Maintenance is the function of sustaining materiel in an operational status, restoring it to a serviceable condition, or updating and upgrading its functional utility through modification. Modern, mechanized warfare demands an effective maintenance system.
The overall objective of materiel maintenance is to support the combat readiness and effectiveness of the Army by sustaining weapons and equipment in a mission-ready condition as effectively, responsively, and economically as feasible. In support of the overall objective, the sub-objectives of materiel maintenance are to--
- Establish and effectively use preventive maintenance programs
to predict, prevent, and correct equipment failures.
- Reduce component resupply requirements by the timely repair and
return to service of direct exchange items.
The materiel maintenance mission in the TAACOM (except for missile aircraft, rail, marine, aerial delivery, and medical items) is threefold:
- First,to provide intermediate (DS) maintenance to units located
in and passing through the COMMZ, to include support specified
in interservice support agreements. This support is provided
by maintenance companies which are normally elements of an
intermediate maintenance battalion of an area support group.
- Second, to provide intermediate maintenance support to back up
one or more corps.
- Third, to provide intermediate (GS) maintenance support to the theater by repairing end items, modules, assemblies, and components evacuated for repair and return to the supply system. This support will be provided by intermediate maintenance units which are relatively immobile and which normally conduct assembly line repair operations. These intermediate maintenance units normally are elements of the TASG.
LEVELS OF MAINTENANCE
The US Army maintenance system is being redesigned to provide a more responsive maintenance system, improved operational readiness, and increased battlefield mobility and flexibility. The system provides a direct link to the ultimate user from Department of the Army through the commodity management chain. The Army's maintenance structure concept has three levels: unit, intermediate, and depot.
The mission of unit maintenance is to repair by replacement and to perform other minor repairs (adjust, clean, lubricate, and tighten). Unit maintenance is normally performed by all TOE units in the Army, regardless of geographic location in the theater or CONUS.
This level is organized into intermediate (direct support) and intermediate (general support) maintenance. The mission of intermediate (DS) maintenance is to repair end items of equipment on a return-to-user basis and to repair selected/designated unserviceable components/modules in support of the direct exchange system. Intermediate (DS) maintenance is performed by designated TOE or TDA maintenance units, regardless of geographic location in the theater or CONUS. The mission of intermediate (GS) maintenance is to provide support to the theater supply system through repair of components, end items, and DX items. Intermediate (GS)
maintenance is performed by designated TOE or TDA maintenance units. These units will normally be located in the COMMZ.
The structure for maintenance support in the COMMZ must provide the foundation for successful transition to war and for survival and success of combat forces during wartime. Intermediate (GS) maintenance units receive, store, distribute, recondition and repair, or otherwise restore to serviceability, equipment for use. In addition to the TAACOM intermediate (GS) maintenance activities, DARCOM depot maintenance facilities may be in operation in the COMMZ in support of the supply system under the command of a DARCOM OCONUS headquarters.
DARCOM depots or activities, contractors, and HNS personnel, where applicable, perform this level of maintenance in support of the supply system. Depot maintenance tasks are outlined in AR 750-1, memorandums of understanding, and applicable war plans when operating in the TO. Repair time guidelines for depot maintenance are not established as these units or activities operate in support of the supply system and not the user. Depot maintenance is performed in fixed facilities in CONUS and the TO, and is production-line oriented. Repair parts supply support for depot maintenance is limited to items to support assigned maintenance missions.
MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS IN THE TAACOM
In the COMMZ, intermediate (DS) maintenance and repair parts supply are provided primarily on an area basis by maintenance units assigned to the ASGs of the TAACOM. These units generally work on a repair and return-to-user basis and serve as the supply source for customer PLL replenishment. Their work loads are normally determined by the requirements of the users. Specialized intermediate (DS) maintenance units may be organic, assigned, or attached to other TA major subordinate commands on a sole-user basis; for example, engineer, signal, and rail units. ASG maintenance units report work requirements and production through channels to the ASG. Automated maintenance system reporting information is reported to the TAACOM MMC. Repair parts are requisitioned from the TAACOM MMC.
Intermediate (GS) maintenance is generally performed by units assigned to the TASGs of the TAACOM. These units normally perform maintenance in support of the supply system. Their work loads are assigned by the TAACOM MMC which has been tasked by the TAMMC. These units normally work in semipermanent facilities on a production.line basis. They repair end items, modules, assemblies, and components and return them to the supply system.
TAACOM MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATION
Most of the intermediate maintenance units in the COMMZ are assigned to the TAACOM. Maintenance battalions are assigned to either the ASG or the TASG. Those assigned to the ASG perform intermediate (DS) maintenance. Those assigned to the TASG perform intermediate (GS) maintenance. See figure F-1. The ASG units serve all equipment users within their assigned geographical area with repair-and-return maintenance and repair parts supply. The TASG units perform maintenance in support of the TA supply system.
Management in the intermediate (DS) maintenance companies is performed at their battalion headquarters and at the ASG level. The ASG director of materiel has staff supervisory responsibility for maintenance support to users within the ASG assigned area. The director of materiel monitors maintenance activities and advises the commander on the adequacy of support provided and, in coordination with the director, SPO, maintains visibility of requirements and capabilities. Management actions consist of those taken to insure that customer demands are met and that maintenance resources are efficiently used. Normally, the TAACOM MMC does not play a large role in the management of the functional operations of these units. The ASLs of these units, however, are replenished through requisitions placed on the TAACOM MMC. The normal sources of supply are the CONUS depots through the ALOC DSS and the repair parts company of the TASG.
FIGURE 5-1. TAACOM MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATION
The intermediate (GS) maintenance company activities are managed by their battalion headquarters and the TASG headquarters for routine day-to-day activities. The work load is normally managed by the TAACOM MMC in support of the TA supply and maintenance program. Typically, the TAMMC is the only agency having theater-wide visibility of supply assets and requirements. It will apportion the theater intermediate (GS) maintenance work load among the TAACOMs. The TAACOM MMC then manages the TAACOM portion of the TA repair program to include acquisition and replacement of assemblies, components, and parts. The maintenance units requisition the shop stock required to perform their tasks. The TAACOM commander is ultimately responsible for completing the TAACOM portion of the TA program.
The wartime COMMZ intermediate (GS) maintenance force structure must be planned for in peacetime and be available through a combination of active and reserve component forces at the outbreak of war. This requirement is created because of the relatively long lead times involved in establishing assembly line maintenance capabilities and the complex nature of intermediate (GS) maintenance in the COMMZ. The TA commander controls all of the maintenance mission which requires assembly line repair operations in relatively fixed facilities to repair end items, modules, assemblies, and components and return them to the supply system. By agreement, DARCOM may perform part of this work.
During the period of transition to war, TAACOM and DARCOM maintenance units will continue their mission as prescribed by memorandums of agreement/understanding and applicable war plans. However, by using pre-positioned assets and repair parts, TAACOM intermediate (GS) maintenance units (TAMMC-directed) will convert the bulk of their capacity as rapidly as practical to restore and repair preselected major weapon systems, essential modules, assemblies, and components. TAACOM MMC plans for directing the work load for this transition mission will be made by the TAMMC in coordination with DARCOM OCONUS headquarters. The intermediate (DS) maintenance resources will continue to support the units in their area and extend this support to the reinforcing units arriving and preparing to move forward. Based on the existing MOU between DARCOM and TA, TA will exercise operational control over DARCOM facilities during the period of transition to war at which time these facilities could receive an intermediate maintenance mission.
During the sustaining period, the composition of the work load in the TAACOM intermediate (GS) maintenance units is modified according to current demand experience. This experience involves the performance of all three areas of the materiel maintenance mission. Intermediate (DS) maintenance units continue their normal mission. The entire COMMZ maintenance structure expands to accommodate wartime requirements.
SPECIAL MATERIEL MAINTENANCE
Logistics support for TCC(A) unique communications-electronics (including ATC) and organic COMSEC equipment/systems is provided by a signal support company (C-E logistics) organic to the TCC(A). The signal support company provides intermediate (GS) and backup intermediate (DS) maintenance support to operating sites for TCC(A) unique C-E equipment/systems, Maintenance support teams are utilized to extend maintenance support capabilities forward to operating sites. The signal support company provides intermediate (DS) maintenance support for organic COMSEC equipment/systems of the TCC(A) and other services and friendly foreign forces as directed. The COMSEC logistics support company of the TAACOM provides GS supply and intermediate (GS) maintenance support for COMSEC equipment.
MISSILE/NUCLEAR AMMUNITION MAINTENANCE
Support is provided by the nuclear ammunition brigade assigned to TA. The nuclear ammunition brigade provides nuclear ammunition support to US combat forces through nuclear ammunition battalions and an intermediate missile support battalion. Nuclear ammunition battalions are assigned to the brigade on the basis of one battalion for each supported US corps and one battalion for the COMMZ, if required. These battalions provide the corps with nuclear ammunition maintenance support and operate nuclear ammunition storage areas in support of both TA and corps operations.
Missile maintenance support for missile systems (less Pershing) is provided by a missile support battalion assigned to the nuclear ammunition brigade and located in the COMMZ. This battalion provides intermediate (GS) services to intermediate (DS) missile maintenance batteries of the air defense artillery units located in the COMMZ and to the theater supply system. The battalion also provides backup intermediate (GS) service for corps missile maintenance units, intermediate services for theater reserve missiles stored in the COMMZ, and intermediate services for combat units in or passing through the COMMZ. The missile support battalion has at least one intermediate (GS) company dedicated for support of each of the following missile systems: land combat missile systems (Lance, TOW, Dragon, etc.), and SHORAD missile systems (Chaparral, Roland, Stinger, etc.). Electronic testing and maintenance of missiles stored in the COMMZ will be provided by the appropriate missile intermediate maintenance company of the missile support battalion. Intermediate maintenance companies also have the capability to provide technical assistance and on-site maintenance to supported units, See FM 9-59.
Missile maintenance for Pershing IA and II is provided by a support battalion organic to the Pershing field artillery brigade. This battalion provides intermediate (DS) and (GS) maintenance for missile system items and intermediate (DS) maintenance for automotive, engineer, signal, and other materiel category items.
In addition to the missile support battalion and organic intermediate (DS) units, the mature theater will also have DARCOM repair activities. These activities will repair selected items of missile equipment and coordinate repair of selected items with their respective intermediate (GS) counterparts.
The Army aviation maintenance system operates under a three-level concept: aviation unit maintenance, aviation intermediate maintenance, and depot maintenance. Each aviation unit is responsible for performing AVUM on its assigned aircraft. Divisional and nondivisional AVIM units provide intermediate maintenance. Nondivisional AVIM units are employed on an area basis and are assigned to the corps aviation group, the COSCOM, or the TAACOM, based on aircraft density. When aircraft density in the corps or TAACOM areas requires more than one AVIM unit, battalions may be formed. AVIM units are responsible for--
- Repair of equipment (aircraft, aircraft armament, avionics, and
aircraft-peculiar items of ground support equipment) for return to
- Repair of certain components and parts in support of the DX
- Provision of aviation repair parts supply support (airframe, engine, armament, avionics, and aircraft-peculiar support equipment) to AVUM units.
- Classification and repair of components, engines, etc., for
return to the theater supply pipeline.
- Backup AVIM-level aviation maintenance support as needed.
- Acting as terminal point for shipment of aircraft in and out of the theater.
Maintenance and repair facilities for water-craft must be located afloat or at the water's edge. Intermediate maintenance for watercraft is provided by the transportation inter-mediate maintenance company of the TRANSCOM. The Army has no capability to perform depot-level marine maintenance. This maintenance is performed by commercial contract or interservice support agreements. Damaged watercraft that can be repaired will be recovered and evacuated to the nearest marine repair facility. Recovery and evacuation of watercraft will normally be accomplished by sister vessels or by watercraft of other marine operating and/or maintenance units.
Rail maintenance is best provided by the host nation, US contractor, or local nationals. Army rail maintenance capability is limited and resides totally in the reserve components. If required, those units can be deployed.
AIRDROP EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE
Support for aerial delivery equipment is provided by a specialized airdrop equipment repair and supply unit assigned to the TASG of the TAACOM. This unit maintains theater stockage of airdrop equipment and provides intermediate maintenance of airdrop peculiar equipment to using units. It supplements parachute packing and maintenance activities of units engaged in airdrop operations. The recovery of airdrop equipment is accomplished by using units. Recovered equipment is evacuated to the TA airdrop equipment repair and supply unit for classification, repair, and return to theater stock.
CALIBRATION AND TMDE
TMDE support is a DARCOM responsibility. It provides for one-step calibration and repair of general-purpose TMDE and calibration of selected special-purpose TMDE.
Calibration and TMDE general-purpose repair is performed by mobile teams equipped with necessary tools, calibration standards, and repair parts housed in expandable vans. These teams are normally attached to maintenance units located in high-density workload areas. TMDE special-purpose calibration is performed by specialized teams from a calibration and repair support company. The TMDE support battalion, allocated one per theater, is normally colocated with this CRSC and will control all CRSCs located in the theater.
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