Military

Chapter 8

Railway Equipment

Effective and adequate transportation railway support of military operations in a theater of operations requires efficient use of railway rolling stock and motive power. The trainmaster reports any misuse of rail equipment and facilities by shipping activities through the rail unit's chain of command to the commanders responsible for loading and unloading cars. Commanders must ensure that railway rolling stock is properly loaded and/or unloaded and released to the rail units.

EQUIPMENT USE

8-1. Passenger equipment is frequently limited to use in troop movements, leave trains, military casual personnel trains, and ambulance trains. Special equipment includes specially designed rolling stock for handling unusual cargo and railway work equipment and ambulance cars. If Army ambulance cars are not provided in a theater of operations, passenger equipment may be converted to ambulance cars.

8-2. When volume permits, containers and refrigerator or tank cars are handled in solid trains and given a high movement priority from origin to destination and return. The increased use of containers for the movement of military cargo provides a throughput service to the consignee. Containers so shipped must receive a high movement priority from origin to destination consignee.

8-3. When trains are exposed to enemy ground or air attack, engines and cars should be modified to provide for increased armored protection of cargo, passengers, and security elements. Armored trains may be specifically created for use by security forces in support of operations in contested areas of the railway route.

ROLLING STOCK

8-4. The worldwide inventory of Army-owned rolling stock includes locomotive cranes, tank cars, freight cars of miscellaneous types, and other equipment. It includes numerous diesel-electric locomotives stored or in use in various parts of the world. Most of the larger locomotives are designed for foreign and domestic service and are equipped with multi-gauge trucks, which can be adjusted to any gauge from 56 1/2 to 66 inches. Usually the changes in wheel gauges to suit overseas requirements are made in CONUS where wheel presses are available.

8-5. Contingency operations might require supplementary railway motive power, rolling stock, and materials. Local equipment, even if operable, would likely be inadequate to support transportation requirements of the US and allied forces under wartime conditions. The Army multi-gauge fleet, stored or used in CONUS and other parts of the world, is the basic source for supplementary items pending establishment of a procurement program. Many countries, which are potential areas of unrest, are served by narrow-gauge railroads. Equipment in these areas is often in poor condition. The locomotives and freight cars are old and in need of repair. Locomotives have low tractive effort and cars may consist largely of boxcars and a few flatcars with low-carrying capacities. These countries often have insufficient railroad facilities to serve their economic needs. Superimposing, fast moving, high-density, military tonnage would exceed local operating capabilities. The Army has developed procurement specifications for narrow-gauge rail equipment to meet the operating characteristics of the rail lines in contingency areas. Railway equipment characteristics are shown in Tables 8-1 through 8-11. Figure 8-1 is an extract from The Official Railway Equipment Register.

Table 8-1. Characteristics of Locomotives

            Tractive Force (lb)   Curvature Minimum Radius (ft)  
Type Gauge
(in)
Weight (lb) Length Over Couplers Extreme Width Extreme Height Starting at 30% Adhesion Continuous Horse-power   Fuel Capacity (gal)
Diesel-Electric 131-T, 0-6-6-0, domestic and foreign svc 56 1/2 262,900 55' 10'0" 14'0" 75,700 37,850 at 10 MPH 1,000 231 1,600
127-T, 0-6-6-0, domestic and foreign svc 56 1/2 261,100 55' 10'0" 14'0" 75,700 37,850 at 10 MPH 1,000 231 1,600
120T, 0-6-6-0, domestic and foreign svc 561/2,
60
63,66
240,000

245,000 w/steam generator
57'5" 9'8" 13'6" 73,000 37,000 at 10 MPH 1,600 193 1,600

800 w/steam generator
120-T, 0-6-6-0, domestic and foreign svc 56 1/2
60, 63
66
240,000

245,000 w/steam generator
56'9" 9'7" 13'5" 72,000 36,000 at 10 MPH 1,600 193 1,600
800

w/steam generator
120-T, 0-4-4-0, domestic svc 56 1/2 240,000 55'9" 10'3" 14'6" 75,000 40,000 at 11 MPH 1,500 150 800
120-T, 0-4-4-0, domestic svc 56 1/2 246,000 48'10" 10'2" 14'6" 73,000 36,000 at 10 MPH 1,200 100 750
115-T, 0-4-4-0, domestic svc 56 1/2 230,000 45'6" 10'0" 14'6" 69,000 34,000 at 15 MPH 1,000 50 635
100-T, 0-4-4-0, domestic svc 56 1/2 199,000 44'6" 10'0" 14'4" 59,700 28,750 at 10 MPH 660 50 635
100-T, 0-4-4-0, domestic svc 56 1/2 200,000 44'5" 10'0" 14'7" 69,700 35,000 at 10 MPH 800 100 600
80-T, 0-4-4-0, domestic svc 56 1/2 161,000 36'10" 9'6" 13'7" 48,000 24,000 at 10 MPH 500 75 400
80-T, 0-4-4-0, domestic svc 56 1/2 161,000 36'10" 9'6" 13'7" 48,000 24,000 at 10 MPH 470 75 400
80-T, 0-4-4-0, domestic svc 56 1/2 161,600 41'0" 9'6" 13'4" 48,000 21,000 at 5.2 MPH 550 75 400
65-T, 0-4-4-0, domestic svc 56 1/2 130,000 34'0" 10'1" 13'5" 39,000 19,500 at 10 MPH 400 75 250

60-T, 0-4-4-0, domestic and foreign svc 56 1/2
60, 63
66
122,000 38'11" (Type E) 39'3" (Willison) 9'6" 13'4" 26,000 15,680 at 7.78 MPH 500 75 500
45-T, 0-4-4-0, domestic and foreign svc 56 1/2 90,000 33'6" 9'7" 12'0" 27,000 12,000 at
6 MPH
380 75 250
45-T, 0-4-4-0, domestic svc (side rod drive) 56 1/2 90,000 28'4" 9'6" 12'0" 27,000 13,500 at 6.2 MPH 300 50 165
44-T, 0-4-4-0, domestic svc 56 1/2 91,270 33'10" 9'4" 13'3" 26,400 11,000 at 9 MPH 380 75 250
44-T, 0-4-4-0, domestic svc 56 1/2 89,000 33'5" 10'1" 13'3" 26,400 13,000 at 7.1 MPH 380 50 250
25-T, 0-4-4-0, domestic svc 56 1/2 50,000 16'1" 8'7" 10'4" 15,000 6,200 at

6.2 MPH

150 50 75
Gasoline/Diesel-Mechanical:
10-T, single-engine,
0-4-0, domestic svc
56 1/2 262,900 55' 10'0" 14'0" 75,700 37,850 at 10 MPH 1,000 231 1,600

Table 8-2. Characteristics of Locomotive Cranes

Type Gauge (in) Weight (lb) Length Over Couplers Extreme Height Extreme Width Boom Length (ft) Reach Radius and Capacity
              Main Hoist Aux Hoist
Locomotive, steam, wrecking, 75-T, broad gauge, domestic and foreign svc 56 1/2, 60 63, 66 191,000 30'10" 17'10" 10'4" 25 (2-piece, curved) 16" (75-T)
25' (34-T)
25' (10-T)
30' (8-T)
Locomotive, crane, diesel, mech, 150-T, domestic svc 56 1/2 291,700 31'0" 15'6" 10'4" 28 (2-piece, straight) 28' (67-T) -
Locomotive, diesel, elec, 40-T, broad gauge, domestic and foreign svc 56 1/2, 60 63, 66 221,500 36'1" 13'6" 10'4" 50 (2-piece, straight) 12' (40-T)
50' (6 3/4-T)
-
-
Locomotive, diesel, elec, 40-T, domestic svc 56 1/2 220,000 29'4" 15'1" 10'6" 50 (2-piece, straight) 12' (40-T)
50' (6 3/4-T)
-
-
Locomotive, diesel, mech, 25-T, broad gauge, domestic and foreign svc 56 1/2, 60 63, 66 148,000 27'7" 13'0" 8'6" 50 (2-piece, straight) 12' (25-T)
50' (4-T)
-
-
Locomotive, diesel, mech, 25-T, narrow gauge, foreign svc 36, 39 3/8, 42 152,000 32'6" 12'0" 8'6" 40 (2-piece, straight) 12' (25-T)
40' (6-T)
-
-
Locomotive, diesel, mech, 25-T, domestic svc 56 1/2 155,000 30'0" 15'2" 10'8" 50 (2-piece, straight) 12' (25-T)
50' (4-T)
-
-
Locomotive, diesel, mech, 35-T, domestic svc 56 1/2 167,000 30'0" 15'7" 10'4" 50 (2-piece, straight) 12' (35-T)
50' (5-T)
-
-

Table 8-3. Characteristics of Railway Maintenance Motor Cars

Type Gauge (in) Weight (lb) Length (in) Width (in) Height (in) Capacity Horse-
Power
Fuel Capacity (gal)
Gasoline, mech, 4 wheels, solid drawbar couplers, closed cab with hand brake 56 1/2 2,950 112 65 58 w/o cab 8 person 62.6 8
Gasoline, mech, 4 wheels, solid drawbar couplers, open body with hand brake 56 1/2 1,700 103 65 50 10 person 62.6 8

Table 8-4. Characteristics of Open-Top Cars

Type Gauge (in) Normal Capacity Inside Dimensions Light Weight
(STONs)
    (lb) (cu ft) Length Width Height  
Gondolas:              
    High side, 8W, narrow gauge, foreign svc 36, 39 3/8, 42 60,000 940 34'5" 6' 10 1/2" 4' 13.0
    Low side, 8W, narrow gauge, foreign svc 36, 39 3/8, 42 60,000 356 34'6" 6' 10 1/2" 1'6" 12.1
    High side, 8W, broad gauge, foreign svc 56 1/2 80,000 1,680 40' 8' 3 3/4" 4' 18.0
    Low side, 8W, broad gauge, foreign svc 56 1/2, 60, 63, 66 80,000 500 40' 4 1/2" 8' 3 1/3" 1'6" 16.0
    Low side, 8W, drop ends, domestic svc 56 1/2 100,000 1.184 41'6" 9' 6 1/8" 3' 23.0
    High side, std gauge, domestic svc 56 1/2 100,000 1.580 41'6" 9'6" 4'6" 25.0

Hopper Cars:              
    8W, domestic svc 56 1/2 100,000 - 33' 9' 5 1/2" 9'7" -

Table 8-5. Characteristics of Flatcars

Type Gauge (in) Normal Capacity Platform Length Platform Width Platform Height Above Rail Light Weight (STONs)
8W, narrow gauge, foreign svc 36, 39 3/8, 42 60,000 34' 8 1/2" 7'2" 3'7" 10.9
    12W, domestic svc 56 1/2 200,000 54' 10' 6 1/2" 4' 1 1/4" 35.0
    8W, domestic svc 56 1/2 200,000 54' 10' 6 1/2" 4' 1 1/4" 35.0
    12W, broad gauge, foreign svc, 80-T 56 1/2, 60, 63, 66 160,000 46'4" 9'8" 4' 2 7/8" 35.3
    12W, domestic svc (passenger train svc) 56 1/2 200,000 54' 10' 6 1/4" 4' 5 3/8" -
    8W, domestic svc 56 1/2 100,000 43'3" 10'6" 3'8" 25.5
    8W, broad gauge, foreign svc 56 1/2, 60, 63, 66 80,000 40'9" 8' 7 1/4" 3' 6 15/16" 14.5
    8W, broad gauge, depressed center, foreign svc 56 1/2, 60, 63, 66 140,000 50'7" 9'8" NA 41.5

Table 8-6. Characteristics of Boxcars

Type Gauge (in) Capacity Inside Dimensions Door Dimensions Light Weight (STONs)
    (lb) (cu ft) Length Width Height    
8W, domestic svc 56 1/2 100,000 3.975 50'6" 9'3" 10'6" 10' wide, clear opening
8' high, clear opening
23.0
8W, broad gauge, foreign svc 56 1/2, 60, 63, 66 80,000 2,520 40'6" 8'6" 6' 5 5/8" 6' 8 3/4" wide,
8' 3 1/4" high
18.5

Table 8-7. Characteristics of Tank Cars

Type Gauge (in) Length Over Tank Heads Normal Capacity (gal)* Inside Diameter (in) Light Weight (STONs)
        Tank Dome  
Nickel-clad, ICC-103-AW, 8W, domestic svc 56 1/2 31'11" 7,500 78 (approx) 45 -
ICC-103, ICC-103-W, 8W, domestic svc 56 1/2 34' (approx.) 10,000 87 (approx) 59 3/8 (approx) -
Caustic soda, ICC-103-W, 8W, domestic svc 56 1/2 34' (approx) 10,000 88 (approx) 64 -
Petroleum, 8W, narrow gauge, foreign svc 36, 38 3/8, 42 38' 4 7/8" 6,000 62 1/2 54 16
Petroleum, 8W, broad gauge, foreign svc 56 1/2, 60, 63, 66 38' 5 3/8" 10,000 80 3/4 66 1/2 19
Nitric acid, ICC-103-W, 8W, domestic svc 56 1/2 33' 7 1/2" 7,800 78 (approx) 33 3/8 -
Phosphorus, ICC-103-W, 8W, domestic svc 56 1/ 34' 8 1/4" 8,000 78 (approx) 64 -
Petroleum, std gauge, domestic svc 56 1/2 - 10,000 - - 23
*Specific gravity of a liquid should be checked before it is loaded to avoid exceeding weight capacity of car.

Table 8-8. Characteristics of Refrigerator Cars

Type Gauge (in) Normal Capacity (lb) Length Inside End Lining Width Inside Side Lining Ice Capacity (lb) Door Dimensions
8W, disassembled, foreign svc 56 1/2 80,000 38' 9 1/2" 6'11" 11,000 4' wide
7' high
8W, disassembled, broad gauge, foreign svc 56 1/2, 60, 63, 66 80,000 32' 1/2" 7'8" (approx) 11,000 4' wide
8W, mechanical, foreign svc 56 1/2, 60, 63, 66 80,000 40'9" equipment compartment 7'6" (approx) None 6' wide
7' high

Table 8-9. Characteristics of Special-Purpose Cars

Type Gauge (in) Weight (lb) Over End Sills Height Above Rail Remarks
    Light Loaded Length Width    
Car, amb unit, 8W, domestic svc 56 1/2 157,000 167,300 78'11" 10' 13'6" Capacity: 27 patients, 6 corpsmen, 1 nurse, 1 doctor
Car, guard, domestic svc 56 1/2 92,740 99,300 57' 9'1" 14' 2 1/2" Air-conditioned, shower, toilet kitchen, 2 sleeping compartments
Car, kitchen, troop/amb train, 8W, domestic svc 56 1/2 100,160 NA 54' 2 1/2" 9' 5 3/4" 13'6" Width, side door opening: 6'
Car, kitchen, dining and storage, amb train, 8W, foreign svc 56 1/2, 60, 63, 66 111,400 (avg) NA 63' 1/4" 9' 13' Seat capacity: 24
Car, personnel, amb train 56 1/2, 60, 63, 66 111,400 (avg) NA 63' 1/4" 9' 13' Berth capacity: 15 EM, 4 doctors, 2 nurses

Table 8-10. Characteristics of German Freight Cars

Type Number of Axles Light Weight (STONs) Capacity     Height of Floor Above Top of Rail
      Weight (STONs) Cube (cu ft) Inside Dimensions Door Dimensions  
          Length Width Height Width Height  
Boxcar:                    
G 2 11.4 16.5 1,500 25' 11 3/4" 8' 7' 4 9/16" 4' 11 1/16" 6' 6 11/16" 4' 1/16"
GLMHS-50 2 13.4 23.1 2,500 36' 9 5/16" 8' 11 1/16" 9' 5/8" 6' 6 1/16" 6' 6 11/16" 4' 9/16"
GM-30 2 12.7 23.1 1,700 24' 10" 8' 10" 31' 4" 5' 6" 6' Not avail
GMS-54 2 12.6 23.1 2,100 30' 5 11/16" 8' 8 11/16" 8' 9 1/2" 5' 10 13/16" 6' 7 1/8" 4' 1/16"
KMMKS-51 2 12/5 30.8 1,420 28' 8 13/16" 9' 5/8" 5' 6 1/8" 5' 10 13/16" 4' 10 5/8" 4' 1 7/116"
KMM8KS-58 2 14.3 29.7 1,800 28' 8 9/16" 8' 11 1/16" 7' 15/16" 12' 8 3/4" 6' 6 11/16" 4' 11/16"
Gondola:

                   
X-05 (low side) 2 Not avail 23.1 320 25' 7" 8' 7" 1' 4" NA NA Not avail
XLM-57 (low side) 2 8.4 23.1 330 29' 7" 8' 6" 1' 4" NA NA 4'
OMM-37 (high side) 2 9.7 24.6 1,210 27' 7" 9' 4' 10" NA NA 4'
OMM-52 (high side) 2 11.0 28.6 1,200 28' 8' 4' 10" NA NA 4'
OMM-55 (high side) 2 11.0 27.5 1,200 28' 8 9/16" 9' 3/8" 4' 11 1/16" 5' 10 1/2" NA 4' 7/8"
OMM-53 (high side) 2 12.1 27.5 1,200 28' 8'9" 4'10" NA NA 4'
OMM-33 (high side) 2 11.5 27.0 1,260 28' 7 3/16" 9' 7/16" 5'1" 4' 11 1/16" NA 4' 5/8"
OMM-33 (high side) 2 11.5 27.0 1,260 28' 7 3/16" 9' 7/16" 5'1" 4' 1 1/16" NA 4' 5/8"
Flatcar:                    
R-101 2 10.6 16.5 NA 33' 25/16" 8'9" NA NA NA 4'
RM-311 2 14.3 22.1 NA 34' 11 9/16" 8' 6 5/16" NA NA NA 4' 11/8"
RMM-331 2 11.4 27.0 NA 34' 8 3/8" 9' 2 1/4" NA NA NA 4' 1 1/4"
RLMMS-561 2 14.0 25.3 NA 40' 8'11" NA NA NA 4'
SM-141 2 11.9 23.1 NA 41' 6" 8'9" NA NA NA Not avail
SS-151 4 21.5 40.2 NA 48' 2" 8'9" NA NA NA Not avail
SSLMA-44 4 22.7 44.1 NA 59' 2 7/16" 9' 1/4" NA NA NA 4' 5 3/4"
SSLMAS-53 4 26.3 61.6 NA 60' 8 5/16" 8' 11 13/16" NA NA NA 4' 6 1/8"
SSKM-49 4 17.1 55.1 NA 40' 8 3/4" 8' 5 15/16" NA NA NA 4' 3 9/16"
Flatcar (USA-owned)                    
Tank car 2 14.0 NA (2) 21' 2" NA Not avail NA NA 5'
Tank car 4 26.4 NA (3) 33' 1/2" NA Not avail NA NA 5'
    (MTs) (MTs) (cu m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m)
RS 683,684,685 4 24.0 56.0 51.3 18.5 2.77 NA NA NA 1.33
RS689 4 23.6 56.0 51.0 18.5 2.77 NA NA NA 1.33
REMMS665 4 21.4 58.5 35.1 12.6 2.78 NA NA NA 1.33
RES686 4 25.0 55.0 49.0 18.5 2.75 NA NA NA 1.23
SA705 6 22.3 67.5 35.3 11.2 2.73 NA NA NA 1.43
SA (h) S710 6 31.0 65.0 45.7 15.0 2.56 NA NA NA 1.37
Sahs 711 6 31.5 64.0 Turning side jacks flooding molds NA 2.90 NA NA NA NA
    (MTs) (MTs) (cu m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m)
SGjs 716 (w) 718 4 24.0 18.8 55.0 2.7 NA NA NA NA 1.24
shis 4 22.7 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
SAS709 6 30.6 65.0 46.0 15.0 3.09 1.37 NA NA NA
TS851 2 11.7 28.0 24.0 8.76 2.76 1.68 NA NA 1.25
TCS850 2 11.6 28.0 24.0 8.66 2.76 1.68 NA NA 1.25
TIS858 2 13.0 26.5 23.8 8.75 2.72 2.16 NA NA 1.23
Tbis871 2 15.1 24.5 34.0 12.7 2.67 2.26 NA NA 1.17
Tbis 869,870,875 2 14.4 25.5 34.0 12.7 2.67 2.26 NA NA 1.17

1 Height of flatcar is determined by height of stanchion.
2 4,356 US gallons.
3 14,266 US gallons.

Table 8-11. Characteristics of Korean Freight Cars

Type Number of Axles Light Weight (STONs) Capacity   Door Height of Floor Above Top of Rail
      Weight (lb) Cube (cu m) Inside Dimensions (m) Door Dimensions (m)  
          Length Width Height Width Height  
Boxcar:                    
40-T 4 21 88,160 87 12.95 2.7 2.5 1.7 2.1 1.1
50-T 4 22 110,200 95 13.04 2.8 2.6 1.8 2.1 1.6
                     

Gondola:

                   
40-T 4 19 88,160 40 11.00 2.6 1.4 NA NA 1.1
50-T 4 20 110,200 49 13.04 2.7 1.4 NA NA 1.6
                     
Flatcar:                    
40-T 4 16 88,160 NA 12.20 2.5 NA NA NA 1.1
50-T 6 20 110,200 NA 15.00 2.9 NA NA NA 1.2
                     
Tank car (USA-owned) 4 22 88,160 (10,000 gal) 11.09 2.9 2.7 NA NA 1.1

Figure 8-1. Characteristics of DOD Military Rail Fleet Cars
(Extract From The Official Railway Equipment Register)

Figure 8-1. Characteristics of DOD Military Rail Fleet Cars
(Extract From The Official Railway Equipment Register) (continued)

LOCOMOTIVE CLASSIFICATION

8-6. Locomotives are classified according to wheel arrangement. The two systems used are the Wythe and the Continental.

WYTHE SYSTEM

8-7. This system is generally accepted in Great Britain and the British Commonwealth and in North and South America. The Army uses the Wythe system to classify steam and diesel-electric locomotives. Locomotive wheels are grouped as leading, driving, and trailing wheels. Numerals separated by hyphens represent the number of wheels in each group, starting at the front end of the locomotive. The first figure represents the number of leading wheels, the second represents the number of driving wheels, and the third the number of trailing wheels. Use the figure "0" if there are no leading or trailing wheels. Tender wheels are not included. The weight distribution of a diesel-electric locomotive is different from that of a steam locomotive. This is because the diesel has no tender, leading trucks, or trailing trucks. All wheels on Army diesel-electric locomotives are driving wheels. The locomotive's weight is evenly distributed on the driving wheels.

8-8. The wheel arrangements of two locomotives using the Wythe system are shown in Figure 8-2. Since the wheel arrangement represents a side view of the locomotive, only one wheel of each pair is shown. The 2-8-0 steam locomotive shown has two leading wheels, eight coupled driving wheels, and no trailing wheels. The 0-6-6-0 diesel-electric locomotive shown has six driving wheels on the front truck assembly, six on the rear truck assembly, and no leading or trailing wheels. The pulling capacity of a locomotive is directly related to the number of driving wheels (drivers) and the amount of weight that rests on them.

Figure 8-2. Wythe System of Wheel Arrangement
(Two Locomotives)

8-9. The amount of a locomotive's weight that rests on its drivers is expressed in pounds or short tons of 2,000 pounds each. All tons mentioned in this text are short tons. Therefore, the terms "ton" and "short ton" are used interchangeably. The distribution of weight on drivers differs between steam and diesel-electric locomotives. This is important when computing tractive effort. The weight distribution of a 2-8-0 steam locomotive and tender is shown in Figure 8-3. The locomotive and tender weigh 296,350 pounds, but only that portion of the total weight that rests on the driving wheels (141,500 pounds) affects the work capacity or pulling power of the locomotive. On a diesel-locomotive, the weight of the locomotive is evenly distributed over all the wheels since all wheels are driving wheels.

Figure 8-3. Weight Distribution of a 2-8-0 Steam Locomotive

CONTINENTAL SYSTEM

8-10. This system, commonly used in Europe and other parts of the world, uses letters and figures to identify a diesel or electric locomotive by its axles. Letters are used for driving axles and numbers are used for nondriving axles. In this system, "A" stands for one driving axle, "B" for two, "C" for three, and" D" for four. A small "o" placed after the initial letters shows that each axle is individually powered. Therefore, a single unit locomotive with two individually powered two-axle trucks would be classified as Bo-Bo. One with three axle trucks in which the center axle is an idler would be designated as A1A-A1A.

TYPES OF RAILWAY EQUIPMENT

8-11. The three basic types of railway equipment are passenger, freight, and special. Each type of equipment is discussed below.

PASSENGER EQUIPMENT

8-12. Passenger equipment is used to transport personnel. There are several different types of passenger cars, each designed for a special purpose. Examples are coach cars, sleeper cars, baggage cars, and dining cars. Passenger cars can be modified to handle medical patients and are moved in designated ambulance trains.

FREIGHT EQUIPMENT

8-13. Use freight equipment primarily for the movement of general cargo. The commodity to be moved dictates the type of freight car that will be used. Table 8-12, lists examples of the most common freight equipment. Freight equipment, both domestic and foreign, is shown in Figure 8-4 and Figure 8-5. Table 8-13, lists freight equipment (by category) used in Europe by US forces.

Table 8-12. Examples of Railway Equipment

TYPE COMMODITY EXAMPLES
     
Boxcar Bulk items that need protection from the weather and/or theft. Paper, electronic gear, medical equipment.
     
Flatcar Bulk items where protection from the environment is not a factor. Also items that will not fit in other freight cars. Vehicles, CONEXs, containers, oversize loads.
     
Gondola car Bulk items where protection from the environment is not a factor. The sides of the car help keep the load from shifting. CONEXs, field barrier materials, steel, scrap metal.
     
Hopper car (covered hopper) Free-flowing solids that need protection from the environment. Gravel, coal, sand, grain, chemicals.
     
Tank car Bulk liquids. POL, chemicals, water, beer.
     
Refrigerator car Items that need a constant temperature--either cool in a warm environment or warm in a cold environment. Perishables, whole blood, electronic equipment.

Figure 8-4. Freight Equipment (Domestic)

Figure 8-5. Freight Equipment (Foreign Service)

Table 8-13. Examples of Foreign Flatcars

Type Number of Axles Maximum Loading Specifications Remarks
    Length (m) Width (m) Weight (m)  
Light-duty flatcars:          
KBS 442, 443 2 12.50 2.77 27 With stakes, removable side and end walls.
KLS 442, 443 2 12.50 2.77 27 With removable side and end walls.
Heavy-duty flatcars:          
RLMMP700 4 9.50 3.15 52  
RS 680 4 18.50 2.74 56  
RS 681 4 18.50 2.78 56  
SAMMS 710 6 15.00 3.11 65 End jacks provide stability during loading and off-loading.
Special flatcars:          
LAAS 608 4 9.00 per section 2.50 54 A short-coupled unit comprised of two 2-axle flatcar sections.
Uais 732 4 10.00 2.50 50 Deep-well cars are available in various sizes but are few in number and are in high demand.

SPECIAL EQUIPMENT

8-14. Special equipment consists of locomotives, wreck cranes, and snowplows. Figure 8-6, shows the special equipment used in domestic and foreign service.

Figure 8-6. Special Equipment (Domestic and Foreign Service)

CAR COMPONENTS

8-15. Transporters must have a basic knowledge of car components. Those in rail operations must have a thorough knowledge of car components. The four main components of a freight car are the deck, underframe, truck, and coupler.

DECK

8-16. The deck is the surface on which the load rests. The deck or floor is usually steel or wood.

UNDERFRAME

8-17. The underframe is the structure under the deck that supports the weight of the load. Figure 8-7, shows the topside and underside views of the underframe.

Figure 8-7. Underframe

TRUCK

8-18. The truck is that assembly which contains a car's wheels, axles, journals, suspension system, and brake system. Figure 8-8, shows all the components of the truck.

Figure 8-8. Truck

COUPLER

8-19. The coupler is a device which connects or couples a car with another car (Figure 8-9). An automatic or knuckle coupler is used in CONUS and in military railroading. The hook-and-link system is used in Europe. The automatic coupler has two advantages over the hook-and-link system. The automatic coupler is stronger (allowing for heavier trains) and it is also safer. The automatic coupler does not require a trainman to step between the cars to couple them, but a hook-and-link coupler does.

Figure 8-9. Automatic Coupler

EFFECTS OF COLD WEATHER ON MOTIVE POWER AND ROLLING STOCK

8-20. In the past, steam locomotives were used successfully by all railroads operating in cold climates. Most of the world's railroads have adopted the diesel because it offers certain advantages over the steamers. However, there are certain modifications that must be made to both types of locomotives before they are entirely suitable for extremely cold weather operations.

STEAM LOCOMOTIVES

8-21. Efficient steam locomotive operation depends on a local supply of fuel, water, and sanding facilities at suitable points along the line. Coal platforms are constructed with their beds level with the top of tenders. Such platforms have been used without any great difficulty resulting from cold temperatures. Water tanks must be kept heated all winter. This is done with steam pipes, which encircle the interior of the tank. In any climate having winter temperatures as low as 40 degrees Fahrenheit, sand for wheels must be thoroughly dried.

Insulation

8-22. Personnel will insulate exposed water pipes to keep them from freezing and exposed steam pipes to prevent heat loss. Locomotive cabs are especially insulated. On steam heated passenger cars, cover windows at night with blankets to keep out the extreme cold.

Standby Service

8-23. When steam locomotives are used, engine watchers must be provided. The watchers must fire up the engines to keep up pressure and must put water in the boilers. When first moving a steam locomotive, the cylinder cocks must always be opened to relieve the cylinders of extremely heavy condensation. In average winter climates, one watcher may tend as many as ten locomotives. In cold climates, the number of locomotives for each man must be reduced because of the greater variety of duties. These duties consist of continual operation and/or checking of the following:

  • Stokers.
  • Boiler blowoffs.
  • Injectors.
  • Cylinder cocks.
  • Lubricators.

Reverse levers (particularly screw-reverse types) have to be operated frequently to protect against freezing. Any water leaking on parts that move must be corrected at once to prevent ice from forming. Placing locomotives inside heated roundhouses or enginehouses will substantially reduce standby service.

DIESEL LOCOMOTIVES

8-24. Diesel locomotives require considerably less standby service than steam locomotives. In extremely cold climates, the problem of water supply is virtually eliminated. However, before using diesels in subzero temperatures, make the following modifications.

  • Insulate all outside piping to protect against freezing.
  • Preheat fuel because of the extreme difference between the unheated fuel and the flashpoint. Install heaters in engine compartments.
  • Keep engine coolant warm to aid in starting the locomotive under extreme conditions.
  • Under extreme conditions, locomotives must not be shut down unless engine block heaters are used.
  • Keep storage batteries reasonably warm to secure maximum output. Place coils of pipe around the battery boxes through which the saline water flows.
  • Small steam generators must be provided to heat the cab and passenger coaches. Install extra insulation in engine cabs.
  • Windows of cabs and passenger coaches should have sealed, airtight, double-thickness glass to keep out the cold.

ROLLING STOCK

8-25. One of the greatest problems encountered with cars is the freezing of journal boxes. When cars stand for any length of time, the journal boxes freeze so tightly that the wheels slide instead of turning when an attempt is made to move them. Sometimes a train of 20 cars that has been stationary for even a few hours will have to be broken into three or four sections and each section started individually. After moving the cars a short distance, the heat generated by the axle action on the bearing will warm and thaw the journal box. This condition will naturally delay operations and can only be overcome by moving cars and trains as much as possible. Cars equipped with roller bearings are less of a problem. Extreme cold can cause steel car parts to become so brittle that they break easily. As a result, knuckles may be broken when cars strike each other and drawbars pulled when "frozen" trains are started. When possible, cars should be switched as soon as they come into a yard and while the journal boxes are relatively warm. Trains on main tracks or in sidings should not be permitted to remain stationary longer than absolutely necessary.



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