Dislocated Civilian Planning
The scope of planning for DCs and actual task implementation differ, depending on the command level. Except as specifically noted, planning considerations discussed in this appendix are applicable to any tactical scenario, including logistics operations for units in the COMMZ.
INTREGRATION OF POLICIES AND PROCEDURES
B-1. Based on national policy directives and other political efforts, the theater commander provides directives on the care, control, and disposition of DCs. At corps level, the commander integrates the theater commander's guidance with the corps' ground tactical plan. The driving force for DC planning must be generated at corps level. At division, COSCOM, and other subordinate command levels, the DC plan must--
- Allow for accomplishing the tasks assigned by the higher command echelon.
- Be within the restrictions imposed by the higher HQ.
- Guide the subordinate commands in the handling and routing of DCs.
- Ensure that all concerned parties (including the fire support coordination center and the S3 or G3 air) receive information on DC plans, routes, and areas of concentration.
B-2. DC plans support the OPLAN. As a minimum, DC plans must address--
- Authorized extent of migration and evacuation.
- Minimum standards of care.
- Status and disposition of all DCs.
- Designation of routes and control measures for movement control.
- Cultural and dietary considerations.
- Designation and delegation of responsibilities.
B-3. Care and control of DCs fulfill a double purpose--to ensure DCs receive at least the minimum essentials to subsist (food, water, clothing, and emergency medical aid) and to maximize the mobility of tactical forces and minimize civilian interference with military operations. CA personnel must establish movement control early. Major considerations include stayput policy, DC collection points, and assembly areas (Figure B-1).
Figure B-1. Sample DC Overlay
- Standfast or stayput policy. Civilians must remain in the vicinity of their homes and under controlled movement. This policy assumes a capability for policy enforcement, information dissemination, and emergency services. The standfast or stayput policy is not within the authoritative capability of U.S. forces. An HN may have a policy the United States would support, but U.S. forces do not have the authority or the right to enforce the policy.
- DC collection point. The purpose of DC collection points is to establish control and direction over the movement of the civilian populace. It is the primary control measure for gaining initial control over DCs. A collection point is temporary for small numbers of DCs until they can return to their homes or move to a safer area. The collection point is as far forward as possible during the flow of battle. Because the DC collection point is temporary, DC screening is quick. The effort may include screening for intelligence information and emergency assistance. Screening must take place to segregate EPWs or allied soldiers from DCs. Local civilians or civilian agencies (police, firemen) under the supervision of tactical or support troops or CA personnel could operate collection points. MPs become involved in DC operations when refugee congestion along main supply routes threaten the mobility of the maneuver force. They are the first U.S. elements to address DC problems and initiate actions to restore force mobility.
- Assembly Areas. An assembly area is a temporary holding area for civilians before they return to their homes or move to a more secure area. Assembly areas are usually in a secure, stable environment and may include schools, churches, hotels, and warehouses. A consideration in selecting a specific area should include the ability to provide overnight accommodations for several days. Here, more detailed screening or segregation of the different categories of DCs takes place. Local civilians may operate an assembly area under the supervision of tactical or support troops or CA personnel.
B-4. Directing and controlling movement are vital when handling masses of DCs. The G5 and HN authorities are responsible for mass DC operations. MP personnel may help direct DCs to alternate routes. If possible, HN assets should be incorporated in the planning and used in implementation. Considerations with respect to the movement of civilians are as follows:
- Selection of routes. All DC movements take place on designated routes that are kept free of civilian congestion. When selecting routes for civilian movement, CA personnel must consider the types of transportation common to the area. They coordinate these routes with the traffic circulation plan proposed by the transportation officer and MP personnel.
- Identification of routes. After designating the movement routes, CA personnel mark them in languages and symbols the civilians, U.S. forces, and allied forces can understand. U.S. PSYOP units, HN military, and other allied military units can help mark the routes.
- Control and assembly points. After selecting and marking the movement routes, CA and HN authorities establish control and assembly points at selected key intersections. The G5 or S5 coordinates with the provost marshal, the movement control center, and the G4 for the locations of these points for inclusion in the traffic circulation plan.
- Emergency rest areas. CA personnel set up emergency rest areas at congested points to provide for the immediate needs of the DCs. These needs include water, food, fuel, maintenance, and medical services.
- Local and national agencies. Use of local and national agencies is essential for three reasons. First, it conserves military resources. Second, civilian authorities normally have legal status and are best equipped to handle their own people. Third, the use of local personnel reduces the need for interpreters or translators.
B-5. Evacuation creates serious problems and should only be considered as a last resort. U.S. doctrine states that only a division or higher commander can order an evacuation. When the decision is made to evacuate a community, CA planners must make detailed plans to prevent uncontrolled groups from disrupting the movement of military units and supplies. Considerations in mass evacuation planning include--
- Transportation. CA planners plan for the maximum use of civilian transportation.
- Security. CA personnel help the G2 in security screening and documentation of evacuees. Since the civilians are being removed from the area where they can best take care of themselves, the military provides security for them after evacuation. The military also provides for the security of all civilian property left behind, including farm animals, pets, and other possessions.
- Documentation. In some circumstances, evacuees may need identification documents showing, as a minimum, the name and locality from which they were evacuated. As a control technique, CA personnel may prepare a manifest listing evacuees for movement.
- Briefing. Before movement, the movement control officer briefs evacuees. The briefer uses leaflets, loudspeakers, posters, or other means available. This briefing explains the details of the move, such as restrictions on personal belongings, organization for movement, and movement schedules.
- Rations. For a movement lasting no more than 2 days, supply personnel issue rations to each evacuee at the time of departure or at designated points en route.
- Health care. The public health team makes maximum use of civilian medical personnel, equipment, and supplies to care for the health and physical well-being of the evacuees. Military medical personnel, equipment, and supplies can be used as supplements, if necessary. The public health team or surgeon's staff takes proper steps before the movement to prevent the spread of infectious diseases.
- Return. Evacuation plans also provide for the evacuees' eventual return and criteria for determining the duration of their absence.
B-6. When large groups of civilians must be quartered for a temporary period (less than 6 months) or on a semipermanent basis (more than 6 months), CA units establish camps. HN personnel usually direct the administration and operation of a camp. CA units provide technical advice, support, and assistance, depending on the requirements. They may also furnish additional detachments and functional teams or specialists to resolve public health, public welfare, or public safety problems at any particular camp. Minimum considerations include--
- Camp control, construction, administration, screening, medical care, and sanitation.
- Information dissemination.
- 2-8. Liaison with other agencies.
B-7. Control of the people is the key to successful camp operations. To meet U.S. obligations under international law, CA personnel ensure the efficient and effective administration of camps. Camp control also includes measures to reduce waste and to avoid duplication of effort. CA personnel must quickly and fairly establish and maintain discipline when administering DC camps. They must publish and enforce rules of conduct for the camp as necessary. Camp administrators serve as the single point of contact, coordinating all camp matters within the camp and with outside organizations or agencies. Camp rules should be brief and kept to a minimum.
DC CAMP LOCATION AND CONSTRUCTION
B-8. The most manageable number of people in a camp is 5,000. This number helps enforce control measures. It also lets CA personnel efficiently administer the camp and its population. The location of the camp is extremely important. Engineer support and military construction materials are necessary when camps are in areas where local facilities are unavailable--for example, hotels, schools, halls, theaters, vacant warehouses, unused factories, or workers' camps. CA personnel must avoid those sites in the vicinity of vital communication centers, large military installations, or other potential military targets. The location of the camp also depends on the availability of food, water, power, and waste disposal. Additional considerations include the susceptibility of the area to natural or man-made disasters (for example, flooding, pollution, and fire) and the use of camp personnel as a source of local labor support.
B-9. The camp's physical layout is important. The main principle is to subdivide the camp into sections or separate compounds to ease administration and camp tension. Each section can serve as an administrative subunit for transacting camp business. The major sections normally include camp HQ, hospital, mess, and sleeping areas. The sleeping areas must be further subdivided into separate areas for unaccompanied children, unattached females, families, and unattached males. CA personnel must also consider cultural and religious practices and make every effort to keep families together.
B-10. CA personnel must also consider the type of construction. Specific types of construction necessary to satisfy the needs of the particular DC operation vary according to the--
- Local climate.
- Anticipated permanency of the camp.
- Number of camps to be constructed.
- Availability of local materials.
- Extent of available military resources and assistance.
B-11. Whenever possible, the DCs themselves or local agencies or government employees should construct the camp. Local sources provide materials whenever possible in accordance with legal limitations. The supporting command's logistics and transportation assets are used to acquire and transport required resources to build or modify existing facilities for DC operations. The supporting command also furnishes medical, dining, and other supporting assets to establish DC camps.
ADMINISTRATION OF DC CAMPS
B-12. Because of the large numbers of DCs for whom control and care must be provided, using HN civilians as cadre for the camp administration is preferred. DCs should become involved in the administration of the camp. Past military experience in DC operations shows that about 6 percent of the total number of DCs should be employed on a full-time basis. If possible, CA personnel organize and train the cadre before the camp opens. Whenever possible, civilians should come from public and private welfare organizations and be under military supervision. Other concerns are problems that might stem from the state of mind of the DCs. The difficulties they have experienced may affect their acceptance of authority. They may have little initiative or may be uncooperative because of an uncertain future. They may be angry because of their losses, or they may resort to looting and general lawlessness because of their destitution. The camp administrator can minimize difficulties through careful administration and by--
- Maintaining different national and cultural groups in separate camps or sections of a camp.
- Keeping families together while separating unaccompanied males, females, and children under the age of 18 (or abiding by the laws of the HN as to when a child becomes an adult).
- Furnishing necessary information on the status and future of DCs.
- Allowing DCs to speak freely to camp officials.
- Involving the DCs in camp administration, work, and recreation.
- Quickly establishing contact with agencies for aid and family reunification.
B-13. Screening is necessary to prevent infiltration of camps by insurgents, enemy agents, or escaping members of the hostile armed forces. Although intelligence or other types of units may screen DCs at first, friendly and reliable local civilians under the supervision of CA personnel can perform this function. They must carefully apply administrative controls to prevent infiltration and preclude alienation of people who are sympathetic to U.S. objectives. The insertion or the development of reliable informants is important in all but the most temporary camps. Intelligence collection by CA personnel is under the staff supervision of the G2. The screening process also identifies skilled technicians and professional specialists to help in camp administration--for example, policemen, schoolteachers, doctors, dentists, nurses, lawyers, mechanics, carpenters, and cooks.
MEDICAL CARE AND SANITATION
B-14. The need for medical care and sanitation intensifies in camp environments because of the temporary nature of the facilities and the lack of sanitation by the people. Enforcement and education measures are necessary to ensure that the camp population complies with basic sanitation measures.
B-15. The camp supply officer or CA civilian supply specialist must coordinate in advance for food, water, clothing, fuel, portable shelter, and medical supplies. CA supply personnel must make sure U.S. medical personnel inspect all food and water, particularly civilian and captured stocks. USAID and SAOs can be helpful in U.S. efforts to provide aid to the country. IOs and voluntary relief groups may also be useful. Consider support from U.S. military stocks only as a last resort, however, and do not rely upon that support.
B-16. The camp security officer, supervised by the public safety team, provides camp security and enforces law, order, and discipline. Sources for security officers include local police forces, HN paramilitary or military forces, and U.S. military forces. Another potential source may be the camp population itself. Police personnel within the population could supplement security teams or constitute a special camp police force if necessary. Internal and external patrols are necessary; however, security for a DC facility should not give the impression that the facility is a prison.
B-17. The efficient administration of a DC camp requires adequate transportation assets. The camp movement officer or CA transportation specialist determines the types and numbers of vehicles required and makes provisions to have them on hand. He uses civilian or captured enemy vehicles whenever possible.
B-18. In the administration of any type of camp, dissemination of instructions and information to the camp population is vital. Communications may be in the form of notices on bulletin boards, posters, public address systems, loudspeakers, camp meetings and assemblies, or a camp radio station. See, for example, barracks rules (Figure B-2). CA civil information teams and area PSYOP units may be able to help.
Figure B-2. Sample Barracks Rules
B-19. Liaison involves coordination with all interested agencies. U.S. Government and military authorities, allied liaison officers, and representatives of local governments and international agencies may help in relief and assistance operations.
B-20. The final step in DC operations is the ultimate disposition of the DCs, although this consideration must occur early in the planning phase. The most desired disposition is to return them to their homes. Allowing DCs to return to their homes as quickly as tactical considerations permit lessens the burden on the military and the civilian economy for their support. It also lessens the danger of diseases common among people in confined areas. When DCs return to their homes, they can help restore their towns and can better contribute to their own support. If DCs cannot return to their homes, they may resettle elsewhere in their country or in a country that accepts them. Guidance on the disposition of DCs must come from higher authority, under coordination with U.S. forces, national authorities, and international agencies.
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