Military

Chapter 3

Army Movement Control

INTRODUCTION

3-1. Movement control is the planning, routing, scheduling, controlling, and coordinating responsibility for movements. Movement control also includes responsibility for ITV of personnel, units, equipment, and supplies moving over LOC. It includes the commitment of assigned modes and terminal assets according to command planning directives. Movement control exists at all levels of war and through the range of military operations. It is established regardless of the political nature of the US involvement. It is the most critical element of the Army transportation system.

SECTION I - Movement Control Principles and Functions

THE PRINCIPLES OF MOVEMENT CONTROL

3-2. Five principles govern the planning and execution of movement control operations. These principles are as follows:

  • Centralized Control/Decentralized Execution.
  • Regulated Movements.
  • Fluid and Flexible Movement.
  • Maximum Use of Carrying Capacity.
  • Forward Support.

Figure 3-1, portrays the importance of these principles.

Figure 3-1. Movement Control Principles

CENTRALIZED CONTROL/DECENTRALIZED EXECUTION

3-3. The most efficient method to provide movement control is to centralize control of movements at the highest level. Centralization means that a focal point for transportation planning and resource allocation must exist at each level of command involved in an operation. The focal point is an individual or unit that is aware of the current and future requirements of the supported force as well as the capabilities available to meet the requirements. Centralization of movement control normally occurs at the levels charged with integrating logistic support. Decentralized control of mode and terminal operations are equally important. Decentralized execution of transportation missions means terminal and mode operators remain free to assign and control the specific transportation asset that will meet the requirement. This practice enhances the flexibility to prioritize support and accomplish the mission.

REGULATED MOVEMENTS

3-4. The regulation of movements has two applications. One deals with the apportionment of cargo carrying capacities to movement requirements. The second deals with the regulation of traffic through the LOC, including MSRs.

3-5. Transportation planners must determine which traffic and LOC requires control. The free flow of goods and services will work in a nonsaturated environment. However, saturation of the system normally occurs because highly mobile forces extend resupply lines. Increased consumption rates and a desire to reduce stockpiles are additional causes of saturation of the transportation system. Inadequate transportation capabilities in relationship to the size of the force supported will also require astute prioritization efforts.

3-6. An additional consideration is the support the Army provides to the other Services. In a joint and combined environment, regulation of transportation assets and LOC will prevent congestion and enforce priorities. Regulation of LOC movements are critical. This is always important when US forces must share available airfields, roads, rail lines, water terminals, and inland waterways with allied forces and the HN. A clear articulation of priorities is essential. MP organizations help by providing security, reconnaissance, and traffic control.

3-7. Command priorities guide the regulation of all movements. In this regard, transportation planners, operators, and users must exercise discipline when establishing and using available transportation assets. The exercise of discipline assures meeting the commander's priorities. A disciplined transportation system enhances the confidence users have in the system's ability to support the mission. When planning and executing movements, commanders must not validate, approve, or start any move if a terminal or mode in the transportation system cannot meet the requirement.

FLUID AND FLEXIBLE MOVEMENT

3-8. The transportation system must provide for the uninterrupted flow of traffic. This means the system must be capable of rerouting and diverting traffic. Maintaining flexibility is one of the biggest challenges facing transportation planners and operators in a changing battlefield with shifting conditions and priorities. To accomplish this task successfully, the transportation system must be linked to an information and communications system. These systems provide data in time to adjust the responses of the terminals and modes in the system. AITs are an essential component in providing timely data. For more information on AIT see Appendix A.

3-9. Transportation planners and operators can also improve response time and flexibility by using the right modes for the right cargo. They can also anticipate the need for alternate modes and routes.

MAXIMUM USE OF CARRYING CAPACITY

3-10. This principle involves more than loading each transport vehicle to its maximum carrying capacity. It also means using all available transport capability in the most efficient manner. While allowing for adequate equipment maintenance and personnel rest, transportation operators should keep transportation assets loaded and moving as much as the operational and tactical situation permits.

3-11. The discipline of the transportation system also plays an important role in the execution of this principle. Transport vehicles and containers need fast off-loading and return to the system to increase the transport capability for later operations.

3-12. Discipline in the prompt return of transportation assets assures their availability for subsequent operations and avoids possible demurrage, storage, and other penalty charges against the government. Similarly, transportation assets must support the retrograde of personnel and cargo operations.

FORWARD SUPPORT

3-13. The principle of forward support includes fast, reliable transportation to provide support as far forward as possible. Forward-oriented transportation support is a combat multiplier; it allows the commander to concentrate all his forces on the enemy. The key to forward support is the reception and clearance capabilities at the destination units. These units may require equipment and personnel augmentation to enhance their reception and clearance capabilities. Forward support may entail the provisioning of operational level transportation assets to support tactical level units. However, any requirement for forward support that relinquishes centralized control for an extended time must be balanced against the efficiency of the transportation system to provide time utility and to weigh the battle at decisive times and places.

OTHER CONSIDERATIONS

3-14.

Peace to War

3-15. To the maximum extent possible, commanders assign transportation responsibilities, establish procedures, and train, using the same organizations throughout the range of military operations. From a movement control perspective, the initiation of a military operation should only represent an increase in intensity, not a shift to new procedures and systems.

3-16. Executing this consideration is not as simple as it may seem. For example, the force projection Army requires that CONUS based and forward presence transportation organizations become involved concurrently in both the strategic deployment of its organic elements and the planning of the transportation system needed to support the operation. An important factor is identifying and sequencing transportation elements during the deployment. This is crucial to the success of the operation. These elements must arrive in the AO at the right time and with the right equipment to get the transportation system functional.

3-17. The movement control elements should be among the early units deployed in the theater opening force modules. Early deployment will allow for the timely establishment of a transportation system with the capability to receive and program the onward movement of the deploying force and manage its growth.

During Desert Shield, despite the overwhelming demand for combat troops to defend Sausi Arabia, the initial force included a contingent from the 403d Transportation Company (Cargo Transfer) at Fort Bragg. This contingent managed the lilitary operations at the airfield at Dhahran, illustrating the importance id deploying supporting transportation units prior to the supported force.

Origin to Destination

3-18. The goal of the Army transportation system is the movement of passengers and cargo from origin to destination. This goal can be achieved efficiently when the cargo and personnel do not have to be handled or processed frequently while in-transit. This concept of operations is called throughput. In addition to throughput, Army transportation organizations consider the intermodal capabilities available. Intermodality facilitates the handling of cargo while in-transit. To the maximum extent possible, Army transportation planners should strive to move cargo and personnel from origin to destination using throughput and intermodality as key considerations.

Port Opening Force Modules

3-19. The capabilities to operate water terminals in AO, to include the use of preposition afloat assets, will vary. This capability can be determined when planners consider the following:

  • The mission of the force within the range of military operations.
  • The political nature of the US involvement.
  • The size of the deploying force.
  • The capabilities of the facilities available within the AO.

To assist planners in designing port opening force modules, FM 100-17-1, Annex B, contains four modules that can be used as guides to develop the required port opening force.

Total Asset Visibility and In-transit Visibility

3-20. The TAV concept consists of two subordinate parts (asset visibility and in-transit visibility). Asset visibility covers resources in inventory, or static to the visibility system, and in-transit visibility which, as the name implies, covers resources in motion throughout the strategic, operational, and tactical continuums. The TAV concept has been translated into a computer software system which can track resources throughout the world. The software supports the battlefield distribution requirement to be able to identify, cross level, ship, or redirect assets to provide immediate support to the combatant. Additional information on TAV and communications support is contained in Appendix A.

THE FUNCTIONS OF MOVEMENT CONTROL

3-21. Joint Pub 4-01.3 describes six functions common to movement control activities regardless of the level of war at which they operate. Movement control is the planning, routing, scheduling, controlling, coordination, and ITV of personnel, units, equipment, and supplies moving over LOC and the commitment of allocated transportation assets according to the command planning directives. It is a continuum that involves synchronizing and integrating logistics, movement information, and programs that span the strategic, operational, and tactical levels of war. Movement control is guided by a system that balances requirements against capabilities and assigns resources based on the combat commanders priorities. Effective movement control is the linchpin that integrates logistics systems that sustain forces on the battlefield. As such, it becomes a combat multiplier. Army movement control encompasses these functions and provides staff planners and movement managers at each echelon to perform them. Staff planners plan and apportion. Movement managers allocate, coordinate, deconflict, and provide ITV (see Figure 3-2).

Figure 3-2. Movement Control Functions

STAFF PLANNING

3-22. Transportation planning is vital to the success of military operations at all levels of command. Staff planners serve on the coordinating or special staffs at each echelon of command. They perform common functions integral to deploying and sustaining the force. They provide expertise in the development of operation plans and estimates during the planning process. They also advise commanders and staff on transportation matters, coordinate transportation staff actions, and evaluate the effectiveness of the transportation system. Staff planners also coordinate with other functional planners that have an impact on transportation to ensure requirements which relate to the transportation system are adequately covered. Planners must look forward, backward, and laterally, as appropriate, to ensure plans are synchronized with supporting and supported commands. Figure 3-3, shows how movement control interfaces with all movement requirements.

Figure 3-3. Movement Control Interface

Planning

3-23. At the strategic level, staff planners use strategic level systems, including JOPES, GTN, and TC-ACCIS, to plan the deployment and sustainment of forces during both deliberate planning and CAP. During CAP, planners work closely with other staff elements to convert the commander's concept of operations into a viable and transportation supportable OPORD and TPFDD. The window of opportunity for making decisions in this critical period is often very compressed. Decisions made during this period are often irretrievable, or at least very hard to change.

In Operation RESTORE HOPE, the ARFOR window of opportunity effectively began with the publishing of the JTF deployment OPLAN on December 6, 1992. Preliminary conceptual planning had begun with reciept of the warning order on December 1; however, it contained little of the critical information required for detailed planning. The ARFOR's window ended on December 7, when the 10th Mountain Division began staging equipment for movement to the SPOE.

3-24. Equally important is coordination with the operational level to ensure a smooth transition between the strategic and operational transportation systems.

3-25. At the operational level, staff planners on the ASCC staff, plan support to the Army force from reception in the AO through movement to final destination. They have a dual responsibility. The ASCC contributes to the strategic transportation plan for deployment of forces and develops an operational level of war transportation plan. This plan ensures the ASCC has the capability for receiving, moving, and sustaining the force. The plan involves the selection of terminals and the number, type, and sequencing of transportation units needed in the theater. The ASCC continues its planning for expansion of the transportation system capability to support the total force projected for deployment.

3-26. Planning at the tactical level of war is just as critical. Tactical level transportation forms the structure of the final distribution system. It must be the most flexible and responsive to changing conditions. When completely fielded, DAMMS-R meets this need. The ability to divert and reroute based on changes in priorities, concepts of support, or DS to combat operations is paramount. Planners must consider the linkage to the operational level transportation system when selecting the location of their units.

Apportioning

3-27. Apportioning involves dividing the common-user transportation capability among the transportation tasks according to priorities. It is a critical function in decision making because it forces planners to analyze all transportation tasks and in the broad sense, divide the transportation capabilities among those tasks. At the strategic level, the CJCS apportions strategic lift assets during OPLAN development. Theater level apportionments support the CINC's concept of operations. They are usually expressed in percentages and developed in planning cycles. After receiving its share from the supported CINC, the ASCC apportions and distributes resources to the Army force. If the Army provides support to other services, then its apportionment of common-user lift must reflect that mission. Similar decisions are made at the operational and tactical level.

MOVEMENT MANAGEMENT

3-28. Movement management is the coordination of transportation support between transportation users and providers. It is performed by movement control units or staffs normally assigned to supporting commands, agencies, installations, and multifunctional logistical commands. Deployed, they are assigned to the ASCC, Corps, and divisions and include the TAMCA, MCC, and MCO.

3-29. Like staff planners, movement managers perform common functions that contribute to providing effective transportation support to the force. They are focused on allocating resources, coordinating support, deconflicting requirements, and providing ITV of movements.

3-30. Movement managers are the customer point of contact for transportation support and their point of entrance to the transportation system. They concentrate their efforts on those functions of movement control which directly relate to providing continuous transportation support. Their efforts are central and integral to effective transportation support by all modes.

3-31. They also conduct planning associated with these functions, mainly as supporting plans which focus on their areas of responsibility. Two functions which have broad planning application are movement programming and highway regulation. Movement managers also coordinate with all users of transportation, including material managers, to forecast requirements and plan appropriate support based on priorities. They work routinely with engineer and MP units that support the transportation system.

Allocating

3-32. Allocating is the assignment of specific transportation resources against planned movement requirements. The CINCs, through their JMC, usually delegate the allocation process to the Service components for the modes and terminals they operate. The Service components normally express allocations either by gross tonnages, number of vehicles, berthing time, number of aircraft, or other appropriate terms. These allocations are published in movement programs.

Coordinating

3-33. Coordinating is the process by which movement control units interface with units and shippers to provide transportation support. During this process, they match requirements with modes based on priorities and consider the principles of movement and mode selection criteria. Movement control units then commit or task mode and terminal operators to provide support. Coordination extends to allied forces, HNS, and non-governmental agencies within their AOR. Reliable communications enhances response time and are crucial to this process. A standard transportation request process and validation system are inherent to coordination.

Deconflicting

3-34. Movement managers deconflict requirements and priorities when there are not enough assets to satisfy all transportation requests. They also deconflict movement on LOC to prevent conflict and congestion. For movement on roads, this is referred to as highway regulation. To deconflict requirements, movement control units require automated support to receive transportation requests and movement bids, process them, and communicate schedules and itineraries to the requestor.

In-transit Visibility

3-35. ITV the continuous updating of the location of unit equipment, personnel, and supplies as they travel within the transportation system. It enables movement control units to answer the commander's information needs, divert shipments based on changes of priority or destination, and coordinate and deconflict movements. ITV is required at all levels of war. USTRANSCOM uses GTN and JOPES for strategic movements. Theater systems must provide similar capabilities and link with strategic systems. Assured communications are essential.

SECTION II - Movement Control at the Strategic Level of War

INTRODUCTION

3-36. Movement control at the strategic level of war is primarily the responsibility of DOD. This responsibility is shared by the combatant commands and the Services, with the support of non-DOD agencies and the private sector. The movement control focus is on the following:

  • Force Projection.
  • Sustaining the Forward Deployed Force.
  • Strategic Mobility.

3-37. The creation and participation of movement control units throughout DTS accomplish the tasks. The apex of the system consists of USTRANSCOM, the supported and supporting CINCs JMC, and the Service components.

STRATEGIC MOVEMENT CONTROL IN PEACETIME

3-38. Strategic movement control in peacetime supports the combatant commands and the Services through DTS. The transportation system operates with the users of the system providing movement requirements to USTRANSCOM and its component commands. USTRANSCOM schedules the movement based on the transportation priorities. Consultation among USTRANSCOM, the Services, and mode operators resolves most conflicts. The process rarely requires the involvement of the Joint Staff JTB.

3-39. Army elements desiring transportation support enter the system through the ITO, movement control units, and transportation or movement managers found in other Army activities, such as depots. These elements receive movement requirements, act on those for which they have authority, and pass those that exceed their capabilities to the proper supporting organization. For example, CONUS ITOs pass requirements to MTMC, while forward presence units pass requirements to higher level movement control units. Each requirement receives a priority, movement is scheduled, and the participants informed of pick-up and delivery times, supporting assets, and cost.

3-40. Some shipments will require clearance from other agencies. These clearances include those that are granted by state highway regulators or HN authorities.

3-41. USTRANSCOM develops manifests and sends shipping information to receiving terminal and other interested parties. Using the GTN, USTRANSCOM provides shipping information to all users of DTS. Appendix A provides additional information on the GTN.

STRATEGIC MOVEMENT CONTROL IN SUPPORT OF MILITARY OPERATIONS

3-42. The decision to commit military forces implies strategic deployment of forces from CONUS. However, forward deployed forces may also have to move. Strategic deployments normally reinforce a joint operation or require a joint force projection. The Army's role is to support the deployment according to the requirements of the supported CINC. The Army uses its peacetime network of movement control organizations, terminals, and modes. This network is the building block to develop a movement control organization capable of supporting the deployment.

PLANNING FOR STRATEGIC MOVEMENT CONTROL

3-43.

PLANNING METHODS

3-44. DOD strategic planning consists of deliberate planning and CAP. Deliberate planning is the method used when time permits the total participation of the commanders and staffs of the JPEC (see Figure 3-4). The JPEC consists of commands and agencies involved in the training, preparation, and movement of forces.

Figure 3-4. Players in the Deliberate Planning Process

3-45. During peacetime, combatant commanders and their Service components use the deliberate planning process to develop CONPLANs and detailed OPLANs for contingencies identified in the JSCP. Development of these plans include coordination among supported and supporting commanders, agencies, and the Services. The Joint Staff, in conference with JPEC members, review the plans. This process can take many months.

3-46. CAP is the method used to respond militarily to emergency conditions in support of US interests. CAP occurs in response to specific situations as they occur. It may involve the revision of an existing plan or the creation of a new one. These situations normally develop rapidly.

3-47. During deliberate planning, combatant commanders also do adaptive planning. It is a concept that calls for the development of a range of options, encompassing the elements of national power (diplomatic, political, economic, and military) that can be adapted to a crisis as it develops. These options are referred to as the Flexible Deterrent Options. The adaptive planning concept recognizes that the US faces diversified threats and regional conflicts. Therefore, the fixed assumptions, warning times, and political decisions used in deliberate planning will be less accurate than those predicted by planners. As such, adaptive planning recognizes that key decision makers are more likely to exploit available response time to deter the development or deterioration of a crisis. This is possible if a menu of response options, gauged to a range of crisis conditions, is available for them to execute. The concept prevents an all or nothing choice.

INPUT TO PLANNING

3-48. Several key documents aid planning for strategic mobility and strategic movement control. Embedded in these documents are guidance on issues and funding which can have an impact on the military capability to deploy and sustain the force. The primary users of these documents are the Joint Staff, the combatant commands, and the Military departments. Figure 3-5, portrays the relationships.

Figure 3-5. Input to Planning

National Military Strategy

3-49. The National Military Strategy furnishes the advice of the CJCS, in consultation with other members of the JCS and the combatant commanders, to the President, the NSC, and the SECDEF. The advice includes recommendations affecting the national military strategy and the fiscally constrained force structure required to support the attainment of national security goals. The national military strategy assists the SECDEF in preparing the DPG.

The Defense Planning Guidance

3-50. The DPG is a document issued by the SECDEF to the military departments. The DPG assists in the development of the military departments' POMs. The defense planning period comes from the POM. The DPG includes force and resource guidance, decisions, strategy, and policy. The DPG includes strategic elements, the Secretary's program planning goals, and the Defense Planning Estimate. The Illustrative Planning Scenarios and a whole series of studies are also included in the DPG.

Chairman's Guidance

3-51. The Chairman's Guidance conveys guidance to the Joint Staff and information to the SECDEF and combatant commanders about the framework for building the national military strategy and for setting priorities in the JPD.

Joint Planning Document

3-52. The JPD supports the national military strategy by furnishing concise programming priorities, requirements, or advice to the SECDEF for consideration during preparation of the DPG. The JPD is a series of volumes covering specific functional areas, including, Volume 7, "Logistics (J-4 Lead)," describing the joint logistics policies and programs that affect the capability of programmed forces to meet their present and future requirements.

Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan

3-53. The JSCP contains guidance to the CINCs and Service Chiefs for accomplishing military tasks and missions based on current military capabilities. It directs the development of contingency plans to support national security goals by assigning planning tasks and apportioning major combat forces and strategic lift capability to the combatant commanders. In short, it provides CINCs and the Service component commanders available resources to develop their contingency plans. The sixteen JSCP annexes furnish planning guidance and capabilities. Annex B, "Logistics," and Annex J, "Mobility," contain information applicable to transportation planners.

Logistics Sustainability Analysis

3-54. The LSA represents the quantitative assessment of the CINC's overall sustainment posture. The logistics capabilities and specific limiting factors associated with each OPLAN come from the LSA.

PLANNING SYSTEMS

3-55. JOPES is a DOD directed system of policies, procedures, and ADP support used in developing, maintaining, and executing OPORDs and OPLANs. JOPES is also a command and control system designed primarily to satisfy the information needs of senior-level decision makers. JOPES monitors, plans, and executes mobilization, deployment, employment, sustainment, and redeployment activities.

3-56. One of the key capabilities of JOPES is the development of transportation feasibility analysis and plans. The transportation feasibility analysis occurs after the CINC, supporting CINCs, and Service components develop TPFDD. The TPFDD is the supported CINC's statement of his requirements by unit type, time, and priority for arrival. The TPFDD also defines the supported CINC's nonunit-related cargo and personnel requirements and movement data for the OPLAN, including the following:

  • In-place units.
  • Deployable units to support the OPLAN with a priority that shows the supported CINC's sequence for their arrival at the POD.
  • Deployed forces routing.
  • Movement data associated with deploying forces.
  • Estimate of nonunit-related cargo and personnel (fillers and replacements) movements conducted concurrently with the deployable unit.
  • Estimate of transportation requirements fulfilled by common-user lift resources as well as those requirements fulfilled by assigned or attached transportation resources.

3-57. The TPFDD undergoes a refinement process during the plan development phase. This process considers any shortfall in forces, logistics, and transportation. The supported CINC is the decision making authority during this process unless otherwise directed by the CJCS. The purpose of the TPFDD refinement process is to adjust the proposed flow of the TPFDD assuring it is transportation-feasible and consistent with JSCP, Joint Staff, and Service guidance.

3-58. USCINCTRANS conducts TPFDD refinement conferences in coordination with the supported CINC, Joint Staff, Services, and supporting CINCs. During the conferences, participants address transportation related problems. They also coordinate combined transportation requirements and resolve shortfalls. Movement tables help the supported CINC determine whether the force closure profile is consistent with his concept of operations.

EXECUTION OF THE DEPLOYMENT

3-59. Once the deployment begins, necessary TPFDL adjustments will occur. These adjustments cause turbulence within the flow of the deployment. The turbulence occurs, especially in the early stages, because the CINC and the Service components must adjust their response to the threat and other factors influencing the flow of the force into the operational area. Figure 3-6, shows a notional representation of the turbulence normally experienced during deployments, especially in the early stages.

Figure 3-6. Turbulence During Deployments

3-60. Commanders execute deployments within a very intense process influenced by the turbulence described above. The goal is to manage the turbulence through anticipation. Commanders must exercise discipline and ensure timely and accurate communications to facilitate the process. Transportation discipline can not occur unless each participant sets up a precise system to communicate information. Accurate communications results when each player exercises quality control over the information placed into the system. The players use data processing systems to the maximum extent possible. Other systems, such as telephones, are only used as required. Movement control plays a key role in this process by providing advice and assistance. Table 3-1, shows minimum connectivity requirements to assure the efficient use of resources in meeting the requirements of the commander.

Table 3-1. Deployment Information Exchange Connectivity

 

J
O
I
N
T

S
T
A
F
F

S
U
P
P
O
R
T
E
D

C
I
N
C

S
U
P
P
O
R
T
I
N
G

C
I
N
C

U
S
T
R
A
N
S
C
O
M

A
M
C

M
T
M
C

M
S
C

A
S
C
C

D
A

S
T
A
F
F

I
N
S
T
A
L
L
A
T
I
O
N
S

D
E
P
L
O
Y
I
N
G

U
N
I
T
S

JOINT STAFF

 

X

X

X

       

X

   
SUPPORTED CINC

X

 

X

X

     

X

     
SUPPORTING CINC

X

X

 

X

     

X

     
USTRANSCOM

X

X

X

 

X

X

X

 

X

   
AMC      

X

     

X

 

X

 
MTMC      

X

X

 

X

X

X

X

 
MSC      

X

 

X

 

X

 

X

 
ASCC  

X

X

 

X

X

X

 

X

X

X

DA STAFF

X

   

X

 

X

 

X

 

X

 
INSTALLATIONS        

X

X

X

X

X

 

X

DEPLOYING UNITS              

X

 

X

 

STRATEGIC DEPLOYMENT PHASES

3-61. There are three strategic level phases of Army deployment activities. They consist of the following:

  • Predeployment Activities.
  • Movement to the POE.
  • Strategic Lift.

3-61. Movement control plays a key role in each phase. The operational level phases, theater reception, and onward movement, are covered in Section III.

3-62. Army movement control differs for strategic deployments, depending on whether the force is CONUS or OCONUS based. Within CONUS, the ITO plays the key role in the execution of movement control activities to deploy the force. The movement control organization assigned to the deploying force supports the ITO. OCONUS based forces usually rely on their organic, deployable movement control units.

3-63. Deployable movement control units selected to support OPLANs have a dual responsibility during peacetime operations. They train to support the deployment of the force and prepare to participate in the deployment themselves. The deployment phasing must balance the need to support the deploying force with the need to establish the theater movement control system.

PHASE 1 - PREDEPLOYMENT ACTIVITIES

3-64. Force projection missions are the focus of Army predeployment activities. Units conduct emergency deployment training to assure the Army can deploy the required forces, individual manpower, and materiel to meet the CINC's missions. Emergency deployment training includes the use of strategic airlift and sealift assets.

3-65. During emergency deployment exercises, commanders revise and update their movement plans. Army organizations responsible for providing sustainment also conduct exercises to test the movement of prepackaged supplies as required by the appropriate contingency plans. Commanders use the knowledge from the exercises to update deployment data such as the AUEL or TPFDD. These updated lists pass through the chain of command to the proper authority.

3-66. Commanders must decide what mission they will assign to their organic movement control organization during the execution of an actual deployment. Although these organizations participate in the planning and training functions exercised before a deployment, the commander reassesses the mission these organizations are to execute in the AO. If a nondeployable movement control organization is available and capable of supporting the deployment, commanders should consider not using the deployable movement control organization. If the deployment is large (division or higher), the commander may consider the echelonment of the deployable movement control organization.

3-67. Once the NCA directs a military response requiring a deployment, identified units (to include mobilized reserve components) coordinate with the responsible movement control organization for the execution of the deployment. The commander directs the flow of deployment orders to the movement control organizations. The supporting ASCC will coordinate with the supported command, USTRANSCOM, and its components, to assure the correct flow of the deployment orders.

3-68. Movement control units focus on coordinating transportation support, providing containers and pallets, synchronizing, staging, and marshaling operations with the deployment flow, and ensuring the accuracy of movement data. They advise the commander on all transportation aspects of the deployment.

PHASE 2 - MOVEMENT TO THE PORT OF EMBARKATION

3-69. This phase begins when Army units move to water or air terminals for embarkation to a force projection destination. The supported CINC, in coordination with the ASCC, USTRANSCOM, supporting CINCs, subordinate HQ, and the responsible movement control organization, orchestrates the movement. The CINC uses the refined TPFDL and unit readiness information provided to JOPES. USTRANSCOM, in coordination with the ASCC, provides movement guidance for movement to the POE based on the priorities established by the CINC. The information usually flows through the USTRANSCOM components to the responsible movement control organization. MTMC or the proper movement control organization specifies, by port call message, when unit equipment must be at the SPOE for loading into strategic lift. Based on the movement directive, units backward plan their installation departure and POE processing to meet their available load date.

3-70. The AMC specifies, through an air tasking order, when unit equipment and personnel need to arrive at the APOE for aircraft loading.

3-71. Movement control units focus on providing transportation support, obtaining movement clearances, and coordinating surface and air movements to the prescribed POE.

PHASE 3 - STRATEGIC LIFT

3-72. This phase begins with strategic lift departure from the POE and ends with arrival in the theater. USTRANSCOM, through AMC and MSC, operates the strategic modes of transport. USTRANSCOM assures ITV of forces, to include nonunit-related personnel and supplies. USTRANSCOM, using GTN, provides the required force tracking information necessary for decision making.

OTHER CONSIDERATIONS DURING DEPLOYMENT

3-73.

CONUS HIGHWAY REGULATION

3-74. Highway regulation within CONUS is a function of the MOBCON. This is a HQDA/ FORSCOM/National Guard Bureau proponency. MOBCON assigns the responsibility for CONUS highway movements to a DMC in the SMCC of each state. As proposed, the DMC will become the convoy approval authority for all active and reserve component forces highway movements. Requests for convoy clearance flows from the unit to the UMC at each Army installation. Each installation forwards each request to the DMC in the state where the convoy begins. The DMC provides the moving unit with a convoy movement order which reserves road space for the unit. It also provides a detailed movement schedule and includes information on the route. The DMC receives all requests from reserve units.

3-75. Due to the DMC's close relationship to civil authorities in each state, the MOBCON initiative also proposes the DMC certify movements important or essential to National Defense. The DMC also issues clearance for units needing special permits for oversize or overweight loads. The DMC serves as the DOD representative to the state DOT for Emergency Highway Traffic Regulation and provides aid to units moving during mobilization and deployment.

OCONUS HIGHWAY REGULATION

3-76. Supporting CINCs establish highway regulation policies and procedures to move deploying forces from OCONUS POEs. As required, the CINC coordinates the policies and procedures with the proper HNS agencies.

COMMAND, CONTROL, COMMUNICATIONS, AND OTHER SYSTEMS

3-77. The purpose of the transportation management information system is to improve transportation processes, realize efficiency and economy, and promote ITV. The timeliness and accuracy of data within management systems depends on the communications systems used to convey the data throughout the system. It also depends on the frequency of data. Ideally, data entered into the system is saved throughout the automation continuum. Enhanced transportation management within the Army requires a seamless automated management system. This system includes assured communications, which support transportation functions from origin to destination. Existing and developing Joint and Army systems can help strategic level planners and mode operators in planning and executing strategic deployment. Appendix A contains detailed information for each of the systems.

SECTION III - Movement Control at the Operational Level of War

INTRODUCTION

3-78. Movement control at the operational level of war links the strategic and tactical levels of war movement control organizations. Its focus is on deployment, reception, and onward movement. It encompasses the synchronization of transportation assets deployed or available in an AO to sustain joint/combined campaigns and other military activities. Movement control organizations at this level direct their attention backward toward the strategic system as well as forward to the tactical system. Operational movement control may involve a CINC or a CJTF. The procedures described in the succeeding sections of this chapter apply regardless of the size or type of deployed force.

MOVEMENT CONTROL ORGANIZATIONS

3-79.

THE JOINT TRANSPORTATION BOARD

3-80. The CINC may organize a JTB to review and deconflict policies, priorities, and apportionments of transportation assets. Though the JTB is not a day-to-day working organization, it meets as required to act on issues that surface to its level. It usually consists of representatives from the Service components, movement control agencies, and the Joint Force, J3, and J4. CINC's organize a JTB based on perceived transportation needs.

JOINT MOVEMENT CENTER

3-81. The CINC establishes a JMC to control force movement and sustainment. It has a peacetime nucleus organization, organized functionally. The JMC expands in proportion to the size of the force and the desires of the supported CINC. The JMC coordinates strategic movements with USTRANSCOM. It also oversees the execution of theater transportation priorities. The JMC conducts cyclic reviews of apportionment decisions and acts on emergency transportation requests. When there is no JTB, the JMC is the primary advisor to the CINC in the apportionment process. To aid in the planning process, the JMC identifies the variance between forecasted requirements and current capabilities. It expedites action and coordination for immediate movement requirements to assure effective and efficient use of transportation resources. The JMC is normally under the staff supervision of the joint senior logistics staff officer.

3-82. When the deploying force is a JTF, the commander may organize a JMC. JMCs for JTFs are not a peacetime-manned element. They are usually established in crisis from the movement control elements of the CJTF's peacetime Service HQ with augmentation from all Service components, the CINC, and USTRANSCOM. It is potentially formed using Army component movement control organizations. The JTF JMC manages intra-theater lift and performs strategic lift functions in coordination with the CINC's JMC.

The JMC Organization

3-83. A fully developed JMC might have a plans and programs division and an operations division, supported by an administrative section. As needed, advisory members from functional areas, which impact movement planning and execution, supplement the JMC.

Manning the JMC

3-84. The CINC may use Service component personnel resources to establish a JMC or request support from a supporting CINC. Manning requirements should provide liaison with HN authorities to coordinate use of available civil transportation assets and facilities. When expanding a JMC with Service component resources, the CINC considers the structure of the dominant force and unique movement control requirements. The CINC may also draw on reserve personnel to enlarge the JMC. Reserve augmentation personnel should have participated in exercises to assure they are familiar with the procedures of a joint force HQ.

OTHER TRANSPORTATION ORGANIZATIONS AT THE OPERATIONAL LEVEL OF WAR

3-85. Need lead in when this FM is updated.

US TRANSPORTATION COMMAND

3-86. USTRANSCOM normally sets up forward elements from each of the subordinate TCCs within the AO. These elements coordinate strategic transportation information with the supported CINC's JMC or staff. A USTRANSCOM movement control liaison cell also collocates with the operational level JMC to enhance the strategic movement control and coordination process.

AIR MOBILITY COMMAND

3-87. AMC is the USTRANSCOM component responsible for fulfilling strategic air mobility movement requirements that occur at the operational level of war. Execution of this mission is exercised through the TACC which is the AMC unit responsible for planning, tasking, and controlling operational air mobility mission meeting USTRANSCOM global responsibilities. During contingency operations, a DIRMOBFOR may be designated to manage the air mobility mission for a theater or, if established, a JTF. The DIRMOBFOR exercises execution management authority for theater assigned air mobility assets and will coordinate with the TACC in deconflicting and monitoring the movement of strategic air mobility assets within the theater.

MILITARY TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT COMMAND

3-88. MTMC operates common-user ocean terminals within CONUS. The command also operates common-user water terminals OCONUS, based on agreements negotiated with CINCs and the HNs. Normally, the CINC will use MTMC forward base terminal operations to support deployments. CINCs may also request MTMC support to operate water terminals in an area where MTMC has no presence. MTMC personnel may also be a part of the USTRANSCOM cell deployed to support the operational level movement control element.

MILITARY SEALIFT COMMAND

3-89. MSC usually establishes command and control elements at water terminals. They provide combatant commanders with strategic sealift and related management information.

ARMY OPERATIONAL LEVEL OF WAR MOVEMENT CONTROL

3-90. The Army fields an operational level movement control element that fits the size and the requirements of the deployed force. The size of the force may be a brigade, division, Corps, EAC, or a tailored task force. The DTO, in coordination with the DISCOM MCO, executes the movement control functions at division. The CTO, in coordination with the Corps MCC, accomplishes the movement control task at the Corps level. The ASCC transportation staff, in coordination with TAMCA, works for the ASCC when an EAC force deploys into the AO. If the Army deployed force is a tailored task force, the ASCC must provide resources to execute the functions of movement control.

3-91. Division and Corps movement control organizations may plan and execute functions at the operational level as well as the tactical level. However, their doctrinal organizations provide primarily for tactical operations. Consequently, the size and capabilities of movement control elements at brigade, division, and Corps may not be sufficient to manage the movement control functions at the operational level of war. In these instances, the ASCC should provide augmentation as required. Regardless of the size of the element executing movement control at this level of war, the functions remain the same.

3-92. The following covers the responsibility of the Army organization (TAMCA) which is designed to execute movement control operations at the operational level. A discussion of the tactical level of movement control operations at Corps and division appears in the movement control operations at the tactical level of this chapter.

THEATER ARMY MOVEMENT CONTROL AGENCY

3-93. The Army executes movement control for EAC at the operational level through a TAMCA. The TAMCA operates under the command and control of the ASCC. In some instances, this organization reports to the primary logistics staff officer in the ASCC staff. The TAMCA helps develop and executes the Army posture of the joint movement program developed by the JMC.

3-94. The TAMCA serves as the primary element for the planning and controlling of transportation operations at the operational level of war. The TAMCA synchronizes its operations with those of the JMC, USTRANSCOM, and lower echelon MCCs. It also follows the priorities established by the ASCC.

3-95. The TAMCA provides movement management services and highway traffic regulation to execute the reception and onward movement of forces, cargo, and personnel. It does so by positioning subordinate movement control battalions and their subordinate MCTs at critical nodes within the AO. The TAMCA, through its subordinate movement control organizations, has committal authority over the transportation assets assigned under the Army Support Command structure developed for the operation. It levies requirements on modes, but does not identify the specific asset that is to accomplish the mission. The TAMCA monitors the use of transportation assets throughout the AO and maintains a record of changes in terminal capabilities. The TAMCA helps negotiate the acquisition of additional transportation capability through contracts and HNS agreements. FM 55-10 contains additional information on Army movement control.

Movement Control Transportation Battalions

3-96. As required, movement control transportation battalions operate in assigned movement regions through the AO. The number of customers served, the number of modes and nodes programmed, and the geographical size of the AO determine the size of the regions. Transportation movement battalions are responsible to the TAMCA for the control and management of movements which takes place in their respective regions. MCTs, assigned to the battalions, help decentralize the execution of movement matters. They do this by being assigned on an area basis or at key transportation nodes. MCTs provide the users of transportation the point of entry into the transportation request system.

Movement Control Teams

3-97. MCTs are the common point of contact for mode operators and users of transportation. Their role is to accelerate, coordinate, and monitor traffic moving through the transportation system. MCTs are found at the operational and tactical levels of war based on the size of the supported force and the complexity of transportation operations. There are three types of MCTs. They provide flexibility in assignments based on forecasted workload. The three types of MCTs are as follows:

  • Movement control team. The primary function of this team is to control the movement of personnel and materiel. They are also responsible for the coordination of bulk fuel and water transportation at pipeline and production take-off points.
  • Air terminal movement control team. This team arranges transport, coordinates loading, and expedites the movement of personnel and materiel through Air Force and civilian air terminals.
  • Movement regulating team. This team operates at critical terminals and at critical highway points. This team helps with the diversion of cargo and by troubleshooting movement control problems.

OPERATIONAL DEPLOYMENT PHASES

3-98. The focus of the operational level transportation system during the deployment phase is the reception and onward movement of units, personnel, and material. The focus of movement control is the same. To accommodate the intensity of the initial deployment, movement control units must be deployable and deploy early. Simultaneously, movement control and material management units must coordinate with the CINC's staff for force closure and for total battlefield distribution during the deployment phase to achieve integrated movement control and material management during the employment phase. Synchronized distribution planning is essential, as a poorly defined distribution pattern developed early will negatively effect total distribution later.

3-99. To assist movement control units during reception and onward movement, the Army provides additional temporary organizations for force reception. The two main organizations usually fielded are PSAs and A/DACGs. These organizations are provided by the deploying force and disband as the Army force transitions to routine personnel replacement and sustainment operations. Chapter 4 covers the operation of the PSAs and the A/DACGs. Refer to FM 55-65 for more detailed information.

PHASE 1 - THEATER RECEPTION

3-100. This phase begins when the forces and sustainment arrive at PODs in the AO. It occurs exclusively at the reception terminals. It involves the off-loading of vessels and aircraft, the linking of equipment with personnel, and the loading of equipment and personnel into modes for onward movement.

3-101. The reception of the force is the responsibility of the supported CINC. The ASCC operates the PODs assigned to the Army component. This includes the supervising of terminals manned by contracted personnel or coordinating those operated under HN agreements. USTRANSCOM, through agreements with the supported CINC, may operate terminals.

3-102. This phase ends when the forces leave the PODs. Appendix A contains a checklist of useful considerations for review by commanders when developing a reception plan.

PHASE 1 - THEATER ONWARD MOVEMENT

3-103. This phase begins when the force leaves the PODs. It occurs entirely in-transit and may involve en route stopovers. These stopovers provide the opportunity to arm, fuel, equip, and sustain the force. ITV and force tracking are crucial during this period.

3-104. The onward movement phase is the responsibility of the supported CINC. The CINC uses the JMC, supported by USTRANSCOM, to achieve ITV and force tracking. The ASCC, through its MCC, supports the effort.

3-105. During reception and onward movement phases, movement control units focus their activities on unit movement and ITV. However, the units must also coordinate transportation support for early arriving sustainment, life support functions, and other port clearance missions such as prepositioned afloat.

3-106. This phase ends when the force is delivered and ready to execute its mission to the commander who will direct their employment. This is normally at the TAA. Appendix B contains considerations for review by commanders when developing an onward movement plan.

THEATER MOVEMENT PROGRAM

3-107. The movement program is the plan used by the ASCC to plan and execute the reception and onward movement of units, personnel, equipment, and their sustainment. It is a living document that requires updating to accommodate known and anticipated transportation requirements. When done properly, the movement program defines the transportation system. It helps identify locations for terminals and provides for the best use of the available modes of transport. The operational level movement control element is responsible for developing the movement program.

3-108. There are eight steps used to develop the movement program. Transportation planners execute these steps concurrently and continuously. FM 55-10 contains a detailed discussion on the development of a movement program. The following information provides a summary of these steps. Figure 3-7, portrays their relationship.

Assessing the Distribution Pattern

3-109. The distribution pattern contains the complete logistic picture within the AO. The assessment is best done by determining the location of the nodes within the transportation system. The distribution pattern begins by locating PODs, transitioning through the staging areas, including the sites for supply and maintenance activities. It then concludes with the identification of sites for the terminals within the tactical AO. The completed distribution plan depicts how planners have assigned modes to link the terminals. The distribution pattern is used by transportation planners to identify destinations for transportation support and to indicate diversion sites. The distribution pattern constantly evolves as the theater matures and as the execution of the campaign plan progresses. It must consider intelligence and engineer information and must fit the commander's concept of the operation.

Figure 3-7. Movement Program Development

Determining Requirements

3-110. Transportation planners determine requirements by forecasting the quantities and types of supplies, mail, and personnel for movement in support of the operation. The users of the transportation system provide these requirements. The planners develop movement requirements by class of supply, estimated weight, and cube. They forecast priorities and plan origins and destinations. Users also identify special handling requirements, such as water, refrigerated, hazardous, or sensitive cargo. Personnel movements are grouped by categories such as troops, civilians, patients, and prisoners of war. The planners use cycles to determine requirements. For example, the initial planning may contain a projection of transportation requirements to assure establishing a lodgment. Once the situation stabilizes and the operation matures, experience shows that a 14-day planning period works best. This allows for a 7-day firm forecast and a 7-day tentative forecast for the succeeding period. However, planning periods should support the commander's concept of operations.

Determining Capabilities

3-111. This step involves the determination of the capabilities of the transportation system. It consists of two factors which include:

  • The efficiency of the physical structures in the terminals.
  • The availability of the operating units, contractor personnel, or HNS available to man the nodes and terminals.

When assessing these factors, planners should consider not only the capabilities available within the AO, but those the Army force has planned for deployment as well. The final tally should show the carrying capacity of the mode operators and the reception and clearance capability of the terminals. To accomplish this task, transportation planners also consider factors such as weather and terrain. FM 55-15 contains detailed planning factors to help determine the capabilities of modes and terminals.

Balancing Requirements Against Capabilities

3-112. By balancing the requirements against the capabilities, the transportation planner can determine if the modes and terminals available can support the commander's concept of the operation. The planner uses this data to distribute the Army workload among transportation mode and terminal operations and to seek changes in priorities or additional capability if a shortfall exists. When balancing requirements, the transportation planner must consider the command relationships, the geographical areas of responsibilities, and the risk of failure due to the tactical situation.

Determining Critical Points

3-113. Critical points within the transportation system exist at the nodes as well as in the links that connect the nodes. Planners base the evaluation of their criticality by determining if existing restrictions could slow down or stop movement. Restriction determination consists of analyzing the physical structures within the nodes and links. It also includes their subjectivity to enemy actions. Restriction factors also include the capability to man the nodes and the terminals. Transportation planners enlist the assistance of engineer and MP staff planners in the determination of critical points.

3-114. Transportation planners develop alternative plans and control measures to overcome congestion at critical points. The movement control element forecasts congestion and positions movement teams to respond to the delays. When required, MCTs coordinate with the tactical commander to assure the acquisition of security support.

Programming by Schematics

3-115. When time permits, transportation planners should use schematics to help balance requirements and capabilities. Schematics graphically portray the shipping requirements against capabilities. The two types of schematics planners can use are requirements and mode schematics. Each available mode uses mode schematics. When superimposed over maps, schematics provide a visual representation of the transportation system structure. FM 55-10 contains a detailed description on the preparation of schematics.

Selecting a Mode

3-116. When selecting or allocating modes, transportation planners consider the priority of the requirement. Planners must also rate other factors, such as the characteristics of the shipment, security, and political considerations. Planners should also consider eliminating the rehandling of cargo. If rehandling cannot be avoided, planners expedite the transition of cargo to the final destination. Chapter 5 of this manual contains a more detailed description of the considerations planners should follow when selecting a mode.

Coordinating

3-117. Coordinating the movement program is a continuous task. It involves movement of personnel and equipment, to include those involved in airlift, at all levels of war through extended LOC's across command AOR. It also involves coordinating with MP and engineer units responsible for supporting the transportation infrastructure. Coordination must achieve integrated planning and synchronized execution across levels of command. Coordinating also involves the users of the system. As shippers request transportation support from their local MCCs and MCTs, the program remains viable as changes become visible, early enough to assure transportation support.

OTHER CONSIDERATIONS

3-118. Planners also consider two other major aspects when developing the movement program. These are the development of a POD clearance program and establishing a highway regulation system.

The POD Clearance Program

3-119. The POD clearance program is a subset of the operational level movement program. However, PODs require close attention because they are nodes that can get congested easily. Transportation planners should develop a program specifically designed to handle the clearance program. FM 55-10 contains a detailed description on the preparation of a POD clearance program.

Highway Regulation

3-120. Highway regulation consists of planning, routing, scheduling, and deconflicting the use of road networks to facilitate movement. The extent of the regulation depends upon the number of moves and the capacity of the road networks. Highway regulation is crucial when operating over underdeveloped and saturated road networks. Freeflow of traffic allows for the maximum movement of cargo and personnel. However, transportation planners and operators should only use freeflow when the road network and security requirements allow.

3-121. Highway regulation is the responsibility of the commander having area jurisdiction. For example, the operational commander exercises this responsibility for the operational area and the tactical commander does the same in the tactical area. Commanders must assure that highway movements requirements are deconflicted and coordinated highway moves occur as listed in the movement program. Figure 3-8, illustrates the Highway Regulation Function. FM 101-5 and FM 55-10 contain information, which includes traffic circulation plans, useful in the development of highway regulation procedures.

Figure 3-8. Highway Regulation Function

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OPERATIONAL AND TACTICAL MOVEMENT CONTROL ORGANIZATIONS

3-122. The operational level movement control organization has responsibilities that go beyond geographic boundaries. It provides guidance and technical assistance to the movement control elements at the tactical level. The support consists of advice on the movement programs, policies, and procedures established by the ASCC. At times, operational level transportation assets are located in the tactical area. This requires a close working relationship between the respective movement control elements and subordinate MCTs. When required, the operational level movement control element may provide additional MCTs to support the tactical level movement control organization. An example is to establish first destination reporting points at the boundary between the operational and tactical level.

3-123. The operational level movement control organization receives forecasts of requirements from the tactical level organization. These forecasts include the priorities of the tactical commander. The operational level movement control organization also compiles and has available, the tactical level terminal cargo reception and processing capability.

SECTION IV - Movement Control at the Tactical Level of War

INTRODUCTION

3-124. Movement control at the tactical level of war is the responsibility of the tactical commander. The main Army tactical organizations are the Corps and the division. Each of these organizations has an organic movement control capability. This capability is augmented when operating at the operational level of war. When the smallest Army component in a joint force is a brigade, the ASCC provides resources to assure the execution of movement control functions.

3-125. Movement control at the tactical level also plays a key role in the development of the battlefield circulation and control plan. This plan deconflicts the maneuver force with the logistic units movement requirements. The plan is coordinated through the responsible MP and engineer organizations in the AO.

3-126. Movement control at the tactical level focuses on the final distribution of supplies and personnel. Final distribution arms, fuels, maintains, mans the units, and sustains the soldier.

MOVEMENT CONTROL AT THE CORPS

3-127. The Corps G3 and G4 staffs and the COSCOM conduct movement planning. The G3 plans and directs maneuver and establishes priorities. The G4 exercises staff supervision for movements and oversees the fulfillment of the commander's logistics priorities. The G3 and G4 staffs receive support from the CTO in the execution of these tasks. The COSCOM develops and executes the Corps movement program. It does this by using, on a daily basis, the movement control, terminal, and mode resources organic to the Corps.

CORPS TRANSPORTATION OFFICER

3-128. The CTO is the Corps transportation staff planner. As a special staff officer, the CTO is assigned by the Chief of Staff to work for the Corps G3 or G4. The CTO assists the G3 during unit movement and maneuver planning. The CTO assists the G4 in the areas of logistic and unit movement requirements. As a staff officer responsible for transportation matters in the Corps, the CTO assesses the effectiveness of the movement program. He then recommends the types of transportation organizations required to accomplish the Corps mission. FM 55-10 contains a detailed discussion of the duties of the CTO.

CORPS MOVEMENT CONTROL CENTER

3-129. The Corps MCC provides centralized movement control and highway regulation in the Corps AO. It does this for personnel, mail, and materiel moving into, within, or out of the Corps area. The MCC also performs transportation planning and ITV for the Corps. The Corps MCC accomplishes its mission by using attached MCTs and MRTs.

3-130. The MCC commander normally positions teams, within rear and forward CSG, throughout the Corps area. The positioning is done to extend control of critical transportation nodes, facilities, or operating units. Allocation of teams normally includes one MCT per CSG and each critical transportation node in the Corps area. The MCC may also position ATMCTs at aerial ports located in the Corps AO. It may also place MRTs at key transportation nodes and other critical locations (congested areas) along MSRs.

3-131. The MCC has committal authority over transportation assets assigned to the CSGs. Committal authority is levying a requirement on a mode, not the identification of the asset. The MCC monitors transportation use within each CSG through its MCTs. If the MCC is the senior movement control element in the AO, it will help negotiate the acquisition of additional transportation capability through contracts and HNS agreements. The MCC develops a forecast of transportation requirements based on the priorities of the commander.

MOVEMENT CONTROL AT THE DIVISION

3-132. Movement control at the division includes planning for deployment and receiving and distributing cargo and personnel to the units. It is a staff responsibility since the division has no organic movement control organizations like those found in the Corps or at EAC. It also involves planning for the movement of units not committed to combat within the division area. Like at the operational level of war AOR , the division develops a system that identifies nodes within its AO. It also develops procedures to deliver personnel and supplies using the available modes. The division also develops a traffic circulation plan used to regulate the highways within its AOR. The movement control responsibility within the division is shared by the G3 and G4. The DTO executes the missions. FM 55-10 contains more information on division movement control operations.

DIVISION TRANSPORTATION OFFICER

3-133. At division level, the DTO functions as a special staff officer under the supervision of the Chief of Staff. The Chief of Staff has the option of placing the DTO under the supervision of the Division G3 or G4. The DTO has overall responsibility for movement control planning and highway regulation. The DTO plans for the movement of the division by all modes and executes movement control. He is also responsible for coordinating highway regulation plans with the division staff, the CTO, the Corps MCC, and the DISCOM MCO. The DTO normally delegates responsibility for mode management, movement programming, and transportation management within the division to the DISCOM MCO.

THE DIVISION SUPPORT COMMAND MOVEMENT CONTROL OFFICER

3-134. The MCO serves on the DISCOM commander's staff. He develops the division movement program and coordinates with the DMMC for the delivery of supplies and equipment. The MCO coordinates personnel and mail movement with the Division G1. The MCO coordinates and receives the priorities from the DTO. The MCO normally is located in the division rear with the DISCOM command post.

3-135. The MCO has commitment authority for truck assets assigned to the TMT company assigned to the DISCOM MSB. If the G3 has allocated aviation brigade assets for CSS, the MCO will have committal authority for those assets as well.

3-136. When the MCO or nondivisional units in the division rear need additional transportation assets, they submit a support request to the supporting MCT/MCC. If the CSG cannot provide the support, the MCT will pass the requirement to the Corps MCC. The Corps MCC will assess the transportation capability within other CSGs to support the requirement and commit the CSG that can best provide support.

SECTION V - Movement Control in Operations Other Than War

INTRODUCTION

3-137. FM 100-23 characterizes peace operations as an umbrella term encompassing observers, monitors, traditional peacekeeping, preventive deployment, security assistance, protection, and delivery of humanitarian relief. It also includes military support to civil authorities. Peace operations can guarantee rights of passage, impose sanctions, and enforce the peace. Although peace operations are clearly OOTW, many tasks at the tactical and operational levels of war may require the focused and sustained application of force.

3-138. The primary effort of many peace operations is logistics, and as such, transportation planning. Considerations include operating within the UN to support coalition forces and allies. Other considerations include working with personnel from nongovernmental agencies and private organizations and developing HN capability to provide support.

3-139. Movement control functions during peace operations are not materially different from those in other levels of conflict. Basic tasks and missions remain the same. However, these missions and tasks take place under the direction of the JFC, who establishes a CMOC to coordinate activities outside the military requirements of the operation. FM 100-23 and FM 100-23-1 contain more details on the conduct of operations for humanitarian assistance. The planning process at all command levels must involve transportation planners to determine the extent of the transportation and movement requirements. The transportation planners can then recommend the force structure required to support the requirements during deployment, employment, and redeployment.

3-140. Movement control requirements will vary based on the mission and number and types of units deployed. FM 55-10 has more information about movement control in other operational environments.



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