United States Code Relevant to Civil-Military Operations
This appendix contains USC extracts (Figures D-1 through D-5) relevant to CMO. The extracts range from general military law to laws governing the use of RC soldiers during national emergencies.
Figure D-1. Extract of Title 10, Section 168, Military-to-Military Contacts and Comparable Activities
I. Title 10. Armed Forces.
A. Subtitle A. General Military Law.
1. Part I. Organization and General Military Powers.
a. Chapter 6. Combatant Commands.
(1) Section 168. Military-to-military contacts and comparable activities.
(a) Program Authority. The Secretary of Defense may conduct military-to-military contacts and comparable activities that are designed to encourage a democratic orientation of defense establishments and military forces of other countries.
(b) Administration. The Secretary may provide funds appropriated for carrying out subsection (a) to the following officials for use as provided in subsection (c):
(1) The commander of a combatant command, upon the request of the commander.
(2) An officer designated by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, with respect to an area or areas not under the area of responsibility of a commander of a combatant command.
(3) The head of any Department of Defense component.
(c) Authorized Activities. An official provided funds under subsection (b) may use those funds for the following activities and expenses:
(1) The activities of traveling contact teams, including any transportation expense, translation services expense, or administrative expense that is related to such activities.
(2) The activities of military liaison teams.
(3) Exchanges of civilian or military personnel between the Department of Defense and defense ministries of foreign governments.
(4) Exchanges of military personnel between units of the armed forces and units of foreign armed forces.
(5) Seminars and conferences held primarily in a theater of operations.
(6) Distribution of publications primarily in a theater of operations.
(7) Personnel expenses for Department of Defense civilian and military personnel to the extent that those expenses relate to participation in an activity described in paragraphs (3) and (4).
(8) Reimbursement of military personnel appropriations accounts for the pay and allowances paid to reserve component personnel for service while engaged in any activity referred to in another paragraph of this subsection.
(d) Relationship to Other Funding. Any amount provided during any fiscal year to an official under subsection (b) for an activity or expense referred to in subsection (c) shall be in addition to amounts otherwise available for those activities and expenses for that fiscal year.
(1) Funds may not be provided under this section for a fiscal year for any activity for which--
(a) Funding was proposed in the budget submitted to Congress for that fiscal year pursuant to section 1105(a) of title 31; and
(b) Congress did not authorize appropriations.
(2) An activity may not be conducted under this section with a foreign country unless the Secretary of State approves the conduct of such activity in that foreign country.
(3) Funds may not be provided under this section for a fiscal year for any country that is not eligible in that fiscal year for assistance under chapter 5 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.
(4) Except for those activities specifically authorized under subsection (c), funds may not be used under this section for the provision of defense articles or defense services to any country or for assistance under chapter 5 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.
(f) Active Duty End Strengths.
(1) A member of a reserve component referred to in paragraph (2) shall not be counted for purposes of the following personnel strength limitations:
(a) The end strength for active-duty personnel authorized pursuant to section 115(a)(1) of this title for the fiscal year in which the member carries out the activities referred to in paragraph (2).
(b) The authorized daily average for members in pay grades E-8 and E-9 under section 517 of this title for the calendar year in which the member carries out such activities.
(c) The authorized strengths for commissioned officers under section 523 of this title for the fiscal year in which the member carries out such activities.
(2) A member of a reserve component referred to in paragraph (1) is any member on active duty under an order to active duty for 180 days or more who is engaged in activities authorized under this section.
(g) Military-to-Military Contacts Defined. In this section, the term "military-to- military contacts" means contacts between members of the armed forces and members of foreign armed forces through activities described in subsection (c).
Figure D-2. Extract of Title 10, Chapter 20, Humanitarian and Other Assistance
b. Chapter 20. Humanitarian and Other Assistance.
(1) Section 401 (Stevens Amendment). Humanitarian and civic assistance provided in conjunction with military operations.
(1) Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of a military department may carry out humanitarian and civic assistance activities in conjunction with authorized military operations of the armed forces in a country if the Secretary concerned determines that the activities will promote--
(a) The security interests of both the United States and the country in which the activities are to be carried out; and
(b) The specific operational readiness skills of the members of the armed forces who participate in the activities.
(2) Humanitarian and civic assistance activities carried out under this section shall complement, and may not duplicate, any other form of social or economic assistance which may be provided to the country concerned by any other department or agency of the United States. Such activities shall serve the basic economic and social needs of the people of the country concerned.
(3) Humanitarian and civic assistance may not be provided under this section (directly or indirectly) to any individual, group, or organization engaged in military or paramilitary activity.
(4) The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that no member of the armed forces, while providing assistance under this section that is described in subsection (e)(5)--
(a) Engages in the physical detection, lifting, or destroying of landmines (unless the member does so for the concurrent purpose of supporting a United States military operation); or
(b) Provides such assistance as part of a military operation that does not involve the armed forces.
(1) Humanitarian and civic assistance may not be provided under this section to any foreign country unless the Secretary of State specifically approves the provision of such assistance.
(2) Any authority provided under any other provision of law to provide assistance that is described in subsection (e)(5) to a foreign country shall be carried out in accordance with, and subject to, the limitations prescribed in this section. Any such provision may be construed as superseding a provision of this section only if, and to the extent that, such provision specifically refers to this section and specifically identifies the provision of this section that is to be considered superseded or otherwise inapplicable under such provision.
(1) Expenses incurred as a direct result of providing humanitarian and civic assistance under this section to a foreign country shall be paid for out of funds specifically appropriated for such purpose.
(2) Expenses covered by paragraph (1) include the following expenses incurred in providing assistance described in subsection (e)(5):
(a) Travel, transportation, and subsistence expenses of Department of Defense personnel providing such assistance.
(b) The cost of any equipment, services, or supplies acquired for the purpose of carrying out or supporting the activities described in subsection (e)(5), including any nonlethal, individual, or small-team landmine clearing equipment or supplies that are to be transferred or otherwise furnished to a foreign country in furtherance of the provision of assistance under this section.
(3) The cost of equipment, services, and supplies provided in any fiscal year under paragraph (2)(b) may not exceed $5,000,000.
(4) Nothing in this section may be interpreted to preclude the incurring of minimal expenditures by the Department of Defense for purposes of humanitarian and civic assistance out of funds other than funds appropriated pursuant to paragraph (1), except that funds appropriated to the Department of Defense for operation and maintenance (other than funds appropriated pursuant to such paragraph) may be obligated for humanitarian and civic assistance under this section only for incidental costs of carrying out such assistance.
(d) The Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committee on National Security and the Committee on International Relations of the House of Representatives a report, not later than March 1 of each year, on activities carried out under this section during the preceding fiscal year. The Secretary shall include in each such report--
(1) A list of the countries in which humanitarian and civic assistance activities were carried out during the preceding fiscal year;
(2) The type and description of such activities carried out in each country during the preceding fiscal year; and
(3) The amount expended in carrying out each such activity in each such country during the preceding fiscal year.
(e) In this section, the term "humanitarian and civic assistance" means any of the following:
(1) Medical, dental, and veterinary care provided in rural areas of a country.
(2) Construction of rudimentary surface transportation systems.
(3) Well drilling and construction of basic sanitation facilities.
(4) Rudimentary construction and repair of public facilities.
(5) Detection and clearance of landmines, including activities relating to the furnishing of education, training, and technical assistance with respect to the detection and clearance of landmines.
(2) Section 402 (Denton Amendment). Transportation of humanitarian relief supplies to foreign countries.
(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, and subject to subsection (b), the Secretary of Defense may transport to any country, without charge, supplies which have been furnished by a nongovernmental source and which are intended for humanitarian assistance. Such supplies may be transported only on a space available basis.
(1) The Secretary may not transport supplies under subsection (a) unless the Secretary determines that--
(a) The transportation of such supplies is consistent with the foreign policy of the United States;
(b) The supplies to be transported are suitable for humanitarian purposes and are in usable condition;
(c) There is a legitimate humanitarian need for such supplies by the people for whom they are intended;
(d) The supplies will in fact be used for humanitarian purposes; and
(e) Adequate arrangements have been made for the distribution of such supplies in the destination country.
(2) The President shall establish procedures for making the determinations required under paragraph (1). Such procedures shall include inspection of supplies before acceptance for transport.
(3) It shall be the responsibility of the donor to ensure that supplies to be transported under this section are suitable for transport.
(1) Supplies transported under this section may be distributed by an agency of the United States Government, a foreign government, an international organization, or a private nonprofit relief organization.
(2) Supplies transported under this section may not be distributed, directly or indirectly, to any individual, group, or organization engaged in a military or paramilitary activity.
(d) Not later than July 31 each year, the Secretary of State shall submit to the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committee on National Security and the Committee on International Relations of the House of Representatives a report identifying the origin, contents, destination, and disposition of all supplies transported under this section during the 12-month period ending on the preceding June 30.
(3) Section 404. Foreign disaster assistance.
(a) In General. The President may direct the Secretary of Defense to provide disaster assistance outside the United States to respond to manmade or natural disasters when necessary to prevent loss of lives.
(b) Forms of Assistance. Assistance provided under this section may include transportation, supplies, services, and equipment.
(c) Notification Required. Not later than 48 hours after the commencement of disaster assistance activities to provide assistance under this section, the President shall transmit to Congress a report containing notification of the assistance provided, and proposed to be provided, under this section and a description of so much of the following as is then available:
(1) The manmade or natural disaster for which disaster assistance is necessary.
(2) The threat to human lives presented by the disaster.
(3) The United States military personnel and material resources that are involved or expected to be involved.
(4) The disaster assistance that is being provided or is expected to be provided by other nations or public or private relief organizations.
(5) The anticipated duration of the disaster assistance activities.
(d) Organizing Policies and Programs. Amounts appropriated to the Department of Defense for any fiscal year for Overseas Humanitarian, Disaster, and Civic Aid (OHDACA) programs of the Department shall be available for organizing general policies and programs for disaster relief programs for disasters occurring outside the United States.
(4) Section 405. Use of Department of Defense funds for United States share of costs of United Nations peacekeeping activities: limitation.
(a) Prohibition on Use of Funds. Funds available to the Department of Defense may not be used to make a financial contribution (directly or through another department or agency of the United States) to the United Nations--
(1) For the costs of a United Nations peacekeeping activity; or
(2) For any United States arrearage to the United Nations.
(b) Application of Prohibition. The prohibition in subsection (a) applies to voluntary contributions, as well as to contributions pursuant to assessment by the United Nations for the United States share of the costs of a peacekeeping activity.
Figure D-3. Extract of Title 10, Chapter 152, Issue of Supplies, Service, and Facilities
Part IV. Service, Supply, and Procurement.
(1) Section 2547 (McCollum Amendment). Excess nonlethal supplies: humanitarian relief.
(a) The Secretary of Defense may make available for humanitarian relief purposes any nonlethal excess supplies of the Department of Defense.
(b) Excess supplies made available for humanitarian relief purposes under this section shall be transferred to the Secretary of State, who shall be responsible for the distribution of such supplies.
(c) This section does not constitute authority to conduct any activity which, if carried out as an intelligence activity by the Department of Defense, would require a notice to the intelligence committees under title V of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 413 et seq.).
(d) In this section:
(1) The term "nonlethal excess supplies" means property, other than real property, of the Department of Defense--
(a) That is excess property, as defined in regulations of the Department of Defense; and
(b) That is not a weapon, ammunition, or other equipment or material that is designed to inflict serious bodily harm or death.
(2) The term "intelligence committees" means the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives.
(2) Section 2551. Humanitarian assistance.
(a) Authorized Assistance. To the extent provided in defense authorization Acts, funds authorized to be appropriated to the Department of Defense for a fiscal year for humanitarian assistance shall be used for the purpose of providing transportation of humanitarian relief and for other humanitarian purposes worldwide.
(b) Availability of Funds. To the extent provided in appropriation Acts, funds appropriated for humanitarian assistance for the purposes of this section shall remain available until expended.
(c) Status Reports.
(1) The Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional committees specified in subsection (f) an annual report on the provision of humanitarian assistance pursuant to this section for the prior fiscal year. The report shall be submitted each year at the time of the budget submission by the President for the next fiscal year.
(2) Each report required by paragraph (1) shall cover all provisions of law that authorize appropriations for humanitarian assistance to be available from the Department of Defense for the purposes of this section.
(3) Each report under this subsection shall set forth the following information regarding activities during the previous fiscal year:
(a) The total amount of funds obligated for humanitarian relief under this section.
(b) The number of scheduled and completed transportation missions for purposes of providing humanitarian assistance under this section.
(c) A description of any transfer of excess nonlethal supplies of the Department of Defense made available for humanitarian relief purposes under section 2547 of this title. The description shall include the date of the transfer, the entity to whom the transfer is made, and the quantity of items transferred.
(d) Report Regarding Relief for Unauthorized Countries. In any case in which the Secretary of Defense provides for the transportation of humanitarian relief to a country to which the transportation of humanitarian relief has not been specifically authorized by law, the Secretary shall notify the congressional committees specified in subsection (f) and the Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and House of Representatives of the Secretary's intention to provide such transportation. The notification shall be submitted not less than 15 days before the commencement of such transportation.
(e) Definition. In this section, the term "defense authorization Act" means an Act that authorizes appropriations for one or more fiscal years for military activities of the Department of Defense, including authorizations of appropriations for the activities described in paragraph (7) of section 114(a) of this title.
(f) Congressional Committees. The congressional committees referred to in subsections (c)(1) and (d) are the following:
(1) The Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate.
(2) The Committee on National Security and the Committee on International Relations of the House of Representatives.
Figure D-4. Title 22, Chapter 32, Foreign Assistance
II. Title 22. Foreign Relations and Intercourse.
A. Chapter 32. Foreign Assistance.
1. Section 2321j (Excess Property Program). Authority to transfer excess defense articles.
(a) Authorization. The President is authorized to transfer excess defense articles under this section to countries for which receipt of such articles was justified pursuant to the annual congressional presentation documents for military assistance programs, or for programs under part VIII of subchapter I of this chapter, submitted under section 2394 of this title, or for which receipt of such articles was separately justified to the Congress, for the fiscal year in which the transfer is authorized.
(b) Limitations on transfers.
(1) The President may transfer excess defense articles under this section only if--
(a) Such articles are drawn from existing stocks of the Department of Defense.
(b) Funds available to the Department of Defense for the procurement of defense equipment are not expended in connection with the transfer.
(c) The transfer of such articles will not have an adverse impact on the military readiness of the United States.
(d) With respect to a proposed transfer of such articles of a grant basis, such a transfer is preferable to a transfer on a sales basis, after taking into account the potential proceeds from, and likelihood of, such sales, and the comparative foreign policy benefits that may accrue to the United States as the result of a transfer on either a grant or sales basis.
(e) The President determines that the transfer of such articles will not have an adverse impact on the national technology and industrial base and, particularly, will not reduce the opportunities of entities in the national technology and industrial base to sell new or used equipment to the countries to which such articles are transferred.
(f) The transfer of such articles is consistent with the policy framework for the Eastern Mediterranean established under section 2373 of this title.
(2) Accordingly, for the four-year period beginning on October 1, 1996, the President shall ensure that excess defense articles offered to Greece and Turkey under this section will be made available consistent with the manner in which the President made available such excess defense articles during the four-year period that began on October 1, 1992, pursuant to section 573(e) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1990.
(c) Terms of transfers.
(1) No cost to recipient country. Excess defense articles may be transferred under this section without cost to the recipient country.
(2) Priority. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the delivery of excess defense articles under this section to member countries of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) on the southern and southeastern flank of NATO and to major non-NATO allies on such southern and southeastern flank shall be given priority to the maximum extent feasible over the delivery of such excess defense articles to other countries.
(d) Waiver of requirement for reimbursement of Department of Defense expenses Section 2392(d) of this title shall not apply with respect to transfers of excess defense articles (including transportation and related costs) under this section.
(e) Transportation and related costs.
(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (2), funds available to the Department of Defense may not be expended for crating, packing, handling, and transportation of excess defense articles transferred under the authority of this section.
(2) Exception. The President may provide for the transportation of excess defense articles without charge to a country for the costs of such transportation if--
(a) It is determined that it is in the national interest of the United States to do so.
(b) The recipient is a developing country receiving less than $10,000,000 of assistance under part V of this subchapter (relating to international military education and training) or section 23 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2763; relating to the Foreign Military Financing program) in the fiscal year in which the transportation is provided.
(c) The total weight of the transfer does not exceed 25,000 pounds.
(d) Such transportation is accomplished on a space available basis.
(f) Advance notification to Congress for transfer of certain excess defense articles.
(1) In general. The President may not transfer excess defense articles that are significant military equipment (as defined in section 47(9) of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2794(9))) or excess defense articles valued (in terms of original acquisition cost) at $7,000,000 or more, under this section or under the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.) until 30 days after the date on which the President has provided notice of the proposed transfer to the congressional committees specified in section 2394-1(a) of this title in accordance with procedures applicable to reprogramming notifications under that section.
(2) Contents. Such notification shall include--
(a) A statement outlining the purposes for which the article is being provided to the country, including whether such article has been previously provided to such country.
(b) An assessment of the impact of the transfer on the military readiness of the United States.
(c) An assessment of the impact of the transfer on the national technology and industrial base and, particularly, the impact on opportunities of entities in the national technology and industrial base to sell new or used equipment to the countries to which such articles are to be transferred.
(d) A statement describing the current value of such article and the value of such article at acquisition.
(g) Aggregate annual limitation.
(1) In general. The aggregate value of excess defense articles transferred to countries under this section in any fiscal year may not exceed $350,000,000.
(2) Effective date. The limitation contained in paragraph (1) shall apply only with respect to fiscal years beginning after fiscal year 1996.
(h) Congressional presentation documents. Documents described in subsection (a) of this section justifying the transfer of excess defense articles shall include an explanation of the general purposes of providing excess defense articles as well as a table which provides an aggregate annual total of transfers of excess defense articles in the preceding year by country in terms of offers and actual deliveries and in terms of acquisition cost and current value. Such table shall indicate whether such excess defense articles were provided on a grant or sale basis.
(i) Excess Coast Guard property. For purposes of this section, the term "excess defense articles" shall be deemed to include excess property of the Coast Guard, and the term "Department of Defense" shall be deemed, with respect to such excess property, to include the Coast Guard.
Figure D-5. Extract of Title 10, Section 12301, Reserve Components
Title 10. Armed Forces
(a) In time of war or of national emergency declared by Congress, or when otherwise authorized by law, an authority designated by the Secretary concerned may, without the consent of the persons affected, order any unit, and any member not assigned to a unit organized to serve as a unit, of a reserve component under the jurisdiction of that Secretary to active duty (other than for training) for the duration of the war or emergency and for six months thereafter. However a member on an inactive status list or in a retired status may not be ordered to active duty under this subsection unless the Secretary concerned, with the approval of the Secretary of Defense in the case of the Secretary of a military department, determines that there are not enough qualified Reserves in an active status or in the inactive National Guard in the required category who are readily available.
(b) At any time, an authority designated by the Secretary concerned may, without the consent of the persons affected, order any unit, and any member not assigned to a unit organized to serve as a unit, in an active status in a reserve component under the jurisdiction of that Secretary to active duty for not more than 15 days a year. However, units and members of the Army National Guard of the United States or the Air National Guard of the United States may not be ordered to active duty under this subsection without the consent of the governor of the State (or, in the case of the District of Columbia National Guard, the commanding general of the District of Columbia National Guard).
(c) So far as practicable, during any expansion of the active armed forces that requires that units and members of the reserve components be ordered to active duty (other than for training), members of units organized and trained to serve as units who are ordered to that duty without their consent shall be so ordered with their units. However, members of those units may be reassigned after being ordered to active duty (other than for training).
(d) At any time, an authority designated by the Secretary concerned may order a member of a reserve component under his jurisdiction to active duty, or retain him on active duty, with the consent of that member. However, a member of the Army National Guard of the United States or the Air National Guard of the United States may not be ordered to active duty under this subsection without the consent of the governor or other appropriate authority of the State concerned.
(e) The period of time allowed between the date when a Reserve ordered to active duty (other than for training) is alerted for that duty and the date when the Reserve is required to enter upon that duty shall be determined by the Secretary concerned based upon military requirements at that time.
(f) The consent of a Governor described in subsections (b) and (d) may not be withheld (in whole or in part) with regard to active duty outside the United States, its territories, and its possessions, because of any objection to the location, purpose, type, or schedule of such active duty.
(1) A member of a reserve component may be ordered to active duty without his consent if the Secretary concerned determines that the member is in a captive status. A member ordered to active duty under this section may not be retained on active duty, without his consent, for more than 30 days after his captive status is terminated.
(2) The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations to carry out this section. Such regulations shall apply uniformly among the armed forces under the jurisdiction of the Secretary. A determination for the purposes of this subsection that a member is in a captive status shall be made pursuant to such regulations.
(3) In this section, the term "captive status" means the status of a member of the armed forces who is in a missing status (as defined in section 551(2) of title 37) which occurs as the result of a hostile action and is related to the member's military status.
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