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Military

Chapter 1

Operational Environment

The range of military operations encompasses operations in peacetime, conflict, and war. ASG units support operations across the range of military operations. The basic principles addressed in FM 100-10 apply across the operational continuum. Though ASG elements function in a peacetime environment, they must be ready to quickly transition from peace to operations other than war and war.

ASG units may provide support to combat-ready forces in their crisis support or power projection role. Selected ASG elements may augment the COSCOM or DISCOM when support requirements exceed their support capabilities. They may deploy from a forward presence site in response to a crisis or remain at that forward site to receive and process follow-on forces.

ASGs may tailor a slice of support to set up a forward support base or provide support at an intermediate staging area. ASG units may also locate in a friendly nation outside the supported CINC's region or operate a support base from amphibious shipping or mobile sea bases.

CONTENTS

ASG EMPLOYMENT ACROSS THE CONTINUUM
SUPPORTING OPERATIONS OTHER THAN WAR
SUPPORT OF JOINT AND COMBINED OPERATIONS

ASG EMPLOYMENT ACROSS THE CONTINUUM

Conflicts can prompt US intervention. Even nonhostile situations can require the use of military forces in some form. Operational level support is required when the size of the force exceeds the capability of the deployed force's logistics support structure. OLS is also required when a significant support structure is required offshore, in a lodgment area, or in a third country support base. If prestock supply points or facilities are located in a third country or afloat, ASG elements may deploy during the initial stage of deployment.

ASGs, through the Logistics Support Element, connect the nation's industrial base to its combat power. ASG staffs must plan to meet the requirements across the range of military operations of conflicts that span the continuum of military operations noted on Figure 1-1. They must maintain the ability to respond globally to contingencies across the scope of military operations.

LEVELS OF LOGISTICS

ASGs establish and coordinate logistics support at the operational and strategic level of war. This allows the tactical commanders to focus on the conflict, rather than on support requirements. Figure 1-2, depicts the levels of war and the corresponding overlaps.

Three levels of logistics support, tactical logistics, operational logistics, and strategic logistics, correlate to the three levels of war: tactical, operational, and strategic.

Tactical Logistics

The tactical logistician focuses on sustaining soldiers and their systems and manning, arming, fueling, fixing, and moving the force to win tactical battles in the combat zone. He is concerned with getting the right support, at the right time and place, to the soldier in the field. Depending on the size of the deployed force and the environment, tactical commanders may assume responsibility for logistics functions performed at both operational and strategic levels.

Operational Logistics

Operational logistics provides the tactical commander staying power. It encompasses activities required to support the force in theater in support of campaigns and major operations. When more than one corps is deployed, operational logistics is normally provided by the Army component command.

Operational logisticians focus on those areas listed on Figure 1-3. FM 100-16 describes operational logistics. Because they must support extended operations, operational logisticians require longer planning time. They need to balance current consumption requirements with the requirement to extend LOCs and build up support for subsequent major operations. The fundamental logistics support doctrine, tactics, and techniques remain unchanged. Whenever possible, they must take advantage of available HN infrastructure and contracted logistics support.

Strategic Logistics

Strategic logistics supports national objectives and the strategic theater war plan. Strategic logistics is directed toward attainment of goals in NCA national security policies. Those goals may require political, economic, informational, and military measures supported by industrial base mobilization. Contractors and civilians provide support within as well as from outside the AO.

The strategic logistics system includes activities under: DA control and NICPs; national maintenance points; and USAMC, DLA, and GSA depots, arsenals, plants, and factories. Strategic logisticians focus on those areas listed in Figure 1-4.

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF LOGISTICS SUPPORT

The fundamental principles of logistics support listed in Table 1-1 apply across the spectrum of conflict. They need to be adapted based on the AO, existing indigenous facilities, indigenous support, and interservice support.

FORWARD PRESENCE AND POWER PROJECTION

ASG units are among the forward presence forces remaining in USAREUR and KOREA to support alliances. They are nationally oriented and augment tiled battle commands. They often have a unique organization that meets the needs of their alliance structure. For example, the ASGs base support battalion may have close EOD support to respond to terrorists improvised explosive devices.

The Army can project power from forward presence locations in response to requirements from the National Command Authority. Because of their forward presence employment, units attached to the ASG's base support battalion can be among the initial forces available to an OCONUS CINC to counter potential threats and support initial responses to crisis situations. A contingency force may require a strategic airlift and/or sea lift of resupply from ASG units in CONUS or OCONUS sites.

The reduced size of the Army may require forward presence ASG units to deploy to other regional areas to support national defense policies. An example of forward presence operations is during Operation Provide Comfort, ASG units deployed from a forward-presence site OCONUS to support the supply, maintenance, and field services requirements of a deployed task force. Considering requirements, an area support battalion was formed. The battalion was placed under the operational control of the deployed task force. Resupply operations focused on providing Class II, packaged III, IV, VII, and IX.

CRISIS RESPONSE

A commander may use ASG elements to help reduce human suffering and curtail loss of property. Attached civil affairs public health teams, public safety teams, public welfare teams, public works teams, and dislocated civilian teams provide liaison between military forces and local government officials and agencies responding to natural disasters. The ASG's base support battalion provides a crisis response through its NEO mission support.

If required, ASG units must be able to mobilize, deploy, and support a crisis-response force and reinforcing forms. The ASG airdrop supply unit could rig supply loads in readiness for crisis response scenarios. Using a task organized ASB allows the ASG to tailor the support slice to the force mixture and conditions of METT-T, to include support in an austere area of the world.

FORCE TAILORING

The composition of the logistics support force is tailored to the crisis situation and to the specific force being supported. METT-T and the theater of operation infrastructure influence support requirements. Force tailoring evolves at the strategic level from logistics preparation of the theater plan--considering such things as METT-T, available lift, prepositioned assets, contracted support, and host or foreign nation support. As required, the CSS slice of support accompanying a division or smaller elements could include ASG elements. For example, CA teams assigned to the ASG's CA battalion (GP) could be attached to the slice to assist in acquiring foreign nation assistance and controlling dislocated civilians.

ASGs may be tailored to support operations in either a mature or immature theater. Initially, the EAC support command may form a tailored support package and deploy it as soon as possible to assist in supporting the corps and offset initial shortages in support provided by late deploying reserve component units. Reconfiguring a task organized ASB occurs after receipt of a mission to deploy. This tailored element provides support that exceeds the corps'capability. It may include elements such as platoons from a heavy materiel supply unit for deprocessing Class VII or CA teams.

CONUS BASED FORCE PROJECTION

The US Army has reduced its forward-based presence abroad by adopting a strategy of force projection operations. Force projection relies on flexible logistics support.

Force projection usually begins as a contingency operation. Typically, the support organization will be austere at the outset and gradually develop over time. For example, a forward support battalion may need to be augmented by ASG elements as well as by elements from the DISCOM, COSCOM, HN, or contracted agencies.

Force projection may require development of forward bases, intermediate staging bases, and a lodgment in theater with allocated over-the-shore or air resupply requirements. ASG units can deploy from CONUS to support US forces in conjunction with allies or coalition forces. The ASG units or elements deployed will depend upon the--

  • Size of the force to be supported.
  • Maturity of the theater.
  • Availability of in-theater stockage.
  • HNS capabilities.
  • Mix of logistics functionality to be included.

INTERMEDIATE STAGING BASE

When distances prevent a smooth flow of support, an ISB may have to be established to assure continuity of support. A task force or task organized ASB could be tasked to operate an ISB. ISBs allow supported tactical and operational commanders time to gather additional intelligence on the AO and finalize plans following briefings and rehearsals. They also provide time during which units may redistribute and finalize their accompanying loads. Deploying soldiers can recuperate after long trips from their home station. ISBs may also be used as a staging area from which to deploy NEO evacuation forces. They can also serve as a safe haven for evacuees until further evacuation can be arranged to the US. ASG organizations may be tasked to deploy to, set up support facilities at, and operate an ISB.

ASG units may employ at an intermediate staging base near airfields. Depending upon how long forces are to remain at the intermediate staging base--

  • Field feeding personnel could provide hot meals.
  • DS supply unit Class III supply point personnel could provide limited transport of fuel from HN sources.
  • Other DS supply unit supply personnel could issue from pre-positioned items.
  • MSTs may provide emergency repairs to unit equipment before the units depart the airfield.
  • AVUM/AVIM teams may be required to provide required maintenance on aircraft.
  • MCTs could commit truck assets to line-haul unit basic loads of ammunition for plane side issue to units deploying by air to the lodgment area.

Circumstances and plans to enable mutually supporting elements to linkup cause forces to deploy and remain at the staging base for several days. A platoon or a complete Force Provider Company may be assigned or attached to an ASG to setup force provider modules to provide soldier support, such as feeding, showers, and rest and relaxation support.

SPLIT BASED OPERATION

During the initial stages of establishing a logistics base, it may be necessary to perform support operations simultaneously in two or more areas. Given assured communications, logistics support that cannot be initially provided in the AO can be accomplished in a third country support base, in a lodgment area, at CONUS installations, or afloat. Refer to Figure 1-5.

Split based logistics operations reduce the burden on the deployment flow. Preventing unnecessary stockage in theater reduces the inhibiting effects of the logistics tail. Instead of relying on prepositioned war reserve stocks in a potential theater or at a port of embarkation, stocks may be maintained in third country support bases or maintained afloat. The bulk of the ASG may remain in CONUS to push required supplies. Propositioning stocks enables operational forces to rapidly resupply tactical forces until SEALOC can be established.

FOLLOW-ON REINFORCEMENT

ASG units may serve as follow-on reinforcement units trained and deployed for protracted operations. These reinforcement units replace or augment CSS forward-presence units that have deployed to other regions for protracted operations. This frees forward corps support groups to follow the division that they habitually support. Elements from ASG units may operate near arrival airfields to receive and facilitate the onward movement of troops and equipment to holding areas where incoming personnel link with representatives from their parent unit. ASG support operations staff officers coordinate support with the arrival airfield control group. Depending upon requirements, they may need to arrange for tank and pump units to refuel equipment near the airfield. They may need to have water purification equipment set up to provide potable water or arrange to have bottled water delivered. They may also need to provide life support to port support activity personnel.

ESTABLISHED THEATERS

In established theaters, the theater can reach full development relatively fast. Pre-positioned army reserve stocks and operational project stocks are already in place. Industrial property, utilities, and local vendor services may be available. CA teams may have arranged for foreign nation support. As the theater matures, logistics support requirements escalate. Any assumptions about facilities upon which planning is based must be well documented.

AREA OF OPERATIONS

EAC support commands normally subdivide their area and assign geographic responsibilities into ASGs. Depending on the geographic area and the number of subordinate units required, one or more ASGs are assigned to an EAC support command. Refer to Figure 1-6. The ASG's AO is that geographical area wherein the ASG commander is assigned the responsibility and authority to conduct logistics support operations. Table 1-2 lists areas which impact on force selection and logistics support operations. The limits of the AO are those geographical boundaries specified in the OPORD, operations overlay, or contingency plan from the EAC support command that defines the command's mission. Normally, ASGs locate along lines of communication in order to take advantage of the transportation networks behind the corps rear boundary.

AREA OF INTEREST

The ASG's AI extends beyond the physical boundaries imposed by the AO. It is that area from which information and intelligence are required to permit planning ASG support missions. Establishing an AI that exceeds the limits of the ASG AO allows ASG staffs to anticipate significant developments. The geographical locations of other support activities and the ability of the threat to project power or interject forces into the ASG AO affect the limits of the AI.

The limits to the AI are based on threats to mission accomplishment. AIs will vary significantly according to the level of war which ASG units are supporting. For example, the ASG's AI might include political developments in a neutral country that could provide a base of support for threat forces that could impede ASG providing supplies in support of peacekeeping operations.

SUPPORTING OPERATIONS OTHER THAN WAR

The use of CS and CSS elements is more effective than the use of force in achieving political, economic, and psychological goals. A logistics structure supporting operations other than war may be austere or it may be the leading and primary element of the operation. In operations other than war, logistics elements often precede combat and CS forces into the AO. In fact, CSS elements may be the only forces deployed.

Conventional levels of CSS support elements are often bypassed. CSS elements from corps or OLS are often deployed first. OLS elements may be preferred because they are not tied to a scenario or to a habitually supported division. In addition, they have already established direct contact with the industrial base. Attached CA teams may have assured foreign nation support.

TAILORED/MODULAR SUPPORT

The requirement for ASG support depends on the nature of the operation, its duration, and the environment. An ASG may tailor an ASB to support peacetime contingency operations. It can deploy subordinate elements in crisis avoidance or crisis management situations to provide support to both military and civilian personnel and allied nations. FM 63-6 describes logistics support in OOTW.

The ASG support operations directorate prepares plans keyed to potential contingencies. Support operations staff officers need intelligence reports on the--

  • Size of the supported population.
  • Resources available in the AO.
  • Extent of support to be provided to non-DOD agencies, sister Services, or allied forces.
  • Environmental factors that may alter planning based on usage and consumption factors.
  • Availability of local facilities to support logistics operations.
  • Local transportation networks.
  • Terrorists threats.

When tasked to provide support to operations other than war, ASG elements may find themselves providing support for--

  • US governmental agencies.
  • US civilian agencies and personnel.
  • US military forces.
  • US-based personnel and organizations.
  • Allied or indigenous governmental agencies.
  • Allied or indigenous civilians.
  • International civilian and governmental agencies.

The support operations officer may recommend changes in the deployment sequence of ASG units to the contingency force commander. Initially, ASG staff officers should focus on the areas listed on Table 1-3.

HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF

Humanitarian assistance programs attempt to lessen the results of natural or man-made disasters or other endemic conditions. They are usually limited in scope or duration. Army CSS units may respond to requests for immediate help from foreign governments or international agencies.

ASG elements could be tasked to provide logistics support to humanitarian assistance efforts. Logistics efforts may be focused toward helping to reduce human pain, disease, suffering, hunger, hardship, accidents or privation. For example, ASG units may rig supplies for airdrop to remote areas. Attached CA teams listed on Table 1-4, may support refugee assistance, food programs, and civilian welfare programs.

SPO plans and operations branch personnel need to consider--

  • Potential sources of assistance from outside the disaster area.
  • Movement of homeless and displaced persons into the AO.
  • Present and potential extent of the disaster.
  • Further threats from severe weather patterns.

Intelligence staffs need to view weather and environment as potential threats to relief operations. Waterborne diseases may threaten the health of supporting soldiers.

SJA section personnel need to identify the limits of the ASG commander's authority. For example, can he assist law enforcement agencies? Can he financially obligate the government?

The ASG may place disaster relief resources (technical specialists, teams or elements, equipment, and supplies) under the OPCON of the military commander in charge of relief operations. Attached CA teams could organize a humanitarian depot to receive, store, and distribute relief supplies. A platoon or a complete Force Provider Company can set up force provider modules to establish "life support centers" that provide shelter, medical care, bath, laundry, counseling, and recreation activities. ASG soldiers may provide relief services, prepare meals, clean and haul debris, produce and distribute water and meals, restore power, and construct life support centers.

ASG engineer branch personnel could provide technical support relative to--

  • Temporary construction of access routes.
  • Restoration of critical public services and facilities.
  • Clearance of debris.
  • Demolition or stabilization of damaged structures.

DOMESTIC SUPPORT OPERATIONS ASSISTANCE

The national shift from forward deployed to a force projection strategy has resulted in a refocus on the use of Army resources for domestic support operations. Civil authorities have the primary authority and responsibility for disasters and domestic emergencies. The National Guard has primary responsibility to provide military assistance in its state. When state and National Guard resources require supplementation, and when requested by the governor, the Army will assist civil authorities. The Army plays a subordinate and supporting role to lead civilian agencies.

FM 100-19 provides guidelines and operational principles for the conduct of domestic support operations and guidance on how to integrate operations with those of supported civil authorities. It also describes legal considerations and constraints limiting the use of Army personnel in domestic support operations. Military commanders may act before a Presidential declaration, using immediate response authority to assist in the rescue, evacuation, and emergency treatment of casualties; in restoring emergency medical capabilities in providing essential public services and utilities, and in safeguarding public health.

Support to US civil authority includes those activities provided in support of federal and state officials. FM 100-19 describes assistance to US civil authorities. ASG units may provide support to combat and CS units providing support to US civil authorities confronted with--

  • Disasters.
  • Civil disorder.
  • Illegal immigration.
  • Customs violations.
  • Dislocated civilian personnel.
  • Drug trafficking.
  • Threats to federal property.

Following a Presidential declaration of disaster or emergency, the Director of Military Support could task the Army to provide support. The Director of Military Support is an Army general officer appointed by the Secretary of the Army to be the DOD primary contact for all federal departments and agencies during domestic emergencies. ASGs could tailor elements in response to requests from civil authorities or agencies at local, state, or federal levels for--

  • Disaster assistance. ASG supply, field service, and maintenance elements and CA teams listed on Table 1-4 can respond to natural catastrophes such as hurricanes, floods, tidal waves, typhoons, tornadoes, droughts, earthquakes, landslides, or volcanic eruptions. ASG elements may be tasked to provide disaster assistance to US civilians. Supply elements may provide food, water, and shelter. Attached fire fighting teams and utilities teams may help contain natural disasters and restore civilian services. The Federal Emergency Management Agency has the lead for coordinating federal disaster assistance.
  • Environmental assistance. ASG petroleum battalion elements can assist in cleaning up hazardous petroleum or chemical spills, restoring contaminated land and water, preserving wetlands, and fighting wild land fires. The Department of Energy has the lead for civil radiological emergencies. The Environmental Protection Agency and the Coast Guard share responsibility for chemical contamination and oil spills.
  • Law enforcement. CA teams and MP elements attached to an ASG and supporting EOD elements can assist civil law enforcement authorities quell civil disturbances, counter drug operations, combat terrorism, and perform explosive ordnance disposal. Refer to FM 100-37. During civil disorders, intelligence staffs identify the populace's political sympathies. They depict the general political stance of the major population centers on a population status overlay. During riot control assistance to civil authorities, intelligence officers need to assess the possible influence of gangs or other unofficial political elements on operational support. ASG units could also provide support to military forces participating in missions to detect, disrupt, interdict, and destroy illicit drug operations.
  • Community assistance. Attached CA public welfare, public works, public health, and public safety teams can support civilian organizations.

ASG elements may coordinate with the state's Office of Emergency Services or similar agency or with control elements operating from a state activated Emergency Operations Center. Following requirements assessment by emergency response teams, the ASG could tailor a logistics support force to deploy to an affected area. As required, ASGs cross level response equipment among units.

In addition to supply, maintenance, and field services elements, ASGs could deploy "other" elements if attached to ASGs. For example:

  • Utilities teams can reestablish power supply and perform utilities repair or reconstruction. They can also construct life support centers, perform structure repairs, and use heavy construction equipment to assist with clearing and hauling debris.
  • Prime power platoons can provide temporary electrical power to key locations to help restore electrical services to crucial civilian disaster support agencies.
  • Military intelligence elements can assist in collecting, analyzing, and disseminating information in support of law enforcement efforts in accordance with AR 381-10 and AR 381-20.
  • Chemical company personnel can provide assistance in dealing with the movement or spills of toxic chemical munitions and substances. Chemical staffs can direct surveys to determine the type and extent of toxic contamination. They can assist civilian agencies with personnel and equipment decontamination. They can also provide assistance in the use of defoliants and the employment of riot control agents.
  • Property disposal teams can assist in assessing and classifying damaged equipment for repair or scrap.

Without FEMA tasking, Army units lack authority to provide domestic disaster assistance. The support operations officer needs to seek reimbursement guidance early. It is imperative that accountability be maintained throughout the domestic support operation. All directorate personnel must track the cost of equipment and supplies and determine costs that may be absorbed as related to training or normal operating expenses.

SHOW OF FORCE

Contingency forces may deploy as a show of force to reassure a friendly nation or ally or to influence another government or political-military organization to respect US interests. This show of force may be organized as a combined training exercise. Required logistics and logistics infrastructure must be available. ASG elements may deploy to the show of force exercise site to help sustain the deployed force.

COMBATTING TERRORISM

Antiterrorism includes those measures that reduce the vulnerability of personnel, facilities, and equipment to terrorist acts. Terrorists may attempt to steal or sabotage major weapon systems in army reserve stocks. MP elements attached to forward presence base support battalions secure CSS facilities at OCONUS installations. They perform crisis management and respond to terrorist incidents.

Supporting EOD elements attached to the base support battalions provide explosive ordnance support to forward presence forces. Supporting EOD elements provide training in ordnance recognition, bomb threat and search procedures. They respond to terrorists bomb threats and terrorist incidents.

Avoidance and self-defense measures should include monitoring vendors and contractors who provide supplies and services to forward presence forces. Systematic checks on the receipt and distribution of supplies and equipment can help prevent contamination of food, water, and bulk fuels.

NONCOMBATANT EVACUATION OPERATIONS

The demographic situation may prompt NEO. Evacuation may occur in three environments: permissive, uncertain, and hostile. The operational time may be sensitive. FM 90-29 describes planning for NEO. Plans and operations branch personnel and support operations staffs need to identify--

  • Assembly areas or evacuee consolidation points.
  • Facilities equipped with power, water, rest rooms, and heat to include: football or soccer stadiums, government buildings, gymnasiums, auditoriums, and recreation centers.
  • Relative position to NEO sites and US installations to places suited for anti-US demonstrations, such as embassies and US citizen population centers and US business areas.
  • Major thoroughfares and secure evacuation routes.
  • Public transport systems available for evacuation effort.
  • Available sources of food and potable water.

The ASGs intelligence staffs need to identify groups that might unintentionally or intentionally interfere with evacuation efforts. These may include--

  • HN law enforcement agencies.
  • Military forces.
  • Student demonstrators.
  • Religious factions.
  • General HN population.
  • Terrorists.
  • Rioters.
  • Radical extremists.

PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS

PKOs are military operations that maintain peace already obtained through diplomatic efforts. A peacekeeping force, such as a United Nation multinational noncombatant force, supervises and implements a negotiated truce. The peacekeeping force operates strictly within the terms of reference. Refer to Joint Pub 3-07 and FM 100-20.

ASG units or modular elements may deploy as part of a coalition force to support PKOs in austere, harsh environments or where the infrastructure has been destroyed. Their mission may be to support US and United Nation coalition forces, to provide support to foreign nationals and allies, and to develop the HNs capability to provide support. ASGs may form forward logistics bases using prepositioned afloat assets or assist in preparing initial bases of operation. FM 100-23 discusses logistics support of PSOs.

After the initial period of deployment, logistics support for most United Nation operations is the responsibility of the United Nation's civilian Field Operations Division. Though the United Nations has stockpiled essential equipment, it purchases goods or contracts for services to support PSOs. DA Pamphlet 700-15 covers support specifically to United Nations operations.

Depending upon the area, the peacekeeping force may rely heavily on contractors for fresh food supplies and dining facility support. Preventive medicine personnel are needed to approve water quality from local sources. Veterinary personnel are needed to approve food supplies from local purchase activities. The need for individual rations and other operational rations exist for personnel assigned to remote patrols. ASG elements can receive and issue these rations as well as ration supplements. Contractors need to take into account the cultural or religious preferences of the multinational peacekeeping force. Table 1-5 lists other possible areas of support.

Depending upon the economic base, civilian contractors can provide custodial support at bases. Civilian contractors may provide fresh produce, water, and ice. They may also maintain vehicles.

Services at the base camp may be included in the general custodial contract. That contract may include provision for--

  • Electrical power.
  • Showers.
  • Laundry.
  • Barber support.
  • Post exchange services.
  • Engineer functions.
  • Fire fighting.
  • Trash disposal.
  • Sewers.

ASG elements may remain in an AO to provide long-term logistics support for United Nations peacekeeping operations. Support operations staff planners need to assess the interoperability and compatibility of US assets with those of coalition forces.

Article 55 of the Geneva Convention states that the host country, as the territorial sovereign, is responsible for refugees on its territory. However, in the event that its resources are strained by an influx of refugees, the host country may request assistance from US forces.

US forces have a legal responsibility to provide refugee care where they have occupied enemy territory and have established a military government. This would include providing food supplies and water to the population.

SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES

Army SOF have limited organic sustainment capabilities. Much of the support for SOF is procured locally. Equipment to be supported may be one-of-a-kind items. SOF depend on the logistics system to support their operations.

The special operations support command may arrange habitual support relationships between the special operations task force and ASG elements providing support on an area or unit basis. When conventional logistics support is unavailable or inappropriate, the EAC support command tasks a special operations support battalion to provide dedicated DS-level logistics support in remote and denied areas. Refer to FMs 63-24 and 100-25. The supporting battalion or ASG elements must have a deployability posture. Even if CONUS based, they still must be incorporated in the TPFDL.

SOF units require few critical supplies and may be supported through normal supply channels, to include ASG DSUs or a bare base support system. However, SOF units require special operations peculiar or low-density foreign, nonstandard, interagency items. The type and density of SOF peculiar equipment may require the use of nonstandard methods of support. Most resupply is by airdrop or helicopter support.

INSURGENCY AND COUNTER INSURGENCY

US security interests may be best served by the incumbent government or by support of an insurgency. The military role is principally to augment US Security Assistance programs or Foreign Internal Defense programs.

Logistics support may consist of small teams deployed to assist indigenous tactical forces. ASG elements may provide support to insurgents, to resistance forces, or to special operations forces. Whenever possible, this support is provided from locations outside the AO. If US presence increases, teams may deploy into the AO.

The size of the ASG support element deployed depends on the host country's ability to provide support. Initially, ASG units could employ small teams in support of host country national development efforts. As the US presence increases beyond small teams, ASG units may provide security assistance supplies to the host country to enable it to improve military and civil organizations. Additional transportation assets may be needed to move cargo for civic action projects. The ASG HNS logistics directorate coordinates and manages HNS negotiated or obtained by CA teams and integrates HNS into the US Army logistics support system.

Insurgency and counterinsurgency operations often require deep penetration and temporary establishment of LOCs in a hostile environment. In that case, CSS units must be sequenced early to provide for the physical needs of the force. Selected CSS units should deploy along with or soon after the first forces land.

The down trace identifies a pool of units to provide support for a contingency force. Teams and detachments could be deployed during the buildup phase to maintain equipment, provide services, and receive and distribute supplies. ASG elements could arrive in country or in an adjacent country before the actual deployment. An ASB headquarters can provide the command and control structure for logistics elements deployed without a parent headquarters.

ASG elements providing support must operate within the environmental, political, and legal constraints governing US involvement. As directed by the State Department representative, CSS elements may provide clothing and equipment to the HN military, paramilitary, and police. US forces may enable the embassy to provide a limited amount of personal welfare and comfort items.

Intelligence staffs assess areas shown on Table 1-2. They refer to these areas in their reports on the analysis of the AO and in the intelligence estimate. Plans and operations branch personnel and support operations staff then assess the impact of those areas on mission support.

Depending upon requirements, a task organized ASG slice accompanying a contingency force may consist of--

  • Force Provider personnel to operate force provider equipment.
  • Class I supply sections issue rations.
  • Perishable subsistence platoon with reefer vans to maintain fresh fruit, vegetables, and meat supplements.
  • Water purification teams with ROWPUs, if potable water is not available in the AO.
  • MA personnel.
  • Shower and laundry teams, depending on the duration of operations and availability of resources in the area.
  • MSTs or DS maintenance unit (-) with a customized ASL of repair parts.
  • Attached EOD detachment or response teams with a section from the control team.
  • Attached engineer support teams.
  • Attached airdrop support elements for resupply when other means are not feasible.
  • Accompanying LSE or AMC contract personnel.
  • NBC LB (Reconnaissance) teams.

SUPPORT OF JOINT AND COMBINED OPERATIONS

The US Army has fought alongside allied forces in a wide variety of operational situations. It must be prepared for combined operations with land, air, and naval forces of allied governments. ASG elements may provide support to--

  • Military forces of Sister services.
  • Allied or indigenous military forces.
  • Allied or indigenous governmental agencies.
  • Allied or indigenous civilians.

JOINT OPERATIONS

In theory, each military Service provides logistics support for its own forces. Each service performs its own requirements forecasting. Each service establishes priorities and computes requirements for storage. In practice, to avoid unnecessary duplication and redundancy, the joint task force commander tasks the Service that is the dominant user to provide or coordinate support for all service components. However, the army provides the largest share of common logistics support of joint, combined, or coalition forces. The CINC issues directives to transfer logistics functions between Service components.

ASGs may provide support to the military forces of Sister services. Its base support battalion or a task organized ASB provides for force reception and the onward movement of multiple forces. Forward presence base support battalions coordinate joint Service use of base facilities in overseas theaters.

The support operations directorate needs to be aware of interoperability requirements with other Services. The EAC MMC should maintain a file of materiel commonality among the Services. Each Service normally maintains and ASL of service peculiar repair parts and deploys unique maintenance teams to maintain unique equipment.

Whenever possible, shower, laundry, and clothing and light textile repair should be performed by the HN or contractors. MA support may be provided by one Service as a result of interservice or cross-service agreements. The MA collection company could operate collection points that process the remains of all Services personnel and provide temporary internment until provisions are made for subsequent custody.

The ASG SPO directorate needs to obtain intelligence on the number of troops to be supported, the rate of buildup, and possible requirements to support HN civilians and allies.

For more information, refer to Joint Pub 3-0 that describes joint operations interfaces. Joint Pub 4-0 describes logistics support of joint operations. Joint Pub 6-04 prescribes the exchange of supply support requests and responses with other Services.

COMBINED/COALITION OPERATIONS

Logistics support must be coordinated in a combined effort to permit properly synchronized employment of the various allies' combat formations. Combined commanders form a combined logistics staff section as early as possible.

ASGs play a key role in the logistics support of combined operations. Facilities controlled by other US Services and by allied nations will be located in the ASG's AOR. The ASG will be tasked to provide some degree of area support to these organizations. In essence, they are "tenants" and receive assistance just as US units do, to the extent expressed in formal agreements. Materiel to support combined operations will be stored in and distributed from ASGs.

Assistance provided by ASGs to allied forces must be consistent with support relationships established. Allied commanders normally coordinate the use of facilities, such as highways, rail lines, ports, and airfields. They usually regulate the CSS available in the AO from HNs. ASG commanders and staff officers will have to deal with the problems of liaison, language, and compatibility of equipment inherent in multinational military operations.



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