    5. 2-19. DEFENSE AGAINST GUERRILLA OFFENSIVE

    Section V. COMMON OPERATIONS

    1. 2-20. MOVEMENT SECURITY
    2. 2-21. MOTOR MOVEMENT
    3. 2-22. RAIL MOVEMENT
    4. 2-23. WATER MOVEMENT AND RIVERINE OPERATIONS
    5. 2-24. FOOT MOVEMENT
    6. 2-25. AIR MOVEMENT
    7. 2-26. BORDER OPERATIONS
    8. 2-27. URBAN OPERATIONS

  4. CHAPTER 3. COMBATTING TERRORISM

    Section I. TERRORISM

    1. 3-1. DEFINITION
    2. 3-2. NATURE OF TERRORISM
    3. 3-3. COMMON STRATEGIES AND TACTICS
    4. 3-4. INTERNATIONAL NETWORK
    5. 3-5. CATEGORIES OF TERRORIST GROUPS
    6. 3-6. TERRORIST OBJECTIVES
    7. 3-7. TERRORIST TARGETS

    Section II. ANTITERRORISM AND COUNTERTERRORISM

    1. 3-8. ANTITERRORISM
    2. 3-9. TERRORIST THREAT CONDITIONS
    3. 3-10. COUNTERTERRORISM

    Section III. COMBATTING TERRORISM IN LIC

    1. 3-11. DEPLOYMENT IN CONTINGENCIES
    2. 3-12. PRIORITY INTELLIGENCE REQUIREMENTS AND LOCAL TERRORISM INDICATORS
    3. 3-13. OPERATIONS SECURITY MEASURES

  5. CHAPTER 4. PEACEKEEPING

    Section I. ESTABLISHMENT OF A PEACEKEEPING OPERATION

    1. 4-1. ENVIRONMENT
    2. 4-2. PRINCIPLES
    3. 4-3. ORGANIZATION
    4. 4-4. LEGAL STATUS
    5. 4-5. USE OF FORCE
    6. 4-6. UNITED STATES RESPONSE
    7. 4-7. COORDINATION STEPS
    8. 4-8. COMMAND AND CONTROL

    Section II. MISSIONS OF A PEACEKEEPING FORCE

    1. 4-9. TYPES OF PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS
    2. 4-10. PEACEKEEPING TASKS

    Section III. TACTICS, TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES

    1. 4-11. OBSERVATION
    2. 4-12. PATROLLING
    3. 4-13. TRAFFIC CONTROL
    4. 4-14. SURVEILLANCE AND SUPERVISION
    5. 4-15. PROHIBITED DEMONSTRATIONS
    6. 4-16. NEGOTIATION AND MEDIATION
    7. 4-17. HANDOVER OF PRISONERS OF WAR
    8. 4-18. RECEIPT OF REMAINS
    9. 4-19. HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE
    10. 4-20. INFORMATION GATHERING
    11. 4-21. MINEFIELD CLEARING
    12. 4-22. INVESTIGATION OF COMPLAINTS
    13. 4-23. OBSERVER TECHNIQUES
    14. 4-24. MANNING OF CHECKPOINTS

    Section IV. PLANNING

    1. 4-25. POLITICAL FACTORS
    2. 4-26. GUIDELINES
    3. 4-27. TECHNOLOGY
    4. 4-28. ESTIMATE OF THE MISSION AREA
    5. 4-29. FORCE STRUCTURE
    6. 4-30. FORCE PROTECTION
    7. 4-31. DEPLOYMENT OF PEACEKEEPING FORCE

    Section V. TRAINING

    1. 4-32. PERSONNEL SELECTION
    2. 4-33. PREDEPLOYMENT TRAINING
    3. 4-34. TACTICAL SKILLS ENHANCEMENT
    4. 4-35. OBSERVATION AND REPORTING
    5. 4-36. COMMUNICATIONS PROCEDURES
    6. 4-37. LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION
    7. 4-38. EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE TRAINING
    8. 4-39. NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL TRAINING METHODS
    9. 4-40. MISSION SUSTAINMENT TRAINING
    10. 4-41. MORALE, DISCIPLINE, AND ADMINISTRATION
    11. 4-42. POST-PEACEKEEPING MISSION TRAINING

  6. CHAPTER 5. PEACETIME CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS

    Section I. CONDUCT OF PEACETIME CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS

    1. 5-1. CHARACTERISTICS
    2. 5-2. REQUIREMENT FOR RAPID RESPONSE
    3. 5-3. IMPORTANCE OF A CREDIBLE RESPONSE
    4. 5-4. PHASES OF CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS

    Section II. PLANNING

    1. 5-5. COORDINATION
    2. 5-6. BALANCE OF FORCES
    3. 5-7. PLANNING FOR UNCERTAINTY

    Section III. TYPES OF OPERATIONS

    1. 5-8. SHOW OF FORCE/DEMONSTRATION
    2. 5-9. OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS
    3. 5-10. NONCOMBATANT EVACUATION OPERATIONS
    4. 5-11. PEACEMAKING OPERATIONS
    5. 5-12. UNCONVENTIONAL WARFARE SUPPORT
    6. 5-13. RESCUE AND RECOVERY OPERATIONS
    7. 5-14. SUPPORT TO US CIVIL AUTHORITY
    8. 5-15. DISASTER RELIEF OPERATIONS

    Section IV. OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS

    1. 5-16. EXECUTION BY PLANNERS
    2. 5-17. PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS
    3. 5-18. LOGISTICS
    4. 5-19. DECEPTION PLAN
    5. 5-20. COMMAND AND CONTROL
    6. 5-21. OPERATIONAL CONSTRAINTS
    7. 5-22. PRINCIPLES

    Section V. INTRODUCTION OF FORCES INTO A HIGH-THREAT ENVIRONMENT

    1. 5-23. INITIAL ASSAULT
    2. 5-24. DEVELOPMENT OF THE AIRHEAD
    3. 5-25. DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS

  7. CHAPTER 6. COMMAND, CONTROL, COMMUNICATIONS, AND INTELLIGENCE

    Section I. COMMAND AND CONTROL SYSTEM

    1. 6-1. ELEMENTS OF COMMAND AND CONTROL
    2. 6-2. COMMAND
    3. 6-3. CONTROL
    4. 6-4. COMMANDER'S AUTHORITY
    5. 6-5. COMMANDER'S PRESENCE
    6. 6-6. COMMANDER'S LEADERSHIP
    7. 6-7. COMMANDER'S INTENT
    8. 6-8. MISSION TACTICS
    9. 6-9. MISSION ORDERS
    10. 6-10. COMMAND RELATIONSHIPS

    Section II. TASK FORCE ORGANIZATION

    1. 6-11. PLANNING A TASK FORCE
    2. 6-12. BRIGADE TASK FORCE ORGANIZATION

    Section III. COMMUNICATIONS

    1. 6-13. COMMUNICATION PRIORITY
    2. 6-14. PLANNING
    3. 6-15. COMMUNICATIONS MEANS AND CHARACTERISTICS
    4. 6-16. FREQUENCY SUPPORT
    5. 6-17. PREDEPLOYMENT COMMUNICATIONS
    6. 6-18. DEPLOYMENT COMMUNICATIONS
    7. 6-19. EMPLOYMENT COMMUNICATIONS
    8. 6-20. SUSTAINMENT OF OPERATIONS COMMUNICATION

    Section IV. INTELLIGENCE PREPARATION OF THE BATTLEFIELD

    1. 6-21. CRITICAL FACTORS
    2. 6-22. REQUIREMENTS
    3. 6-23. BATTLEFIELD AREA EVALUATION
    4. 6-24. TERRAIN ANALYSIS
    5. 6-25. WEATHER ANALYSIS
    6. 6-26. THREAT EVALUATION
    7. 6-27. THREAT INTEGRATION

  8. CHAPTER 7. COMBAT SUPPORT

    Section I. FIRE SUPPORT

    1. 7-1. PLANNING
    2. 7-2. ARTILLERY UNITS
    3. 7-3. MORTAR PLATOONS/SECTIONS
    4. 7-4. ANTITANK COMPANIES/PLATOONS
    5. 7-5. AIR DEFENSE UNITS
    6. 7-6. ATTACK HELICOPTER UNITS
    7. 7-7. TACTICAL AIR SUPPORT
    8. 7-8. NAVAL GUNFIRE SUPPORT

    Section II. ENGINEER SUPPORT

    1. 7-9. MISSIONS
    2. 7-10. ORGANIZATION
    3. 7-11. SECURITY
    4. 7-12. ENGINEERS USED AS INFANTRY

    Section III. ARMY AVIATION SUPPORT

    1. 7-13. MISSIONS
    2. 7-14. ORGANIZATION

    Section IV. MILITARY INTELLIGENCE

    1. 7-15. MISSIONS
    2. 7-16. ORGANIZATION
    3. 7-17. CATEGORIES OF INFORMATION
    4. 7-18. DATA DISCIPLINES
    5. 7-19. SYNCHRONIZATION OF INTELLIGENCE INFORMATION
    6. 7-20. INTELLIGENCE AND ELECTRONIC WARFARE
    7. 7-21. INTELLIGENCE INTERACTION

    Section V. SPECIAL ENVIRONMENTS

    1. 7-22. JUNGLES
    2. 7-23. DESERTS
    3. 7-24. MOUNTAINS
    4. 7-25. ARCTIC CONDITIONS

    Section VI. MILITARY POLICE SUPPORT

    1. 7-26. MISSIONS
    2. 7-27. ORGANIZATION
    3. 7-28. MILITARY WORKING DOGS

    Section VII. PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS

    1. 7-29. INTEGRATION
    2. 7-30. UNIT RESPONSIBILITIES

    Section VIII. CIVIL AFFAIRS OPERATIONS

    1. 7-31. CIVIL AFFAIRS SUPPORT
    2. 7-32. MISSION ACCOMPLISHMENT

    Section IX. NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL OPERATIONS

    1. 7-33. SMOKE AND RIOT-CONTROL MUNITIONS
    2. 7-34. ORGANIZATION
    3. 7-35. OPERATIONS
    4. 7-36. DECONTAMINATION

  9. CHAPTER 8. COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

    Section I. COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT GUIDELINES

    1. 8-1. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF SUPPORT
    2. 8-2. SUPPORT PLANNING
    3. 8-3. LOGISTICS INTELLIGENCE
    4. 8-4. SECURITY
    5. 8-5. COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT TAILORING
    6. 8-6. REQUIREMENTS
    7. 8-7. CATEGORIES OF SUPPORT

    Section II. SUPPORT FOR INSURGENCY AND COUNTERINSURGENCY OPERATIONS

    1. 8-8. SUPPORT LEVELS
    2. 8-9. COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT UNITS
    3. 8-10. OPERATIONAL BASES
    4. 8-11. MAINTENANCE
    5. 8-12. TRANSPORTATION PLANNING
    6. 8-13. MEDICAL UNITS
    7. 8-14. PERSONNEL SERVICE SUPPORT

    Section III. PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS

    1. 8-15. LOGISTICAL CIVIL AUGMENTATION PROGRAM
    2. 8-16. PLANNING

    Section IV. PEACETIME CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS

    1. 8-17. PLANNING
    2. 8-18 CRITICAL TASKS

  10. APPENDIX A. THE URBAN INSURGENT

  11. APPENDIX B. SMOKE, FLAME, HERBICIDES, AND RIOT CONTROL AGENTS

  12. APPENDIX C. OPERATIONS AND TECHNIQUES

  13. APPENDIX D. RELATED OPERATIONS

  14. APPENDIX E. COMBINED OPERATIONS

  15. APPENDIX F. USES OF MISSION-ORIENTED PROTECTIVE POSTURE

  16. GLOSSARY

  17. REFERENCES

  18. AUTHORIZATION LETTER



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