Supply and Field Services
Supply and services consist of wide-ranging functions that extend from determining requirements at the strategic level to delivering items and services to the user at the tactical level. Supply involves acquiring, managing, receiving, storing, and issuing all classes of supply except class VIII. Field services involve feeding, clothing, and providing personnel services to soldiers. It consists of clothing exchange, laundry and shower support, textile repair, mortuary affairs, preparation for aerial delivery, food services, billeting, and sanitation.
THE SUPPLY SYSTEM
6-1. The supply system spans all levels of war. The following is a discussion of the considerations at each level.
6-2. At the strategic level, supply activity focuses on determining realistic, supportable resource requirements; acquiring, packaging, managing, and positioning supplies; and coordinating moving materiel into the theater base and staging areas. Effective supply and field services planning and execution supports strategic and operational commanders in planning campaigns and, subsequently, ensuring operational and tactical commanders are able to execute their warfighting mission with confidence that the combat service support (CSS) community can support them.
6-3. Strategic planners determine requirements to support the force based on the National Security Strategy (NSS), the National Military Strategy (NMS), the missions the Army can expect to receive to achieve strategic end states, and theater strategies and campaign plans. They consider all potential sources of supplies to reduce the deployment requirements to support Army operations. Sources include host nation support, contracting, and joint and multinational forces. Commodity centers assigned to U.S. Army Materiel Command (USAMC),U.S. Army Medical Materiel Agency (USAMMA), Defense Logistics Agency (DLA), Defense Commissary Agency, and other defense agencies manage supply operations at the strategic level with the assistance of the Army service component command (ASCC) in accordance with the combatant commander's directives and priorities.
6-4. Critical considerations include determining stockpiling requirements and supply production capabilities. CSS personnel preposition supplies in overseas regions (primarily where forward-presence forces locate) for initial support. They preposition certain critical supplies as well as unit equipment afloat to provide flexible support to forward-presence, reinforcing, or contingency forces. Some supplies are stored in continental United States (CONUS) military stockpiles. Other supplies, such as construction materiel, are routinely available directly from the Army's economic base, contractor support, or local purchase in theater; the CONUS military system does not stockpile such supplies.
6-5. Centralized management of Army prepositioned stock (APS) enhances responsiveness. USAMC and the Office of the Surgeon General are the Army's managers of these stocks. The system provides central management oversight and the ability to posture stocks rapidly to respond to contingency requirements. FM 100-17-1 and FM 100-17-2 discuss APS.
6-6. Strategic supply activities work closely with USTRANSCOM and its component commands. They synchronize their efforts with the combatant command's Joint Operations Planning and Execution System (JOPES) developed movement program to get supplies to the theater. They ensure that required supplies have unit line number designations and that supplies move from stockpiles or other sources to the theater to meet the priorities of the combatant commander. Although containers are the preferred method of shipment, much of the cargo flies on 463L pallets from CONUS. When required to minimize handling in the theater, depots use and package supplies received from CONUS military stockpiles and the industrial base and offer them to the transportation component command for movement. If a container contains multiple consignees, packaging maintains consignee integrity. A copy of the documentation accompanies the container. Total asset visibility provides an automated capability to track both the container and its contents.
6-10. Tactical-level supply focuses on readiness and supports the commander's ability to fight battles and engagements or achieve his stability or support mission. CSS planners work with supporting commanders and materiel managers to ensure required supplies are available when and where the user needs them. Units carry a basic load of supplies with them to support their operations until the system can resupply them. When time and mission constraints require, a push system provides supplies. Under this type of system, planners estimate the supply requirements and arrange to have supplies delivered to supported elements. As the theater matures and stocks become readily available, supply elements convert by commodity to a "pull" system. Requests generated by supported elements are the basis of a "pull" system. FM 10-1 discusses planning considerations and request procedures.
6-11. Both operational and tactical supply systems include SSAs operated by GS and DS supply units. These units establish SSAs from the COMMZ as far forward as the brigade support area. On a temporary basis, DS elements may operate even further forward at forward logistics bases to reduce the distances users have to travel to receive support. The support structure at each command level from separate brigade/division up also includes a materiel management organization to manage supply and maintenance operations.
6-12. Improved information systems allow management elements to perform split-based operations from CONUS or forward-presence locations while critical capabilities required in theater deploy early in an operation. For example, part of the corps MMC (CMMC) may remain at its home station while force-projection cells (the forward CMMC) deploy to the AO with the force they support. The rear CMMC continues to support the stay-behind force while concurrently interfacing with the deployed cells to provide the required support forward. This split-based capability ensures only required elements deploy. This eliminates unnecessary forces in theater with related CSS demands. It also minimizes strategic lift requirements.
6-13. Under a pull supply system, a using unit submits a request to its supporting DS supply element. If stocks are available, the direct support (DS) element fills the request and notifies the materiel manager, who initiates replenishment. If it cannot fill the request, the supply unit passes it to the materiel manager. In that case, the manager directs issue from general support (GS) stocks to the DS unit or passes the requisition to the appropriate MMC or commodity center to meet the requirement.
6-14. Retrograde of materiel usually involves supplies and repairable equipment. Repairable items are generally in maintenance facilities and returned to supply channels when restored to serviceable condition. Salvage items are unserviceable and uneconomically repairable. They are evacuated through the supply system, destroyed, or demilitarized based on theater policy and commodity center instructions. FM 10-1 has more details.
CLASSES OF SUPPLY
6-15. In addition to the general considerations guiding all supply operations, there are specific considerations for each commodity. This chapter addresses the considerations that apply to most classes of supply. Chapter 8 covers Class V and Class IX. Chapter 9 covers Class VIII. JP 4-07 addresses Class X. FM 100-10-1 explains the flow of each class of supply. Table 6-1 defines the ten classes of supply and the miscellaneous category.
|Table 6-1. Classes of Supply|
|I||Subsistence, gratuitous health and comfort items.|
|II||Clothing, individual equipment, tentage, organizational tool sets and kits, hand tools, unclassified maps, administrative and housekeeping supplies and equipment.|
|III||Petroleum, fuels, lubricants, hydraulic and insulating oils, preservatives, liquids and gases, bulk chemical products, coolants, deicer and antifreeze compounds, components, and additives of petroleum and chemical products, and coal.|
|IV||Construction materials, including installed equipment, and all fortification and barrier materials.|
|V||Ammunition of all types, bombs, explosives, mines, fuzes, detonators, pyrotechnics, missiles, rockets, propellants, and associated items.|
|VI||Personal demand items (such as health and hygiene products, soaps and toothpaste, writing material, snack food, beverages, cigarettes, batteries, and cameras-nonmilitary sales items).|
|VII||Major end items such as launchers, tanks, mobile machine shops, and vehicles.|
|VIII||Medical materiel including repair parts peculiar to medical equipment.|
|IX||Repair parts and components to include kits, assemblies, and subassemblies (repairable or non-repairable) required for maintenance support of all equipment.|
|X||Material to support nonmilitary programs such as agriculture and economic development (not included in Classes I through IX).|
|Miscellaneous||Water, salvage, and captured material.|
6-24. During peacetime, each service is responsible for planning and preparing for bulk petroleum support to its own forces. This includes managing war reserve and peacetime operating stocks. It also includes operating bulk storage, handling, and distribution facilities. Each service computes its requirements and submits them to the Defense Energy Support Center for supply and acquisition action.
6-25. During war (or in specified military operations other than war), the Army is responsible for the inland distribution of bulk fuels. This includes distributing bulk fuels to the Air Force and Marines. This inland distribution responsibility requires the Army to provide the necessary force structure to construct, operate, and maintain overland petroleum pipelines and to distribute bulk fuels via non-pipeline means. (However, the Air Force and Marines remain responsible for the retail distribution of bulk fuels to their units.) Inherent in this responsibility is the requirement to manage the distribution of bulk fuels within the theater.
6-26. In an effort to obtain the optimum fuel distribution system, the services continue to reduce the number of bulk fuel products distributed by the military logistics system. The goal is to have one fuel in the theater. In addition, the services use standardized fueling procedures and organizations, when possible, and ensure interoperability of fuel containers and handling equipment.
6-27. Forces obtain bulk fuel locally within the theater, when possible. Tanker ships bring in supplies not available in the theater. In developed theaters, marine petroleum terminals receive and transfer bulk fuel by pipeline to tank farms. Army assets may have to renovate the existing system or supplement it with hose lines and collapsible tanks. Pipelines and hose lines extend as far forward as practical to reduce transportation requirements. Other means of bulk delivery (such as barges, rail tank cars, tankers, and aircraft) supplement the system.
6-28. Units pass forecasted requirements up S4/G4 channels to materiel managers who manage distribution in coordination with movement control and GS supply elements. Tankers, rail tank cars, and hose lines move bulk fuels from GS to DS supply elements. Deliveries bypass intermediate storage locations when possible. Bulk transporters normally move fuel from the DS level to using units. Using units maintain a prescribed load of fuel to allow them to operate until the system can resupply them. They use organic equipment to receive the product and refuel their vehicles and aircraft. A key exception to this is refuel-on-the-move operations. Though these operations may use unit assets, typically they involve using equipment of supporting fuel units. The purpose is to ensure topping off unit vehicles and bulk fuel assets before arriving in the tactical assembly area. Details are in FM 10-67-1.
6-29. Limited availability may require fuel allocations. Logistics staff officers recommend allocations based on priorities provided by operations planners. They pass approved allocations to materiel managers.
6-30. Undeveloped theaters receive bulk supplies from the Navy offshore petroleum discharge system in over-the-beach operations. Hose lines move fuel to collapsible storage tanks. In emergencies, U.S. Air Force aircraft may resupply ground forces. As in a developed theater, the system uses pipelines and hose lines as much as possible to move bulk fuel forward; rail, motor, air, and water transportation assets supplement the pipeline and hose line system.
Packaged Petroleum Products
6-41. Normally, units receive potable water by supply point distribution with only limited unit distribution. Water elements set up water points as close to the using units as practical, given the location of a water source. In the Stryker brigade combat team, water is distributed to the unit level through the use of the load handling system, water tank-rack, referred to as the "Hippo." Water purification is discussed later in this chapter under field services.
6-42. The DISCOM operates the water points in the division area. In most areas of the world, the division is self-sufficient in water. In arid regions and unusual circumstances, the division support units require additional water storage and distribution capability. Under these conditions, the division receives water as outlined in this chapter under water purification. Separate brigades and ACR have organic water production capability. Force XXI divisions have water teams, organic to the DISCOM, that can be used to augment division brigades operating in isolated locations.
6-43. Echelons above division (EAD) supply companies provide water to nondivisional customers on an area basis. They operate supply points at approved water sources. In most areas of the world, these DS units are capable of meeting the water purification and distribution needs of all nondivisional customers. CSS planners may augment Army forces with EAD water production capabilities, when they are operating without division support. Like division elements, they require augmentation under arid or special conditions. During the deployment phase of an operation, the DLA provides bottled water until the reverse osmosis purification unit (ROPU) is established and during the redeployment phase while the ROPU is disestablished. FM 10-52-1 provides more detail on water operations and equipment.
LOCATIONS AND SOURCES
6-45. Quartermaster corps personnel in a variety of units perform field service functions. During combat operations, military personnel provide most of the field service support in forward areas, with HNS and contractors providing a limited amount. Conversely, HNS and contractors provide much of the support in rear areas. During stability or support operations, field service support at all levels may come from a variety of sources. LOGCAP, discussed in chapter 5, is one potential source of field service support in all operations.
6-46. Food preparation is a basic unit function performed by unit food service personnel. It is one of the most important factors in soldier health, morale, and welfare. Virtually every type of unit in the force structure, divisional and nondivisional, has some organic food service personnel. These personnel support the unit food service program, as directed by the commander.
6-47. The field feeding system assumes theater-wide use of the MRE for the first several days following deployment. The theater then begins to transition to prepared group feeding rations. The theater initially transitions from the MREs to UGRs. Then, as the operational situation permits, logisticians attempt to introduce the A-ration (fresh foods) into theater. This requires extensive logistics expansion, since it requires refrigerated storage and distribution equipment and a capability to make or acquire ice for unit storage. The feeding standard is to provide soldiers at all echelons three quality meals per day. The meals fed depend on the prevailing conditions. Disposing of garbage is important to avoid leaving signature trails and maintain field sanitation standards. See FM 10-1 for more details.
6-48. The bakery function, previously classified as a field service, is now an integral portion of field feeding. Bread is no longer produced in the AO, except in the field feeding system or through contractor support. Normal Class I supply channels handle pouched bread. The bakery function is no longer a stand-alone field service.
6-49. Water is an essential commodity. It is necessary for sanitation, food preparation, construction, and decontamination. Support activities (such as helicopter maintenance and operation of medical facilities) consume large volumes of water. Water is critical to the individual soldier. Classification of the water function is somewhat different from other commodities; it is both a field service and a supply function. Water purification is a field service. Quartermaster supply units normally perform purification in conjunction with storage and distribution of potable water-a supply function. GS and DS water units do not store or distribute non-potable water. Therefore, non-potable water requirements (for example, water for construction, laundry, and showers) are the responsibility of the user.
6-50. Water supply units perform routine testing. However, monitoring water quality is primarily the responsibility of the preventive medicine personnel of the medical command or corps. The command surgeon performs tests associated with water source approval, monitors potable water, and interprets the water testing results. Each service provides its own water resource support. However, the Army or another service, as directed by the JFC, provides support beyond a service capability in a joint operation. AR 700-136 details the responsibilities of Army elements for water support.
6-51. Engineers play a major role in providing water to Army forces. The engineers, through the Topographical Engineering Center, develop and maintain an automated database for rapidly retrieving water source-related data. The engineers are also responsible for finding subsurface water; drilling wells, and constructing (including doing major repair and maintenance) permanent and semipermanent water facilities. In addition, they assist water units with site preparation, when required.
6-52. The quantity of water required depends on the regional climate and the type and scope of operations. Temperate, tropic, and arctic environments normally have enough fresh surface and subsurface water sources to meet raw water requirements for the force. In arid regions, providing water takes on significantly greater dimensions. Soldiers must drink more water. Water requirements are significantly greater in rear areas, where there is heavy demand for water for washing aircraft and vehicles, medical treatment, laundry and shower facilities, and construction projects. Planners may easily underestimate water requirements for enemy prisoners of war. They must consider the potential absence of water capability in enemy units and the requirement for on-site sanitation, shower, delousing, and medical support for in-coming prisoners. Since water is a critical commodity in arid regions, managers must strictly control its use. Commanders set up a priority and allocation system.
6-53. Because of the scarcity of potable water in some contingency areas, water support equipment is prepositioned afloat. This allows for initial support to a contingency force. Additional water equipment is available in CONUS depots to sustain operations. Most of this equipment is packaged for tactical transportability. Its configuration allows for throughput to the user with minimal handling in the AO.
6-54. In non-arid regions, DS supply units in the DISCOM and at EAD provide water purification and water supply support on an area basis. During the early stages of a contingency operation, the DISCOM may provide water for nondivisional units until additional logistics units arrive.
6-55. In arid regions where sufficient water sources are not available, EAD units establish GS water systems. GS water purification elements supplement the capabilities of the DS elements. GS water supply companies set up and operate bulk storage and distribution facilities or terminals. Tactical water distribution teams can be assigned to water supply companies to augment capabilities for distribution via hose line. These GS water supply companies distribute potable water to DS supply units for nondivisional customers and to the divisions. Hose lines, pipelines, or trucks move potable water to forward areas. Truck companies augmented with semitrailer-mounted fabric tanks (SMFT) provide line-haul of water at the tactical level.
6-56. The Mortuary Affairs Program is a broadly based military program to provide for the necessary care and disposition of deceased personnel. The program can have a direct and sudden impact on the morale of soldiers and the American public.
6-57. Each service has the responsibility for returning remains and personal effects to CONUS. The Army is designated as the executive agent for the Joint Mortuary Affairs Program. It maintains a Central Joint Mortuary Affairs Office (CJMAO) and provides general support to other services when their requirements exceed their capabilities. The Mortuary Affairs Program is divided into three subprograms:
6-58. The joint staff provides general guidance and policy to the combatant commands and military departments within the DOD. Within DA, the G1 has overall responsibility for the Mortuary Affairs Program and manages peacetime operations. The G4 is responsible for field operations during time of war. The U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command develops the standardized training and doctrine for the military services. The combatant commander develops implementation plans based on the joint staff policy and doctrine. At the combatant command level, a Joint Mortuary Affairs Office provides the commander with guidance, coordination capability, and the staff supervision for all mortuary affairs.
6-59. All commanders are responsible for the search, recovery, tentative identification, care, and evacuation of remains to the nearest collection point or mortuary. Each division has a small mortuary affairs element (two to three personnel) organic to the DISCOM. They train division personnel to perform initial search, recovery, identification, and evacuation of human remains and personal effects. During hostilities, the mortuary affairs personnel organic to the division operate collection points. This procedure continues until the division receives additional mortuary affairs personnel or a mortuary affairs unit. A mortuary affairs unit assigned to the corps support command supports nondivisional units on an area basis. This unit operates collection points throughout the corps, division, and brigade areas. These points receive remains from units, assist and conduct search and recovery operations, and arrange for the evacuation of remains to a mortuary or temporary burial site.
6-60. Mortuary affairs units operate theater collection points, evacuation points, and personal effects depots. Mortuary affairs personnel initially process remains in theater. Then, they arrange to evacuate remains and personal effects, usually by air, to a CONUS POD mortuary. CONUS POD mortuaries positively identify the remains and prepare them for release, in accordance with the desires of the next of kin. Recent wars and military operations other than war (MOOTW) have shown this procedure is quite effective.
6-61. When directed by the combatant commander, mortuary affairs units establish cemeteries and provide for temporary interment of remains. Mortuary affairs units may also operate in-theater mortuaries, but they require personnel and equipment augmentation or host nation support for identifying remains and embalming.
6-62. To further the national policy of returning all U.S. service personnel who die in any theater of operation to the next of kin, new decontamination procedures are under development. Plans call for establishing a task-organized mortuary affairs decontamination collection point. Personnel will set up and operate a point near areas that have a large number of contaminated remains. For other cases, collection point teams may decontaminate remains. JP 4-06 and FM 10-64 have more information on decontamination of remains and mortuary affairs in general.
6-63. Supporting aerial delivery equipment and systems includes parachute packing, air item maintenance, and rigging of supplies and equipment. This function supports both airborne insertions and airdrop/airland resupply. Airborne insertions involve the delivery of an airborne fighting force and its supplies and equipment to an objective area, by parachute. FM 10-500-1 covers airborne insertions in detail. Airdrop resupply operations apply to all Army forces. The airdrop function supports the movement of personnel, equipment, and supplies. It is a vital link in the distribution system; it provides the capability of supplying the force even when land lines of communication (LOC) have been disrupted and adds flexibility to the distribution system.
6-64. USAMC manages most airdrop equipment and systems (ADES) at the strategic level. It maintains the national inventory control point (NICP) and national maintenance point for ADES. At the operational level, there are two types of airdrop support units. A heavy airdrop supply company provides reinforcing support to corps-level airdrop supply companies. In addition, an airdrop equipment repair and supply company provides supply and maintenance support to airdrop supply companies in the corps (other than the airborne corps) and at EAC.
6-65. A light airdrop supply company provides airdrop/airland resupply support to the corps. In addition, it provides personnel parachute support to units such as long range surveillance units. If the corps cannot support an airdrop request, it passes the request to the airdrop supply company at EAC. Most of the supplies used for rigging by the airdrop supply company come directly from the strategic level, bypassing the airdrop equipment repair and supply company at EAC. The EAC ADES repair and supply company provides ADES maintenance support for the corps light airdrop supply company. The airborne corps has an organic airdrop capability. If it cannot meet the airdrop resupply requirement, it forwards the requirement to the supporting airdrop unit at EAC.
6-66. Airdrop resupply support must be flexible. Certain contingencies may require airdrop resupply support from the beginning of hostilities. However, the requisite airdrop support structure is not likely to be in place due to deployment priorities. In such cases, the operational-level commander should consider having a portion of the supporting airdrop supply company deploy to the depot responsible for supply support to the contingency area. If forces require airdrop resupply before deploying the airdrop support units to the theater, the unit may rig supplies for airdrop at the depot. Forces then fly supplies directly to the airdrop location. This requires adaptation of the request procedures outlined in FM 10-500-1.
LAUNDRY, SHOWER, AND CLOTHING AND LIGHT TEXTILE REPAIR
6-67. Clean, serviceable clothing and showers are essential for hygiene and morale purposes. During peacetime, fixed facilities or field expedient methods normally provide shower, laundry, and clothing repair for short-duration exercises. During operations, they are provided as far forward as the brigade area. The goal is to provide soldiers with one shower and up to 15 pounds of laundered clothing each week. Soldiers receive their own clothing from a tactical laundry within 24 hours. Responsibilities at the strategic level are those involving provisioning. For information on clothing replacement, see Class II under supply.
6-68. Forces receive support from a combination of units, HNS, and contractors. In low levels of hostilities, HNS and contractors may provide much of this support. LOGCAP offers considerable capability during the early deployment stages.
6-69. A field service company provides direct support at the tactical level. The company has the modular capability of sending small teams as far forward as desired by the supported commander. The unit provides one shower for each soldier each week. Other sources (such as field expediency methods, small-unit shower equipment, HNS, or contract services) could be used to increase showers from one to two per soldier per week.
6-70. The laundry and shower function does not include laundry decontamination support. Detailed troop decontamination of chemical and biological agents does not require showers. Radiation decontamination, however, may require showers. If soldiers use chemical defense equipment against fallout, they do not need showers. If they do not use this equipment, contamination lodges in soldiers' hair and on their skin; only showers can remove the contamination. Planners must ensure controlling the contaminated runoff from these showers. FM 3-11 has decontamination procedures. The new chemical protective clothing keeps its protective qualities after laundering. Once exposed to contamination, it must be disposed of under theater policies.
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