COMMUNICATIONS AND AUTOMATION
A-1. INTRODUCTION. Communications and automation for future military operations must focus on joint operations. The days of single service systems will no longer exist. The JTCC assessed the functional, technical, and programmatic capabilities of existing transportation systems. Some were selected as migration systems, functionality integrated into the DTS, and others were selected as Legacy systems, functionality replaced.
The JTCC goal was to eliminate unnecessary duplication, save resources, retain required functionality, and improve the DTS. The recommendations of the JTCC ultimately changed movement control operations. This appendix will discuss movement control automation systems and how they communicate.
A-2. MOVEMENT CONTROL AUTOMATION CAPABILITY. A system known as TC-AIMS II was selected as the system to improve movements management. TC-AIMS II contains the functions of UMO; ITO/TMO; and Air, Ship, and Rail Load Planning.
TC-AIMS II consolidates the management of ITO/TMO, unit movement, and load planning operations using common hardware and software applications designed for easy retrieval data exchange and connectivity to external sources. It will interface with all key joint and Army transportation automation systems to improve the interoperability between service systems supporting transportation operations.
Table A-1 is a list of key transportation systems. It is not all inclusive and will be updated as new systems evolve. Warfighters and Military planners must have the capability to monitor, plan, and execute all phases of the force projection cycle: Peacetime Operations, Deliberate Planning, Crisis Planning and Execution, and Follow-On Operations. The development and integration of automated information systems will meet this requirement. The following paragraphs will briefly discuss each major transportation automation system.
a. Automated Air Load Planning System/Air Load Module. The AALPS/ALM is a knowledge-based system that assists with loading military cargo aircraft for large-scale air deployments. It is designed to serve four basic functions: generate valid air load plans; generate and validate user defined air load plans; modify existing air load plans; and track movement statistics during actual deployments. AALPS/ALM has the capability to air load plan an Army division of 15,000 soldiers and 5,000 pieces of equipment in less than three minutes. AALPS/ ALMs will interface with TC-AIMS II and GTN.
b. Automated Movement Flow Tracking. AMFT is a software tool that provides automated support for deployment planning and execution. It also develops deployment schedules, updates and modifies chalks, creates and prints movement flow tables, and is capable of sending electronic messages.
c. Consolidated Aerial Port System II. CAPS II provides information on cargo at aerial ports waiting for air shipment, cargo manifested for air, and cargo which departed from aerial ports by ground or air.
Table A-1. Transportation Automation Systems
|AALPS||Automated Air Load Planning System|
|ALM||Air Load Management|
|AMFT||Automated Movement Flow Tracking|
|CAPS II||Consolidated Aerial Port System II|
|CFMS||CONUS Freight Management System|
|CMOS||Cargo Movement Operations System|
|CSSCS||Combat Service Support Control System|
|DAMMS-R||Department of the Army Movements Management System-Redesign|
|GCCS||Global Command and Control System|
|GCCS-A||Global Command and Control System-Army|
|GCSS-Army||Global Combat Support System-Army|
|GOPAX||Groups Operational Passenger System|
|GTN||Global Transportation Network|
|IBS||Integrated Booking System|
|ICODES||Integrated Computerized Deployment System|
|JOPES||Joint Operations Planning and Execution System|
|MTS||Movements Tracking System|
|RFID||Radio Frequency Identification|
|STACCS||Standard Theater Army Command and Control System|
|TC-AIMS II||Transportation Coordinators Automated Information for Movements System II|
|TC-ACCIS||Transportation Coordinators Automated Command and Control Information System|
|WPS||Worldwide Port System|
d. Cargo Movements Operation System. CMOS provides traffic management information to the Air Force for freight movement and unit deployments. It supplies actual air cargo and passenger information for planning, command and control, and ITV.
e. Combat Service Support Control System. CSSCS is designed to collect, analyze, and disseminate critical logistical, transportation, medical, financial, and personnel information. CSSCS will receive data directly from TC-AIMS II and GTN.
f. Global Command and Control System. GCCS provides combat commanders with a single source of secure information. It assists joint force commanders with coordinating air, land, sea, space, and special forces operations of widely dispersed units in fast moving operations. It is flexible enough for combat operations or humanitarian assistance missions. GCCS integrates deliberate and crisis action planning, force deployment and employment, fire support, air operations and planning, intelligence, and force status. It is designed to allow the expansion of planning and execution capabilities as new systems are designed. GCCS is based on a COE allowing greater software flexibility, reliability, and interoperability with other automated systems. Commanders can establish their own secure homepage and communicate through worldwide using E-mail.
g. Global Command and Control System-Army. GCCS-A provides a single seamless command and control system built around the JOCE. It is integrated with the DOD GCCS. GCCS-A is fundamentally GCCS with additional Army specific functionality. It is an integral part of a coordinated DOD and Joint Technical Architecture-Army that provides information support to all military command levels.
h. Groups Operational Passenger System. GOPAX provides an automated electronic capability for the arrangement of commercial transportation for DOD, group, and unit troop movements. GOPAX interfaces with all TC-ACCIS sites using the DDN. GOPAX has links with the Navy, Marine Corps, National Guard, and AMC.
i. Global Transportation Network. GTN is an automated command and control system used for collecting transportation information from selected DOD systems. It provides automated support for planning, providing, and controlling common user airlift, surface, and terminal services to deploying forces. It provides the user with the ability to track the status, identity, and location of DOD unit and non-unit cargo and passengers, medical patients, and personal property from origin to destination. GTN also does the following:
- Provides ITV information about units, forces, passengers, cargo, patients, schedules, and actual movements.
- Displays current operational asset information and provides transportation intelligence information on airfields, seaports, and transportation networks using graphics and imagery.
- Provide future operations information and models to support transportation planning and courses of action.
- Provides efficient routing for patient movement and will provide ITV of individual patients.
- Interfaces with CAPS II, CFMS, CMOS, DAAS, DTTS, GCCS, JOPES, GDSS, METS, PRAMS, TC-ACCIS, TC-AIMS II, and WPS.
j. Integrated Booking System. IBS is the lead execution system for the DTS to move international cargo. IBS provides a single, worldwide, automated booking system to move military cargo. IBS allows DOD shippers to automatically process movement requests directly using MTMC booking offices. IBS automatically determines the "best value" ocean carrier supporting the move. IBS supports the deployment, employment, and sustainment. IBS interfaces with the ocean carrier industry, WPS, and GTN.
k. Integrated Computerized Deployment System. ICODES is an automated information system that develops stowage plans for deployments. It has the capability to predict problems and design alternative solutions. ICODES is designed to support division-sized mobilization and cargo planning across the available fleet of ships. It supports multi-ship planning while maintaining unit integrity. ICODES is responsive to unplanned changes and contingencies. It can operate either as a stand alone system or in a shared mode. It will interface with TC-AIMS II and WPS.
l. Joint Operations Planning and Execution System. JOPES combines individual service terminology into one standard system. It standardizes the joint planning system used to execute complex multi-service exercises, campaigns, and operations. JOPES furnishes joint commanders and war planners, at all levels, standardized policy procedures and formats to execute a variety of required tasks. It assists planners in development of OPLANs, CONPLANs, functional plans, campaign plans, and OPORDs. JOPES is used for TPFDD management and development. It defines requirements and gains visibility of the movement of combat forces into the combat commanders' area of responsibility. JOPES is more than a computer, it is a system. The JOPES ADP resides in the computer network of the GCCS. Together, this system assist planners with the development of detailed deployment requirements, logistics estimates, transportation requirements, and assessment of the OPLAN for transportation feasibility. It also tracks, plans, prioritizes, and monitors deployment status and requirements. For a more detailed description of JOPES, refer to the JOPES User Guide, 1 May 1995).
m. Movement Tracking System. The MTS provides automated tracking of containerized cargo and vehicles. It provides fleet monitoring using vehicle map displays, censors, communications log storage and retrieval capability, and remote monitoring worldwide.
n. Radio Frequency Identification. RFID uses radio wave transmission and reception to identify, locate, and track objects. Information is stored on a RF tag with media storage capability similar to a computer floppy disk. Antennas, commonly called interrogators, read and pass information contained on the RF tag attached to vehicles, containers, or pallets. This information is passed to a central database. A RF tag is attached to all major shipments in theater. RF interrogators are located at key transportation nodes to provide visibility of the shipments en route to final destination. MTS will integrate RFID technology to provide total visibility of intransit cargo.
o. Standard Theater Army Command and Control System. STACCS provides replicated databases with common situation maps, communications, man-made interfaces, briefing systems, and commercial off-the-shelf software to theater commands and major subordinate commands. It is interconnected with strategic (AWIS) and tactical communications (MCS).
p. Worldwide Port System. WPS is the primary source system for intransit and TAV of surface cargo movement in the DTS. WPS provides timely and accurate information to the supporting and supported CINCs through the GTN. Upgrades to WPS will include a ship load planning module capable of concurrent planning for multi-ship operations.
q. CONUS Freight Management System. CFMS provides an automated, electronic capability for the procurement of commercial freight transportation services. It covers freight shipments at all sources. It provides the central DOD database for filing all commercial freight transportation rates and services. It provides automation support for preparing freight shipping documents, carrier selection, electronic filing of GBL, prepayment, shipment status, quality control, and intransit visibility. The CFMS interfaces with GTN and the defense transportation tracking system for shipment status and GBL maintenance.
r. Transportation Coordinator Automated Command and Control Information System. TC-ACCIS automates the transportation functions of unit movement planning, execution, ITO. It provides accurate and timely movement information to the Army and joint deployment community for the deployment of active and reserve component units. When
TC-AIMS II is fielded, it will replace TC-ACCIS.
s. Department of the Army Movements Management System-Redesign. DAMMS-R provides automation support for transportation staffs and organizations within a tactical theater of operations and the continental United States. It is a vital link in the maintenance of ITV over units, personnel, and material. DAMMS-R interfaces with all STAMIS, all services, and all foreign governments of the countries where the Army is deployed. DAMMS-R consists of seven modules. These modules are: system management, mode operations, movement control team operations, highway regulation, convoy planning, operational movements programming, and transportation addressing.
t. Transportation Coordinators Automated Information for Movements System II. TC-AIMS II is a joint system that combines and integrates the functionality of CMOS, TC-ACCIS, DAMMS-R, USMC MDSS, and the USMC TC-AIMS automation systems. TC-AIMS II brings these legacy systems into one single automated system, used for all the services.
TC-AIMS II is used by all the services for unit movement functionality, ITO/TMO, and mode management. With TC-AIMS II, the user has the capability to do the following:
- Build AUEL and DEL from retail supply and personnel systems.
- Plan convoys.
- Request convoy clearances.
- Request transportation support.
- Conduct mode load planning.
- Manage mode operations.
- Update strategic and operational command and control systems.
- Maintain ITV.
- Execute daily operations of the ITO/TMO.
A-3.MOVEMENT CONTROL COMMUNICATION. Reliable communications capability is critical in obtaining the objectives of Focused Logistics. Movement control commanders must be folded into the warfighter's communications net in order to maintain the same OPTEMPO of the warfighter. Situational awareness is critical to providing timely support through anticipatory logistics. Movement Control commanders need reliable long-range communications capability in order to command and control, or direct the activities of their subordinate executing elements which doctrinally operate 50 to 500 miles apart across the battlespace. Just as combat commanders require reliable communications to focus combat power to execute dominant maneuver and precision engagement, movement control commanders must have the same communications capability to focus logistics power and conduct force tracking. Without this capability, we put at risk the combat commander's confidence in the logistics process and the Army's ability to reach the objectives of our force projection strategy. Communications equipment required by transportation movement control units includes radios, telephones, and satellite terminals.
a. Radio Communications. The communication requirements of the unit's mission determine the type and extent of radio facilities required. The radios are mounted in vehicles organic to the unit. Movement control units typically require long-range FM radio sets. These sets are used for mobile operations or to supplement common-user communications facilities. Long-range high frequency radio sets are required to permit communications between movement control command and control elements and its subordinate elements, which often operate at remote locations great distances from its higher HQ.
Movement control commanders, S-3s, command posts, and operations sections require dual long-range FM radios or dual short/long-range FM radios. Typically, one radio is used to monitor the higher HQ command/operations net, and the other is used to participate in the element's own unit net, and to command and control elements operating away from the unit area.
b. Telephone Communications. Digital nonsecure voice telephones are a quick, efficient means of communication. Movement control HQ elements, command posts, operations and highway traffic division sections, maintenance sections, and detachments all require wire subscriber access. Additionally, facsimiles, STAMIS, and other types of automated information systems interface with the DNVT's data port. Commanders and key personnel require MSRT to allow them access to their staff and functional personnel while mobile.
c. Satellite Communications. Transportation Movement Control units are essential to the efficient use of the Theater's limited Transportation assets. Movement Control units regulate the flow of units and materiel, and report the progress of units and materiel across the Transportation system. These units require reliable long-range voice/data communications to ensure communications with shippers, mode operators, customers and subordinate executing elements from 50 to 500 miles away (for example MSR Dodge in SWA). The mission of the MCTs requires them to disperse and operate throughout the distribution network at various operational nodes and locations such as hubs, APODs, SPODs, and along MSRs. The MCTs doctrinally operate autonomously at remote locations that are great distances from the MCB HQ. Many of these sites are out of the MSE/Signal grids. Tactical and commercial SATCOM provides these units with their required non-line of sight, long-range communications capability for command and operational control. Additionally, movement management automated information systems use SATCOM to send and/or receive data used to process lift requirements, manage and coordinate movements, plan and execute deployments/redeployments, and to conduct force and asset tracking.
Force projection missions require early identification and establishment of APODs and SPODs. "First to support" movement control units that are part of a TOFM include the MCA EEM, Corps and EAC Movement Control Battalions, and Movement Control Teams. SATCOM provides these units full operational communications capability that they require immediately upon arrival in theater (even before the first vessel or aircraft arrives) to conduct reception, staging, and onward movement of units, their equipment, and supplies. Other transportation units that are part of a TOFM that need to be able to receive movement requests from movement control units include the TRANSCOM (EEM), Transportation Terminal Battalions, and Transportation Motor Transport Battalions. Therefore, they also require the same SATCOM devices to coordinate these activities.
At the strategic level, movement control command and control elements, responsible for coordinating strategic lift in an austere environment, require satellite-based voice and data communications with CONUS. This helps obtain the information required to plan, program, and execute reception, staging, and onward movement of arriving forces.
d. In-transit Visibility. Movement control elements require the MTS to determine the location and communicate with tactical wheeled vehicle assets located throughout the battlespace. MTS is a satellite based tracking/communication system consisting of a mobile unit mounted in the vehicle and a base unit station (referenced as Movement Tracking System-Controller Station or MTS-CS) controlled and monitored by movement control operators. MTS and MTS-CS are nondevelopmental items that incorporate GPS, automatic identification technology, non-line of site message capability between the mobile and base systems, and mapping technologies. MTS primary function is to allow command and control and movement control personnel to track, locate, and communicate with in-transit transportation vehicles at a near-real time basis anywhere on the battlefield. It will allow the movement control community the ability to redirect and divert all prime movers mounted with MTS based on changing battlefield requirements and tactical unit relocations, thus providing velocity to a transportation-based distribution system. MTS can also provide an embedded movement control capability that can improve the distribution flow on MSRs, thus reducing the prospect of fratricide. Movement control personnel can directly communicate with drivers anywhere on the battlefield, thus warning them of dangers, submitting new tasks, and redirecting them around route obstacles and congestion. Integrating the automatic identification technology into MTS will provide visibility of the cargo that the vehicle is transporting.
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