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*FM 6-40/MCWP 3-16.4

FIELD MANUAL
NO. 6-40
MARINE CORPS
WARFIGHTING PUBLICATION
NO. 3-16.4
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
U.S. MARINE CORPS
Washington, DC, 23 April 1996

FM 6-40/MCWP 3-16.4

Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for

FIELD ARTILLERY MANUAL CANNON GUNNERY

Editor's Note: Provisions of Change 1, 1 October 1999, have been incorporated into this web version. They have not, however, been incorporated into the download (Adobe PDF) version. Corrected or new materials (less a corrected Table of Contents) are available as PDF files for posting to a printed copy of the 1996 version.

Table of Contents


CHANGE 1, 1 OCTOBER 1999

FOREWARD

PREFACE

Chapter 1 - THE GUNNERY PROBLEM AND
THE GUNNERY TEAM

1-1. Gunnery Problem Solution

1-2. Field Artillery Gunnery Team

1-3. Five Requirements for Accurate Predicted Fire

Chapter 2 - FIRING BATTERY AND BATTERY
FDC ORGANIZATION

2-1. Firing Battery Organization

2-2. Battery or Platoon FDC

2-3. Definitions

2-4. Relationship Between Battery or Platoon and Battalion FDC

2-5. Battalion FDC Personnel

Chapter 3 - BALLISTICS

3-1. Interior Ballistics

3-2. Transitional Ballistics

3-3. Exterior Ballistics

3-4. Dispersion and Probability

3-5. Causes of Dispersion

3-6. Mean Point of Impact

3-7. Probable Error

3-8. Dispersion Zones

3-9. Range Probable Error

3-10. Fork

3-11. Deflection Probable Error

3-12. Time-To-Burst Probable Error

3-13. Height-Of-Burst Probable Error

3-14. Range-To-Burst Probable Error

Chapter 4 - MUZZLE VELOCITY MANAGEMENT

4-1. Muzzle Velocity Terms

4-2. Calibration

4-3. Estimating Shooting Strength

4-4. Updating MVV Data

4-5. Other Applications

4-6. MVV Logbook

4-7. Frequency of Calibration

4-8. Transferring MVVs

Chapter 5 - FIRE MISSION MESSAGES

Section I - Fire Order

5-1. Overview

5-2. Target Attack Considerations

5-3. Fire Order Elements

5-4. Battery of Platoon Fire Orders

5-5. Fire Order Standing Operating Procedures

5-6. Battalion Fire Order

5-7. Massing of Fires

Section II - Message to Observer

5-8. Description

5-9. Additional Information

Section III - Fire Commands

5-10. Fire Command Elements

5-11. Battery or Platoon Fire Commands

5-12. Examples of Fire Commands

5-13. Standardizing Elements of the Fire Commands

Chapter 6 - FIRING CHARTS

Section I - Types of Firing Charts

6-1. Description

6-2. Firing Chart Construction

Section II - Plotting Equipment and Firing Chart Preparation

6-3. Pencils

6-4. Plotting Pins

6-5. Plotting Scale

6-6. Range-Deflection Protractor

6-7. Target Grid

Section III - Surveyed Firing Chart

6-8. Selection of Lower Left-Hand Corner and Azimuth of Lay

6-9. Firing Chart Preparation

6-10. Four-Step Plotting Method

6-11. Tick Marks

6-12. Construction of Azimuth Indexes

6-13. Construction of Deflection Indexes

6-14. Plotting Targets

6-15. Determining and Announcing Chart Data

6-16. Chart-to-Chart Checks

Section IV - Observed Firing Charts

6-17. Overview

6-18. Methods of Determining Polar Plot Data

6-19. Constructing Observed Firing Charts

6-20. Determination of Direction for Polar Plotting

6-21. Percussion Plot, VI Unknown

6-22. Percussion Plot, VI Estimated

6-23. Time Plot, VI Unknown

6-24. Time Plot, VI known (Preferred Technique)

6-25. Setting Up the Observed Firing Chart

6-26. Example of Percussion Plot, VI Unknown

6-27. Example of Percussion Plot, VI Estimated

6-28. Example of Time Plot, VI Unknown

6-29. Example of Time Plot, VI Unknown, XO's High Burst

6-30. Locate an Observer

6-31. Battalion Observed Firing Chart

6-32. Observed Firing Chart With Incomplete Survey

Section V - Using Map Spot Data to Construct Firing Charts

6-33. Map Spot Survey

6-34. Constructing a Firing Chart From Map Spot Survey

6-35. Transferring to a Surveyed Firing Chart

Chapter 7 - Firing Tables

Section I - Tabular Firing Tables

7-1. Elements and Purpose

7-2. Cover Information

7-3. Table A

7-4. Table B

7-5. Table C

7-6. Table D

7-7. Table E

7-8. Table F

7-9. Extracting Basic HE Data From Table F

7-10. Table G

7-11. Table H

7-12. Table I

7-13. Table J

7-14. Table K

7-15. Illuminating Projectiles

7-16. TFT Part 3 and Part 4

7-17. Appendixes

Section II - Graphical Firing Tables

7-18. Overview

7-19. Low-Angle GFTs

7-20. High-Angle GFTs

7-21. Illuminating Projectile GFT

Chapter 8 - SITE

8-1. Initial Elements of the Trajectory

8-2. Site in High-Angle Fire

8-3. Determination of Attitudes

8-4. Determination of Site Without a Graphical Site Table

8-5. Determination of Site Without a GST, Requiring Interpolation

8-6. Determination of Vertical Angle

8-7. The Graphical Site Table

8-8. Average Site

8-9. Determination of Angle of Site and Vertical Angle With the GST

8-10. Determination of Site With the GST

8-11. Sample Problems

8-12. High-Angle Site

8-13. Determination of High-Angle Site With the TFT

8-14. Determination of High-Angle Site With a High-Angle GFT

8-15. Determination of 10-Mil Site Factor Without a High-Angle GFT

Chapter 9 - FIRE MISSION PROCESSING

Section I - Duties and the Record of Fire

9-1. Crew Duties for the FDC

9-2. Elements of Firing Data

9-3. Recording Firing Data

Section II - High Explosives

9-4. Overview

9-5. Examples of Completing the Record of Fire for HE Fire Missions

9-6. Examples of Completing the Record of Fire for a Nonstandard Square Weight WP or HE Projectile

Section III - High-Angle Fire

9-8. High-Angle GFT

9-8. Duties of Personnel in High-Angle Fire

9-9. Example of Completing the ROF for an HE High-Angle Adjust-Fire Mission

Section IV - Illumination

9-10. Overview

9-11. Illuminating Projectile GFT

9-12. Illumination Firing Data

9-13. Determination of Illumination Firing Data With the GFT

9-14. Determination of Illumination Firing Data With the TFT

9-15. Processing a One-Gun Illumination Fire Mission

9-16. Two-Gun Illumination Range Spread

9-17. Two-Gun Illumination Lateral Spread

9-18. Four-Gun Illumination-Range and Lateral Spread

9-19. Coordinated Illumination

9-20. High-Angle Illumination

Chapter 10 - Registrations

Section I - Reasons for Registrations

10-1. Accurate Firing Unit Location

10-2. Accurate Weapon and Ammunition Information

10-3. Accurate Meteorological Information

10-4. Accurate Computational Procedures

10-5. When to Conduct Registrations

10-6. Types of Registrations

10-7. Assurance Tables

10-8. Registration Corrections and GFT Settings

Section II - Precision Registrations

10-9. Objective

10-10. Initiation of a Precision Registration

10-11. Conduct of the impact phase of a precision registration

10-12. Conduct of the Time Phase of a Precision Registration

10-13. Second Lot Registrations

10-14. Initiation of the Second Lot Registration

10-15. Example of a Completed Precision Registration

10-16. Abbreviated Precision Registration

Section III - High-Burst/Mean Point of Impact Registrations

10-17. Description

10-18. Selecting an Orienting Point

10-19. Orienting the Observers

10-20. Determining Firing Data

10-21. Firing the HB or MPI Registration

10-22. Determine the Mean Burst Location

10-23. Example of an HB/MPI Registration

10-24. Determination of the MBL

10-25. Determine Chart Data and Registration Corrections

10-26. Effect of Complementary Angle of Site on Adjusted Fuze Setting

Section IV - Process an AN/TPQ-36 or AN/TPQ-37 Radar Registration

10-27. Characteristics

10-28. Conduct of a Radar Registration

10-29. Selection of an Orienting Point

10-30. Orienting the Radar

10-31. Determine Firing Data to the Orienting Point

10-32. Firing the HB or MPI Registration

10-33. Determination of the Mean Burst Location

10-34. Determination of Chart Data and Registration Corrections

10-35. DPICM Registrations (M483A1/M509E1)

Section V - High-Angle Registration

10-36. High-Angle GFT

10-37. Procedures for High-Angle Impact Registration

10-38. Computation of the Adjusted Elevation

10-39. DPICM High-Angle Registration

Section VI - Offset Registrations or Registrations to the Rear

10-40. Offset Registration

10-41. Registrations to the Rear

Section VII - Determination and Application of Registration Corrections

10-42. Computation of Total Range Correction

10-43. Computation of Total Fuze Correction

10-44. Computation of Total Deflection Correction

10-45. Determination of Total Registration Corrections

10-46. Low-Angle GFT Settings

10-47. Determination of a GFT Setting When the Registering Piece is not the Base Piece

10-48. Construction of a GFT Setting

10-49. Construction of a Two-Plot or Multiplot GFT Setting

10-50. Update of a GFT Setting When Transferring From a Map Spot or Observed Firing Chart

10-51. Registration Transfer Limits

10-52. High-Angle GFT Settings

10-53. High-Angle Transfer Limits

10-54. Transfer of GFT Settings

10-55. Example of Transferring a GFT Setting

Chapter 11 - Meteorological Techniques

Section I - Principles

11-1. Purpose and Use of Met Techniques

11-2. Position Constants

11-3. Met Messages

11-4. Ballistic Met Message

11-5. Computer Met Message

11-6. Met Message Checking Procedures

11-7. Met Message Space and Time Validity

Section II - Concurrent Met Technique

11-8. DA Form 4200

11-9. Solution of a Concurrent Met

Section III - Subsequent Met Technique

11-10. Overview

11-11. Solution of a Subsequent Met

Section IV - Subsequent Met Applications

11-12. Eight-Direction Met

11-13. Solution of an Eight-Direction Met Technique

11-14. Met to a Target

11-15. Solution of a Met-to-Target Technique

11-16. Computing a GFT Setting for an Unregistered Charge

11-17. Met to Met Check Gauge Point

11-18. Met + VE

Chapter 12 - TERRAIN GUN POSITION CORRECTIONS
AND SPECIAL CORRECTIONS

Section I - Types of Corrections

12.1 Overview

12.2 Piece Displacement

12.3 Sheafs

Section II - The M17/M10 Plotting Board

12-4. Description

12-5. Plotting Piece Locations for Weapons Equipped With the M100-Series Sight

12-6. Plotting Piece Locations for Weapons Equipped With the M12-Series Sight

12-7. Determination of Base Piece Grid Coordinates

Section III - Terrain Gun Position Corrections

12-8. Transfer Limits and Sectors of Fire

12-9. Fire Order and Fire Commands

12-10. Determination of Terrain Gun Position Corrections

12-11. Hasty Terrain Gun Position Corrections

12-12. Determination of Hasty TGPCs

Section IV - Special Corrections

12-13. Definitions and Use

12-14. Computation of Special Corrections

Section IV - Use of Plotting Board for Fire Mission Processing

12-15. M17 Plotting Board

12-16. Determination of Subsequent Corrections for a Laser Adjust-Fire Mission

12-17. Examples of TGPCs

12-18. Examples of Special Corrections

Chapter 13 - SPECIAL MUNITIONS

Section I - Copperhead

13-1. Description

13-2. Computations for Shell Copperhead

13-3. Copperhead SOP

13-4. Message to Observer

13-5. Fire Order

13-6. Computation of Firing Data

13-7. Angle T and Target Cloud Height Checks

13-8. Trajectories

13-9. Switch Setting

13-10. Computing Site

13-11. Computing Deflection Correction

13-12. Limits of the Base Piece Solution

13-13. Target Attack Contingencies

Section II - Rocket-Assisted Projectile

13-15. Description

13-16. Manual Computations

13-17. Registration and Determining a GFT Setting

Section III - Smoke Projectiles

13-18. Description

13-19. Quick Smoke

13-20. Quick Smoke Technique

13-21. Smoke Munitions Expenditure Tables and Equations

13-22. M825 Smoke Procedures

13-23. M825 Examples

Section IV - Dual-Purpose Improved Conventional Munitions

13-24. Overview

13-25. Determining DPICM Firing Data

Section V - Family of Scatterable Mines

13-26. Types of Scatterable Mines

13-27. FASCAM Tactical Considerations and Fire Order Process

13-28. Technical Fire Direction Procedures

13-29. ADAM

13-30. RAAMS

13-31. DA Form 5032-R

13-32. Planned Minefields

13-33. Target of Opportunity Minefields and Minefields Established in Conjunction With Other Munitions

13-34. Safety Zone Determination

13-35. Safety Zone Tables

13-36. Safety Zone Templates

13-37. FASCAM Employment Steps

13-38. Base Burn DPICM (M864)

13-39. M864 Firing Data Computations

13-40. Met to a Target

13-41. M864 Registrations

13-42. Sense and Destroy Armor (SADARM M898)

13-43. M898 Firing Data Computations

13-44. Technical Fire Direction Procedures

Chapter 14 - EMERGENCY FDC PROCEDURES

14-1. Methods of Determining Initial Data

14-2. Methods of Determining Subsequent Data

14-3. Emergency Firing Chart

14-4. M10 or M17 Plotting Board

14-5. Black Magic

14-6. Emergency Firing Chart Example

14-7. Black Magic Example

Chapter 15 - SAFETY

Section I - Responsibilities

15-1. Responsibilities

15-2. Duties of Safety Personnel

15-3. Safety Aids

Section II - Manual Computation of Safety Data

15-4. Manual Computation Procedures

15-5. Safety Card

15-6. Basic Safety Diagram

15-7. Computation of Low-Angle Safety Data

15-8. Safety T

15-9. Updating Safety Data After Determining a GFT Setting

15-10. Determination of Maximum Effective Illumination Area

15-11. Safety Considerations for M549/M549A1 RAP

15-12. Safety Considerations for M864 Base Burn DPICM/M759A1 Base Burn HE

15-13. Safety Considerations for M712 Copperhead

5-14. Computation of High-Angle Safety

Section III - Minimum Quadrant Elevation

15-15. Elements of Computation

15-16. Measuring Angle of Site to Crest

15-17. Measuring Piece-To-Crest Range

15-18. Computation for Fuzes Other Than Armed VT

15-19. Computations for Armed VT Fuze (Low-Angle Fire)

15-20. Using Minimum Quadrant Elevation

15-21. Intervening Crest

APPENDIX A - BATTERY OR PLATOON FIRE
DIRECTION CENTER SOP

A-1. Operational Concepts

A-2. Duties and Responsibilities Within the FDC

A-3. Fire Direction Center Operations Checklist

A-4. Fire Direction Center Journal (Logbook)

A-5. Fire Direction Center Equipment and Configurations

APPENDIX B - FIRE DIRECTION CENTER SECTION
EVALUATION GUIDE

B-1. Scope

B-2. Conduct of the Evaluation

B-3. Evaluation Format

B-4. Scoring

B-5. Qualification

B-6. Phase I: Test and Answer Key

B-7. Phase II: Section Performance Test

B-8. Phase III: Critique Instructions

APPENDIX C - TARGET ANALYSIS AND MUNITION
EFFECTS AND TERMINAL BALLISTICS

C-1. Target Analysis

C-2. Determining the Precedence of Attack

C-3. Determining Most Suitable Weapon and Ammunition

C-4. Determining the Method of Attack

C-5. Predicting Weapons and Munitions Effects

A-6. Joint Munitions Effectiveness Manuals

C-7. Graphical Munitions Effects Tables (GMETs)

C-8. Quick Reference Tables

C-9. Examples

C-10. Terminal Ballistics

C-11. Munitions Effects

C-12. New Experimental Projectiles

APPENDIX D - PLANNING RANGES

APPENDIX E - REPLOT PROCEDURES

E-1. Reasons for Replot

E-2. Replot With PD and VT Fuzes

E-3. Time Refinement

E-4. Replot With Time Fuze

E-5. Attack of Large Targets

APPENDIX F - AUTOMATED FDC

F-1. Personnel

F-2. Fire Order

F-3. Fire Commands

F-4. Establish a Manual Backup for Automated Operations

F-5. Convert a Mission in Progress From Automated to Manual Processing

F-6. Range K and Fuze K

APPENDIX G - DETERMINING DATA

G-1. Basic HE Data (155AM2HEM107 GFT)

G-2. Determine Firing Data From an HA GFT (GFT Setting Applied)

G-3. DPICM Data (155AM2HEM107 GFT)

G-4. M825 Smoke Data (155AM2HEM 107/M825 GFT)

G-5. ADAM and RAAMS Data (155AN1M483A1 GFT)

G-6. Construct a GFT Setting From an HE Registration on an Illuminating GFT

G-7. Determine Firing Data From an Illuminating GFT (GFT Setting Applied)

G-8. Examples

APPENDIX H - SPECIAL SITUATIONS

H-1. Final Protective Fires

H-2. Computational Procedures

H-3. Laser Adjust Missions

H-4. Laser Adjust-Fire Mission

H-5. Radar Adjust-Fire Missions

H-6. Destruction Mission

H-7. Sweep and Zone

H-8. Zone-To-Zone Transformation

H-9. Aerial Observers

H-10. Ranging Rounds

H-11. Time of Flight, Shot, and Splash

H-12. Untrained Observers

H-13. Example Problems

APPENDIX I - SMOKE TABLES

APPENDIX J - EXTRACT FROM AN-2 TABULAR
FIRING TABLE

GLOSSARY

REFERENCES

BLANK FORMS

AUTHORIZATION LETTER


DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

*This publication supersedes TC 6-40, 27 December 1988, and rescinds DA Form 5336-R, September 1984, and DA Form 5337-R, September 1984.



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