These are the sources quoted or paraphrased in this field manual, listed by page number. Where material appears in a paragraph, both the page and paragraph number is shown. Boldface indicates vignette titles. Unless otherwise indicated, vignettes about Medal of Honor recipients are based on the respective Medal of Honor citations.
Cover US Army photo by Cleveland A. McKnight.
Chapter 1-The Individual Soldier's Role in the Army
Quotation by SMA Glen E. Morrell: "The Army as an Institution," Sergeants' Business (Mar-Apr 1987) 4.
Quotation by General Douglas MacArthur: farewell speech given to the Corps of Cadets at West Point (USMA, 12 May 1962) US Military Academy Association of Graduates [Online] www.aog.usma.edu.
Creed of the 272d Chemical Company, Massachusetts Army National Guard: 1SG Joseph P. Conlon, 272nd Chemical Company Drill Newsletter (Reading, MA, 2 May 2003).
A soldier provides security: US Army photo by SGT Craig Zentkovich.
Quotation by PV2 Jeremiah Arnold: Phil Tegtmeier, "NCOs deployed to SW Asia learn about being leaders," The NCO Journal (Spring 2002) 13.
Quotation by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Speech at the Great March on Detroit (Detroit, MI, 23 Jun 1963).
Quotation by SSG David Santos: 1LT Jacqueline Guthrie, "Soldier Skills, Soldier Values," Soldiers Online (May 2000) [Online] www.army.mil/soldiers.
Private First Class Silvestre Santana Herrera in France: C. Douglas Sterner, "Silvestre Herrerra, Medal of Honor, WWII," Home of Heroes website, www.homeofheroes.com.
Quotation by PFC Trent James David: Kate Walsh, "Another Veteran's Day at War," The Public Spirit (7 Nov 2002) [Online] www.ayerpublicspirit.com.
Quotation by CSM Michael T. Hall: email message to the author.
An NCO inspects his soldiers prior to assuming guard duty: photo courtesy of 340th Military Police Company, US Army Reserve, Jamaica, NY.
Quotation by GEN George S. Patton, Jr.: George S. Patton, Jr., Third US Army Letter of Instruction No. 2, 3 Apr 1944, War as I Knew It (New York: Bantam Books, 1980) 377.
Quotation by SGT Jack F. Holden: "The Role of the NCO in Our Changing Army." Infantry (Jul-Sep 1959) 62.
Quotation by SMA William G. Bainbridge in Top Sergeant: The Life and Times of SMA William G. Bainbridge (New York: Fawcett-Columbine, 1995) 163.
"The one question." in Manual for Noncommissioned Officers and Privates of Infantry of the Army of the United States (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1917) 149-150.
The Deployment is based on an actual incident.
Figure 1-1, Army Leadership Framework, image of "To Relieve Bastogne": Don Stivers, 1990, Don Stivers Publishing.
Quotation by Napoleon Bonaparte: quoted by BG Fletcher M. Lamkin in "Academic Limits, the Teaching of PL 300, Military Leadership," US Military Academy Association of Graduates website (Sep-Oct 1998) [Online] www.aog.usma.edu.
A Better Way: Quotation by Major (US Army, Ret.) Dale E. Wilson, Ph.D., "Patton, Eisenhower, and American Armor in the First World War," in Steven Weingartner, ed., A Weekend With The Great War (Wheaton, IL: The Cantigny First Division Foundation and White Mane Publishing Company, Inc., 1995/1996), 159-175.
Convoy operations brief during Operation Iraqi Freedom: US Army photo by SGT Kyran V. Adams.
Ethical Dilemma-Checkpoint is based on an actual incident.
Figure 1-4, Ethical Reasoning Process: Chaplain (MAJ) Jeffrey L. Zust, "Ethics 102: The Ethical Land Navigation Model," The NCO Journal (Jan 2003) 27- 28.
Ethical Dilemma-Checkpoint (continued) is based on an actual incident.
Ethical Dilemma-Guard Duty is based on an actual incident.
An NCO decides his team's next move along the Administrative Boundary Line in Kosovo: US Army photo by SGT Nathaniel Nelson.
"When [a corporal] first receives.": BG August V. Kautz, Customs of Service for Non-Commissioned Officers and Soldiers (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott and Co., 1865) 104.
Quotation by SGT Kerensa Hardy: "Remembering the basics makes for good leadership," The Signal Online (25 Oct 02) [Online] www.gordon.army.mil.
Chapter 2-The Army and the Nation
2-1. Section I, except where cited: Dr. David W. Hogan, Jr., 225 Years of Service, The US Army 1775-2000, (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2000).
Crispus Attucks in the Boston Massacre: "The Boston Massacre," Library of Congress' America's Library [Online] www.americaslibrary.gov.
2-7. "shot heard 'round the world": Ralph Waldo Emerson, "Concord Hymn," sung at the ceremony marking the completion of the Concord Monument in Massachusetts, 4 Jul 1837.
2-8. "Resolution of the Continental Congress in the Journals of Congress": Thursday, 15 Jun 1775, Center of Military History (CMH).
".The Whites of Their Eyes": National Guard Heritage Series [Online] www.ngb.army.mil/gallery/heritage (hereafter cited as NG Heritage).
2-9- 2-11. Nathan Hale: Mary J. Ortner, Ph.D., "Captain Nathan Hale (1755-1776)," 2001, Connecticut Society of the Sons of the American Revolution [Online] www.ctssar.org.
Quotation by Thomas Paine: The American Crisis I (Philadelphia, 1776).
The Marquis de Lafayette-Patron of Liberty: Robert K. Wright, Jr., The Continental Army (CMH, 1983).
Quotation by Colonel John Laurens: Army Correspondence of Colonel John Laurens, AmericanRevolution.org [Online] www.americanrevolution.org.
Von Steuben Instructs Soldiers at Valley Forge, 1778: Edwin A. Abbey, "The Camp of the American Army at Valley Forge," photo courtesy of Pennsylvania Capitol Preservation Committee.
2-20. Battle of Cowpens: Historical Statements Concerning the Battle of Kings Mountain and the Battle of the Cowpens, South Carolina (Washington, DC: Army War College, 1928); and "The Battle of Cowpens," NG Heritage.
2-23. Legend has it that as British soldiers marched out of Yorktown, their bands played "The World Turned Upside Down," a tune known to British and American soldiers with varying lyrics.
"The Road to Fallen Timbers": DA Poster 21-38, Center of Military History Art Collection (hereafter cited as CMH Art).
2-35. Sergeant Patrick Gass' experiences: Elliott Coves, History of the Expedition Under the Command of Lewis and Clark (New York: Lithotype Printing Co., 1893) 104.
2-38- 2-41. Battle of New Orleans: William A. Stofft et al, American Military History (CMH, 1989) (hereafter cited as American Military History) 145.
2-43- 2-45. General Winfield Scott's Infantry Tactics: Ted Ballard, Staff Ride Guide, Battle Of Ball's Bluff (CMH, 2001) 56; and from American Military History, 155.
2-48- 2-51. The Alamo: Stephen Hardin, "The Battle of the Alamo," Handbook of Texas Online, www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online. Used with permission.
Antietam and Emancipation: "Battlefield Information," National Park Service [Online] www.nps.gov/anti.
The First Medal of Honor Recipient: Don Rivers, "William Pittenger, Medal of Honor Recipient," Village News (13 Aug 1998) Fallbrook Historical Society.
The 1st Minnesota at Gettysburg: "July 2, 1863-'A most terrible day.' the bloodiest day of the battle," National Park Service [Online] www.nps.gov/gett.
President Abraham Lincoln's letter to Mrs. Lydia Bixby: National Park Service [Online] www.nps.gov/liho/souvenir.htm. Whether President Lincoln was the actual author of the letter is in some dispute by historians, but it
"The Surrender. General Lee meets General Grant at Appomattox": Keith Rocco, photo courtesy of the Appomattox Court House National Historical Park.
The 7th Cavalry at the Little Bighorn: Dr. William G. Robertson et al, Atlas of the Sioux Wars (Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, 2003).
"The Rough Riders": Mort Kunstler, courtesy of NG Heritage.
Private Augustus Walley in Cuba: "Augustus Walley," 9th Memorial Cavalry [Online] www.9thcavalry.com; and the MOH citation for Private August Walley.
2-82. Early Air Service history: "Evolution of the Department of the Air Force," Air Force History Support Office [Online] www.airforcehistory.hq.af.mil.
2-83. Villa's raid on Columbus, New Mexico: Annual Report of the Secretary of War for the Fiscal Year, 1916, Vol. 1 (Washington, DC: War Department, 1916) 7-8.
Quotation by Lieutenant Colonel Charles E. Stanton: speech at the grave of the Marquis de Lafayette (Paris, 4 Jul 1917).
Harlem Hellfighters: Bob Rosenburgh, "WWI `Harlem Hellfighter' nominated for medal," Army News Service (7 Feb 2001).
2-91- 2-93. 3d Infantry Division and 28th Infantry Division in WWI: "Rock of the Marne," CMH Art; and "Men of Iron," NG Heritage.
Sergeant Edward Greene at the Marne: "Quartermaster Cooks-History of Dedication," Quartermaster Professional Bulletin (Summer 2002) [Online] www.quartermaster.army.mil.
Corporal Harold W. Roberts at Montrebeau Woods: "Californians and the Military, Corporal Harold W. Roberts, Medal Of Honor Recipient," California Military Museum [Online] www.militarymuseum.org.
The Unknown Soldier: "This Week in Quartermaster History, 11-17 November," US Army Quartermaster Corps Historian [Online] www.qmmuseum.lee.army.mil.
Transformation in the 1920s: Dr. Williamson Murray, "The Army's Advanced Strategic Art Program," Parameters (Winter 2000-2001) 35.
2-105. "The war to end all wars" is the title of a book by Edward M. Coffman (New York: Oxford University Press, 1968).
2-110. President Franklin D. Roosevelt coined the phrase "Arsenal of Democracy" in his Fireside Chat radio address on national security and the common cause (29 Dec 1940).
Quotation by President Franklin D. Roosevelt: The Army and You (Washington, DC: War Department, 1942) 7.
Quotation by Ernie Pyle: Brave Men (New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1944. Reprinted by Greenwood Press, 1974) 380.
"Tip of the Avalanche": NG Heritage.
2-120. US casualties on D-Day: Gordon A. Harrison, Cross-Channel Attack (Washington, DC: Office of the Chief of Military History, 1951).
A Company, 116th Infantry on D-Day: Stephen E. Ambrose, D-Day, June 6 1944: The Climactic Battle of World War II (New York: Touchstone Books, 1994) 328.
Krinkelt-Rocherath during the Battle of the Bulge: Charles B. MacDonald, A Time for Trumpets: The Untold Story of the Battle of the Bulge (New York: Bantam Books, 1985) 386; and from the MOH citation for Tech/4 Truman Kimbro.
A squad leader of the 25th Infantry Division: US Army Signal Corps photograph, Center of Military History Photograph Collection (hereafter cited as CMH Photographs).
2-129. Casualty estimates for an invasion of Japan: D.M. Giangreco, "Casualty Projections for the US Invasions of Japan, 1945-1946: Planning And Policy Implications," Journal of Military History (July 1997) 543.
7th Infantry Division Band: photo from National Archives and Records Administration, John B. Wilson, Maneuver and Firepower: The Evolution of Divisions and Separate Brigades (CMH, 1998) 211.
Constabulary unit equipment: US Army photo, William E. Stacy, US Army Operations in Germany, 1945-1983 (Headquarters, US Army Europe and 7th Army, 1984) 21.
Task Force Smith: Spencer Tucker, "Fact Sheet, Task Force Smith," United States of America Korean War Commemoration [Online] korea50.army.mil.
Artillery Gun Crew: US Army Signal Corps photo, CMH photographs.
Chaplain Emil J. Kapaun in Korea: Rodger R. Venzke, The United States Army Chaplaincy 1945-1975 (Washington, DC: Office of the Chief of the Chaplains, 1977).
Landing Zone (LZ) X-Ray in the Ia Drang Valley: LTG Harold Moore and Joe Galloway, We Were Soldiers Once. And Young, (New York: Random House, 1992).
2-146- 2-148. Information on the Tet Offensive: "Named Campaigns-Vietnam," CMH [Online] www.army.mil/cmh-pg/reference/vncmp.htm.
Quotation by President Ronald Reagan: transcript of "Vietnam: A Television History-Roots of a War (1945-1953)," Public Broadcasting System [Online] www.pbs.org.
Soldier of 725th Ordnance Company: US Army photo by PFC Joshua Hutcheson.
On the move during Operation Desert Storm: US Army photo.
Task Force Ranger: MAJ Clifford E. Day, "Critical Analysis on the Defeat of Task Force Ranger," (Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air Command and Staff College, Mar 1997).
Soldiers of 101st Airborne Division at Kandahar: US Army photo by SSG Alberto Betancourt.
Soldiers from the 3rd Infantry Division: DOD photo by SGT Igor Paustovski, U.S.Army.
Quotation by GEN Peter J. Schoomaker: quoted by CSM Michael Hall in an email message to the author.
A Stryker Infantry Carrier Vehicle squad: US Army photo by CPT Timothy Beninato.
Quotation by SMA Jack L. Tilley in "A Talk with Sergeant Major of the Army Jack Tilley," NCO Journal (Winter 00-01) 15.
Section III, except where indicated: Ben's Guide to the US Government [Online] bensguide.gpo.gov.
"The liberties and heritage.": The Noncom's Guide (Chicago: The Military Service Publishing Company, 1957) 52.
Quotation by then Secretary of the Army Thomas E. White: speech at the 124th NGAUS General Conference, 8 Sep 2002.
Figure 2-4. Make up of The Army of One: data as of Oct 2001.
Chapter 3-Duties, Responsibilities, and Authority of the Soldier
Quotation by 1SG Isaac Guest: "Portrait of a First Sergeant," Soldiers (Aug 1979) 34.
Quotation by Admiral Hyman G. Rickover: "History of the Navy Nuclear Power Program," Lesson 4 Instructor Guide (NS 402 Submarine Capstone Course, US Naval Academy) 2.
Quotation by Colonel Louis de Maud'Huy: Maneuver Theory (Paris: Berger-Levrault, 1912) 13. Translation courtesy of former soldier John P. Geraci, Jr.
Making an On-the-Spot Correction is based on an actual incident.
Quotation by General of the Army Douglas MacArthur: Annual Report of the Chief of Staff, 1933, The Greenhill Dictionary of Military Quotations, edited by Peter G. Tsouras (London: Greenhill Books and Mechanicsburg,PA: Stackpole Books, 2000) (hereafter cited as Tsouras) 486.
Quotation by SGT Henry Giles: The G.I. Journal of Sergeant Giles, edited by Janice Holt Giles (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1965) 4.
Quotation by Senator Patrick Leahy, Chairman, Senate Judiciary Committee: "DOJ Oversight: Preserving Our Freedoms While Defending Against Terrorism," 6 Dec 2001.
Quotation by GEN Colin L. Powell and CSM Robert F. Beach: "The Strength of the NCO Corps Is a National Strategic Asset," Army (Oct 1989) 48.
Quotation by Stephen H. Ambrose: Citizen Soldiers (New York: Touchstone Books, 1998) 485.
Platoon Sergeant and Enlisted Soldier Relationship is based on an actual incident.
Officer-Enlisted Gambling is an example only.
Chapter 4-Customs, Courtesies, and Traditions
"Often, it is these customs.": R. Prasannan, "Colonial Hangover," The Week (28 Jan 2001) [Online] www.the-week.com.
The Salute vignette is based on an actual incident.
Parade Rest vignette is based on an actual incident.
Quotation by SMA Jack L. Tilley: SSG Marcia Triggs, "SMA Talks Pay, Education, War," Army News Service (23 Oct 2002).
4-30. History of bugle calls: Rudi Williams, "Air Force Sergeant Traces Bugle's History," American Forces Press Service (8 Nov 2000).
4-45. Quotation by General Maxwell D. Taylor: 101st Airborne Division's Eagle Values Education Program (May 2000) 32.
"Each step of the ladder.": The Noncom's Guide (Chicago: Military Service Publishing Co., 1962) 40-41.
Quotation by MSG Frank K. Nicolas: "Noncommissioned Officer," Infantry (Jan 1958) 78.
4-53- 4-57. Janice E. McKenney, Reflagging in the Army (CMH, 1997) 3.
Quotation by John F. Kennedy: President Kennedy's Inaugural Address, 20 Jan 1961.
Quotation by T. E. Lawrence: Tsouras, 232.
Quotation by Thucydides: Tsouras, 482.
The Best Machinegunner in the 101st: MG Russel L. Honoré, and MAJ Robert P. Cerjan, "Warrior Ethos, the Soul of an Infantryman," News from the Front, Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL) (January-February 2002) (hereafter cited as Honoré), 7.
"Gunners that can't.": The Battalion Commander's Handbook 1991 (US Army War College) 50.
Quotation by SMA Morrell: "As the SMA Sees It," Army Trainer (Fall 1984) 21, 24.
Quotation by SMA Julius W. Gates: "From the SMA," NCO Call (May-Jun 1990) inside front cover.
Quotation by Paul (Bear) Bryant: Great Quotes from Great Leaders, compiled by Peggy Anderson (Lombard, IL: Celebrating Excellence Publishing, 1995) 120.
Hot Wash-An AAR at the Combat Maneuver Training Center: MSG Sieger Hartgers, "Hotwash," (CMH Art, 1995).
"AARs are one of.": Lessons Learned, CALL (Oct 1989) 11.
Building an individual fighting position: US Army photo by SPC Jacob Boyer.
Quotation by BG James E. Simmons, Director of Army Safety: quated by LTC Mark Robinson in Risk Management presentation.
A military police soldier inspects a vehicle: photo by Denny Cox, Sound Off, Ft. Meade, MD, (4 Oct 2001).
Khobar is based on the author's experience at Khobar Towers in 1996.
Rules of Engagement: Honoré, 6.
Chapter 6-Developmental Counseling and Professional Development
Informal "Footlocker" Counseling is based on an actual incident.
Promotion Counseling is based on an actual incident.
Quotation by GEN Peter J. Schoomaker: Eli Cohen and Noel Tichy "Operation-Leadership," Fast Company (Sep 1999) 278.
Quotation by MAJ Don T. Riley: "Serve Your Soldiers to Win," Military Review (Nov 1986) 12.
Quotation by MSG Frank K. Nicolas: "Noncommissioned Officer," Infantry (Jan 1958) 79.
Quotation by SPC Luis Feliciano: Brian MacQuarrie, "Reconnaissance Unit Ready to Scout Out Trouble," Boston Globe (18 Mar 2003) 27.
Reenlistment in Kandahar: US Army photo by SPC David Marck.
Quotation by Carl von Clausewitz: On War, edited by Michael Howard and Peter Paret (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976) 95.
Chapter 7-Benefits of Service
Medical Bills is based on an actual incident.
7-74. Description of retirement systems: "Soldiers must Choose Retirement Option by March 1," Army News Service (12 Feb 2002).
Soldiers of 115th Military Police Company: US Army photo by SPC Robert Liddy.
Quotation by SGT Herbert E. Smith: "They Get Their Men," US Army Recruiting News (1 Sep 1928) 6.
Quotation by General John M. Keane: "On Health Care," Testimony before the Subcommittee on Personnel, Committee on Armed Services (2 Mar 2000).
Appendix B-Army Programs
Quotation by General of the Army George C. Marshall: Tsouras, 69.
Quotation by MG Robert Ivany: "Command Reflections-Values at Work," US Army War College (29 May 2003) [Online] www.carlisle.army.mil.
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