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Military

Chapter 4

Deployment

Deployment of OLS support elements may be phased to coincide with the introduction of combat and CS forces. Based on the logistics preparation of the theater plan, the numbered Army deploys the minimum logistics support capability required to support the forces selected for deployment. The remainder of the required support remains in CONUS. Additional information on LPT can be found in FMs 10-1 and 100-10.

Materiel is pushed from CONUS to an area support element-forward. This tailored support element may operate from an intermediate staging base or third country. It may be placed under the operational control of the corps or under an OLS support organization, such as an ASB, if deployed. When the operation expands in scope to require multiple corps, a numbered Army headquarters and support command deploys to expand the theater logistics base to support multicorps operations.

CONTENTS

INTERMEDIATE STAGING BASE
DEPLOYMENT OF OLS ELEMENTS
ESTABLISHING A FORWARD LOGISTICS SUPPORT BASE
THEATER RECEPTION AND PREPARATION OF ARRIVING UNITS
CONTRACTING
EXPANDING THE THEATER LOGISTICS BASE

INTERMEDIATE STAGING BASE

An intermediate staging base provides a logistics support base for deploying units in transit to a combat theater or other mission. Crisis response forces will often deploy through intermediate staging bases set up along their route to the theater.

ASGs may be tasked to set up an intermediate staging base. ASG will then task organize a ASB task force encompassing logistics and life-support activities. The ASB task force can use force provider equipment to provide life-support services, to include dining facilities, shower facilities, and AAFES service trucks. These support activities must be in place to support transient units on their way to combat or operations other than war. Task organizing an ASB rather than a corps support battalion to operate an intermediate staging base may be preferred since it leaves the CSB to focus on preparing to accompany or precede a division task force in response to a yet another crisis situation or contingency.

Depending upon deployment flow, time-lines, and support requirements of the transient force population, platoons, detachments, or teams from ASG units may be attached to the task force to provide--

  • CA team negotiation for local supplies or services.
  • Field feeding, water, and ice for transient troops.
  • Temporary billeting.
  • Command post sites.
  • Field shower facilities.
  • Bulk fuels, oils, and lubricants for ground and aviation requirements.
  • Limited repair parts.
  • Ground maintenance support.
  • AVIM support.
  • MHE equipment.

Support operations staffs should plan for MSTs and AVIM teams to perform repairsat the staging base. Plans should include provision of a hot refuel site to support aviation fuel requirements as well as a refuel-on-the-move site for refueling ground vehicles. Depending upon the environment, a mobile water supply team may be needed to setup semitrailer-mounted fabric tanks for bulk water distribution. Depending upon the time troops spend at the staging site, bath teams from a field services company can provide field showers.

DEPLOYMENT OF OLS ELEMENTS

One of the tenets of force structuring is to deploy to an area only those elements or units needed to do the mission. Units must be phased into the area in the order in which they are needed.

The situation dictates the overall sequence of force introduction. CSS elements may precede combat elements to setup a lodgment area. Combat and CS forces may be inserted first to secure vital areas and protect the lodgment area. Additional CSS forces follow to establish and expand the sustaining base. Then the bulk of combat and CS forces are introduced to begin sustained combat operations.

AREA SUPPORT ELEMENT-FORWARD

A small number of selected OLS personnel may be deployed to the AO and designated an area support element-forward. See Figure 4-1. This ASG forward element may be a composite company made up of various CSS elements.

  • The supply platoon could consist of only those personnel and equipment required to provide essential supplies, for example Class I, limited II, III, and limited IV.
  • The maintenance platoon should include only the resources necessary to provide essential DS maintenance and Class IX supply for common equipment, such as wheeled vehicles, power generators, and so forth.
  • A field services platoon could be a composite of shower and laundry teams and personnel to operate force provider modules.

As the supported population increases, the supply platoon would be joined by its parent DS supply company. The maintenance platoon would be joined by its parent DS maintenance company.

Gradually the ASG forward element would evolve into a composite, multifunctional area support battalion with a battalion headquarters element. The ROC (ASG) would also deploy early to become familiar with the area and to refine unit positioning plans. Over time, separate functional supply and maintenance battalions could evolve as the requirement for them develops.

DEPENDENCE ON THE CORPS

Early arriving OLS units or support elements may initially be dependent on the corps for some support. This is particularly likely when corps elements are within support distance and are not overtaxed. While OLS elements are within the corps boundaries, they are subject to corps direction in matters such as rear operations planning and execution and facilities and real estate allocation.

Ultimately the corps will be fully committed to the combat zone and will be incapable of supporting OLS elements. The need will then exist for OLS logistics units to support OLS units.

As a rule, OLS elements should not come under the direct command and control of the corps. Otherwise the temptation to divert them from their primary mission is too great. Command and control of OLS elements should come from their own command structure, initially in an area support battalion. This headquarters may be in country, in a third country, or off shore.

BSB DEPLOYMENT SUPPORT

In coordination with the ASG, the base support battalion provides support to units within the BSB's AO deploying out of cantonment areas. It assists the ASG with deployment route coordination, traffic control support, and installation security support.

The BSB conducts deploying unit facility turnover and inventory functions. It identifies and reports military surplus or abandoned equipment and supplies and secures essential facilities and supplies. The BSB also coordinates and executes the phase-down and close-out or conversion of community services, AAFES, commissary, and related facilities. It organizes and coordinates mutual assistance efforts using later deploying units.

To augment the support provided by other logistics elements or to fill critical, emergency shortages in deploying units, the BSB may provide or coordinate for--

  • Intelligence data.
  • Bulk fuel support to mobile filling station sites.
  • Organizational clothing and equipment.
  • DS maintenance.
  • Laundry support from the HN.
  • Military police battlefield circular support.
  • Mail service.
  • Intelligence.
  • Combat health support.

TIME-PHASE DEPLOYMENT EXAMPLE

A time-phase deployment example has been included here for illustration purposes. The date when the national command decides that enemy action is probable and begins an operation is designated C-day. Reserve units may or may not be mobilized immediately. Some active units are alerted, and some may deploy to the general area as a deterrent "show of force." If the situation worsens, RC units may be mobilized.

For this example, the time-phased force deployment list may show selected combat units arriving in the area and commencing operations on C + 20. These combat units carry enough supplies to operate for five days.

  • On C + 25, supplies must be available to the combat units from support units. As the situation develops, combat and CS forces eventually require a formal supply support structure.
  • On C + 35, supply and maintenance elements or units arrive just as they are needed. Gradually the whole division arrives, perhaps at C + 50.
  • Prior to C + 50 corps support forces begin to arrive. Gradually all corps units join the operation, say by C + 75.
  • Around C + 60, elements of OLS commands may arrive in the theater.
  • At C + 60, approximately 2,000 OLS troops from the various OLS commands could be present. They normally cluster around a seaport and within support range of each other. Their total logistics requirement is far less than the capacities of an entire supply company and a maintenance company.
  • By C + 75, the full corps with its COSCOM and appropriate OLS CSS or theater-level logistics support should be on the ground. These forces may be supplemented by civilian support elements and coalition forces.
  • Before C + 75, OLS units phase into the AO gradually.

The timing of events presented in this example does not illustrate the need for very early deployment of some OLS elements. Some unique OLS elements--CA language teams, CA dislocated civilian teams, EOD detachment, utilities teams, airdrop rigging team, AVIM teams, and MCTs may be required before the conflict begins. Small detachments or teams may be extracted from OLS units and deployed before the conflict begins.

ESTABLISHING A FORWARD LOGISTICS SUPPORT BASE

CSS requirements necessitate acquiring logistics support base areas overseas to ensure the support of the initial deployment of combat forces. These base areas provide facilities for stockpiling supplies to support initial combat operations.

It may be necessary to establish the logistics support base before initiating combat operations or before initiating hostilities in anticipation of deploying combat forces at a later date. The EAC support command coordinates the aerial ports of debarkation and seaports of debarkation and phase appropriate support elements into the theater. ASG forward elements may deploy to establish and maintain supply stockpiles from which to support initial deployment of combat and CS forces. Support would be projected from CONUS bases via ALOC and SEALOC, or preferably from land and sea support bases in or adjacent to the theater. Refer to Figure 4-1.

The ASG forward logistics support base could be established after the outbreak of war, following establishment of the division and corps base areas in sequence, when sufficient territory has been secured. The ASG forward logistics support base could also be established concurrently with active combat operations when the theater has sufficient depth to permit the immediate designation of a corps rear boundary. Geographic development of a ASG logistics base depends on the requirements of the supported forces, the scope of operations, and the projected expansion of the theater. Table 4-1 lists deployment planning considerations.

In the current international environment, US obligations under various defense agreements and treaties, provide for the commitment of forces as part of a combined command. Support operations staffs must consider both the combined plan and agreements for logistics support of or by allied forces. This support depends upon the resources of allied or friendly nations on whose territory operations may be conducted. They need to consider the--

  • Degree of permanency anticipated for the base.
  • Estimated troop population during successive stages of theater development.
  • Geographic location of supported forces.
  • Road and rail network along which supplies and reinforcements will move.
  • Space for dispersion of supporting units.
  • Usable beaches and terminal facilities.
  • Air-terminal facilities and secure air approach routes.
  • Requirements for supporting the local economy, military forces, and civilian population.
  • Requirements of the civilian population that reduce the availability of local resources.
  • Construction requirements of potential logistics base areas.
  • Local labor supply.
  • Space and safety considerations for ammunition/hazardous materials storage.

TERRAIN AND WEATHER ANALYSIS SUPPORT

Specialized maps and terrain and weather information can be obtained from the following sources.

Defense Mapping Agency

DMA provides prehostility and predeployment automated terrain analysis support. It produces specialized maps that both the SPO and support operations staffs can use in determining courses of action. Staffs may request maps or data relative to--

  • Cross country mobility.
  • Roads and bridges.
  • Surface drainage.
  • Ground water.
  • Obstacles.
  • Surface materials (soils).
  • Vegetation type and distribution.
  • Historical and cultural locations.

USAF Weather Support

For predeployment planning purposes, if time and resources permit, intelligence staffs can request climatology based overlays from the USAF Environmental Technical Applications Center.

After deployment, a supporting USAF weather team provides climatic forecast and prepares weather overlays. Weather teams work with engineer teams to analyze the effects of weather on terrain. For example, ASG plans and operations branch personnel may need to determine the effects of visibility and precipitation on mobility and movement rates of subordinate ASG supporting units.

If supported by a USAF weather team, refer to FM 34-81. If not supported by a USAF weather team, refer to FM 34-81-1 for information on determining the weather's effects on operations.

DEPLOYMENT PHASES

Deployment consists of the five phases shown on Figure 4-2. The first three deployment phases occur at the strategic level of war. Strategic deployment ends at the APOD or SPOD. The last two phases of deployment include reception at the POD and onward movement to the area where forces assemble or are committed. These deployment phases fall within the realm of the operational level of war but may be in the tactical level. For a detailed discussion of deployment phases, refer to FM 100-17.

THEATER RECEPTION AND PREPARATION OF ARRIVING UNITS

The EAC support command assumes operational command of all deploying US Army units as they arrive at the theater ports of debarkation. ASGs may be tasked to receive, equip, and assist deploying units. The MMC directs issue of pre-positioned war reserve stocks.

The EAC support command may designate that an ASG operate at a port of debarkation during buildup of troops in the theater. The ASG would provide specific logistics support and services for follow-on units as they arrive in theater. ASGs may help to clear air and sea PODs assembling and matching unit equipment and unit personnel.

The EAC support command's service support plans designate that the ASG provide specific logistics support for each arriving US Army unit. The plan should designate which ASG units should be contacted for services and replenishment along the LOC. ASG elements may provide maintenance, recovery and evacuation, refueling, and subsistence support to units on their way to tactical assembly areas. Subordinate units may be task organized to operate marshaling and staging areas.

ASG HEADQUARTERS INVOLVEMENT

The support provided to deploying units is the responsibility of various directorates.

Support Operations Directorate

The support operations director arranges for essential supplies and services until a normal operational posture is achieved. For example:

  • Supply and services branch personnel determine requirements and coordinate supply support, use of army reserve stocks, map issue, and essential field services with ASB and S&S battalion staff.
  • Maintenance branch personnel coordinate DS maintenance and evacuation support with ASB and maintenance battalion staff.
  • Transportation branch personnel coordinate movement from ports and marshaling areas to intermediate or final destinations with the servicing MCT.

Security Plans and Operations Directorate

The SPO director may serve as the marshaling area control group commander. Communications branch personnel arrange for limited communications support (land line, FM radio, and messenger) at each designated marshaling area site. Engineer branch personnel coordinate with P&A directorate personnel relative to requirements for construction of troop facilities.

Personnel and Administrative Directorate

The P&A director arranges for reception services at the POD and for essential administrative services until a normal operational posture is achieved. P&A staff personnel coordinate personnel reception and assistance support with the EAC support command, to include--

  • Processing of replacements.
  • Administrative support.
  • Health, welfare, and morale support.

INITIAL PREPLANNED SUPPLY SUPPORT

Initial preplanned supply support packages are designed to fill the void between the time unit accompanying supplies are exhausted and when normal flow of requisitioned supplies commences. These packages may be the initial fill stocks for nondivisional units until demands on the supply system formalize and the normal requisition system can be implemented.

Each package is tailored by the MMC in conjunction with the NICP for a specific DSU based upon that DSU's mission. Based upon deployment, support packages are then selectively requested from the NICP by the MMC. The NICPs process the request and prepare and forward the packages to the proper depots. The depots then ship the packages by the most direct means to the DSU, bypassing the GSU level. The packages allow the DSUs to adjust their requirements as the various packages arrive and are consumed.

CONTRACTING

Contracting can improve response time during the critical early stage of a deployment. It offsets delays in deploying an adequate support structure and provides a means of obtaining support until scheduled LOGCAP resources can arrive in the AO. In augmenting existing logistics support capabilities, contracting reduces dependence on CONUS-based logistics support systems and frees airlift and sealift for other priority requirements. The commander determines whether a supply or service is provided by a military unit, HNS, LOGCAP resources, or contract. This depends on the availability of supply or services in the area and on the capability of the deployed force.

The ASG contracting element provides contracting support in its area and back-up support to the corps support group. It obtains locally available resources through purchase or contracting actions. When deployed, it may be augmented with local nationals or US embassy personnel who serve as interpreters. ASG contracting personnel must interface with agencies and contractors providing support. In joint operations, they interface with a joint contracting element created to preclude interservice competition for local supplies and services. The joint contracting element ensures more effective use of scarce resources.

ASG CONTRACTING OFFICER

The ASG contracting officer may purchase, rent, lease, or otherwise obtain supplies and services from nonfederal sources within the dollar limits specified by the appropriate contracting agency. He may contract for--

  • All classes of supply. (Medical supplies may be subject to approval of medical personnel. Repair parts may be limited by the technical development in the area.)

  • Billeting facilities.
  • Access to communication networks.
  • Labor.
  • Port handling support.
  • Limited minor construction.
  • Temporary lease of rear property in coordination with the corps of engineers.
  • Transportation assets.
  • Maintenance and repair support.
  • Office paper reproduction services.
  • Sanitation services.
  • Laundry.
  • Showers.
  • Dining facility services.
  • Mortuary affairs support within specific parameters.
  • Safety equipment, firefighting, protection, and environmental services.

In some contingency scenarios, contracting personnel precede the arrival of the main body of troops. Contracting officers, unit ordering officers, and contracting officer representatives may operate initially at ports of entry or locations where large numbers of contracts may be produced.

During peacetime and when not deployed, ASG contracting officers should work in the Directorate of Contracting at their installation to maintain proficiency in current contracting laws and procedures. They appoint and train ordering officers based upon supported unit nominations.

Area Databases

The ASG contracting officer and NCOs develop and continually update area databases to identify potential sources of goods and services in probable deployment areas. Assistance in developing these databases may be obtained from supporting finance units and attached CA teams.

Contracting Support Kit

The ASG contracting officer and NCOs establish and maintain contracting support kits for anticipated deployment areas. These kits should contain required forms and sufficient administrative and office supplies and equipment to support a contracting office for a pre-determined time at a remote deployment location. Kits should include maps of the area surrounding the AO, local telephone books, lists of approved sources of supplies and services, and catalogs with pictures that can help simplify the local purchase of hardware, construction supplies, and automotive parts.

CA TEAMS

CA teams attached to the ASG's CA battalion identify local resources, materials, and services available in the AO. They develop and maintain area studies and area assessments for potential areas of deployment. They conduct market surveys and provide information on the current political, economic, and social activities in the area. They provide area data for the contracting support kits.

In country, CA teams provide the liaison to civil agencies in the host country. They assist in coordinating access to the civilian economy and government. CA teams may also provide translators.

THEATER ARMY CONTRACTING ACTIVITY

The theater Army contracting activity provides contracting policy and procedures for the EAC support command and corps. It may establish and serve as the consolidated contracting office for all Services operating in the theater.

LSE CONTRACTING ELEMENT

The LSE contracting element supports units and AMC teams or activities attached to the support group. It oversees contracting officer representatives monitoring contractor forward repair activities.

SPECIAL OPERATIONS COMMAND

The limited, short duration nature of special operations deployment allows the organic contracting element of the special operations command to directly appoint ordering officers to offset requirements. If a special operations support battalion is deployed, it deploys its warranted contracting officers.

JOINT CONTRACTING OFFICE

Joint operations may require the creation of a joint contracting office. This contracting office would be staffed by personnel from all Services operating in the theater. The Army portion of the joint office may include some or all warranted Army contracting officers in the theater. If separate Services maintain parallel contracting organizations, Service elements will coordinate to preclude interservice competition for local supplies or services. Consolidation of contracting requirements results in lower prices and more effective use of contracting personnel.

EXPANDING THE THEATER LOGISTICS BASE

The Army must be capable of rapid and effective conversion to a war-supporting distribution system. There are no special wartime CSS systems. Existing supply systems are expanded and the emphasis changes to unconstrained support of combat elements. During the transition phase, all supplies and logistics functions nonessential to the war effort are suspended.

Establishing the theater where no prior operations exist will present formidable challenges to logisticians. A phased buildup of forces may begin in peacetime. ASG operating procedures must be flexible and adaptable to the increasing organizational complexity and volume of requirements. Temporary changes to policy may be necessitated by the buildup. For example, selected noncritical items may be restricted. As the buildup occurs, active Army and Reserve Component units are deployed as necessary to perform logistics support functions.

ARMY RESERVE STOCKS

Army reserve stocks are acquired in peacetime to meet the increased requirements that occur in the early stages of war. Army reserve stocks support mobilization and sustain operations until the wartime supply system is fully operational. Forward presence ASG units assigned to overseas theaters store and maintain army reserve stocks for use during the initial stage of a war.

Locating stocks in the theater speeds response time and lessens the transportation burden when war is declared. During the first days of a war, units fight using the supplies in their possession and items issued at the direction of the MMC from the army reserve stocks. Policies and procedures for management of war reserves are described in AR 710-1.

FORWARD DEPLOYED FORCE

In areas with forward-deployed forces, there are usually army reserve stocks or other reserve stocks stored in theater. Upon the outbreak of war, those stocks sustain the force until sufficient supplies have been received by surface and ALOC. These reserve stocks are normally EAC support command-controlled during peacetime. At or near the start of hostilities, they are released to the EAC support command and the corps.

NO FORWARD DEPLOYED FORCE

Logistics support in areas where no prior forward presence force exists will be difficult. Specific procedures and sequencing of events will depend upon assessments of the terrain, the threat, and the needs of the combat units. Only the barest essentials will be made available at first. Supply units may be afloat offshore or based in a nearby third country for an initial period.

GS supply functions will be conducted, but an ASG is not established until justified. An ASG will be deployed only when the level of work load and duration of involvement require such capabilities. As a major conflict evolves, the role of the ASG and logistics support provided will approach the procedures described in subsequent chapters.

ASG ROLE

ASG GS supply units and heavy materiel supply units store most of the army reserve pre-positioned stocks in the theater. These items are not accessible for peacetime use except in emergencies. Army reserve stocks are issued in the early stages of a war and are not replaced.

ASG units store theater reserve stocks of surface-delivered supplies. These are issued by DS supply units to deploying units at the direction of the MMC. ASGs store a 30-day supply of most maintenance-related Class II and Class IX ALOC-eligible items. They issue these stocks during the transition to war to satisfy high-priority requisitions.

The corps normally maintains 10 days of army reserve stocks (other than ALOC-eligible items) within its area. After this is exhausted, the corps requisition from the MMC. The MMC directs the EAC support command to issue from its theater-oriented GSUs attached to ASG S&S battalions.

ALOC AND SEALOC

Limited airlift capabilities restrict air shipments to critical items only. Supplies must begin arriving from CONUS before in-theater stocks are depleted. These shipments are received at the EAC support command or theater-oriented GSUs assigned to an ASG S&S battalion. They may be throughput to corps GSUs or EAC support command/corps DSUs. When SEALOCs are open and the logistics structure has grown to war sustaining size, full-service supply operations are resumed. As supplies begin to arrive from CONUS, the ASG becomes the GS base for supplies in support of theater units.

MMC ACTION

MMC must get supplies in the hands of the troops within the warning time available. MMC initiate selective cancellation actions on requisitions deemed not essential for combat, health, and welfare. They cancel nonessential requisitions to reduce the work load on CSS organizations, such as ASG units. Reserve stocks in the theater are used to support combat units until a wartime resupply system is operational.

Requisitions flow from the DSUs to the EAC support command MMC. In peacetime, CMMCs and EAC support command MMC requisition items for non-ALOC-eligible units directly from CONUS inventory control points. Conversion to a wartime posture includes placing these requisitions on the MMC. The MMC either satisfies the requirements from theater stocks or passes the requisition to CONUS. Materiel flow is from EAC support command-oriented GSUs, to COMMZ DSUs, and finally to the user.

SUPPORT OF CONVOY SUPPORT CENTERS/TRAILER TRANSFER POINTS

Onward movement by convoy often requires hours in transit. Convoy support centers can be established along MSRs to provide an expanded rest halt for divers and passengers. Similar to commercial truck stops, convoy support centers provide drivers and passengers an opportunity to rest, refuel, and subsist. MSTs can locate at the centers to perform limited repairs.

ASG S&S branch staff officers need to plan to provide life sustainment support to truck drivers at convoy support centers or trailer transfer points along MSRs. Consolidation of medium and heavy trucks at convoy support centers also consolidates driver and associated subsistence, morale support and maintenance personnel. Truck company and associated MST personnel stationed at the convoy support centers require--

  • Group rations at the rest stop as well as individual rations along the MSRs.
  • Health and comfort packages.
  • Bottled drinking water and potable water to support field feeding and convoy support center hygiene.
  • Chemical overgarments in NBC environments.
  • Tent shelters and bedding supplies.
  • Maps.
  • Lubricants and oils for truck maintenance.
  • Filling station support or fast retail refuel of convoys.
  • Class VI personal demand items to help maintain morale and reduce driver stress during layovers and rest periods.
  • Extra fan belts and parts for quick repairs on the road.
  • Repair parts for maintenance of truck convoys at the convoy support center hub.



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