Military

*FM 3-90.2 (FM 71-2)


FIELD MANUAL
NO. 3-90.2
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 11 June 2003

FM 3-90.2

THE TANK AND MECHANIZED INFANTRY
BATTALION TASK FORCE

CONTENTS

COVER
PREFACE

CHAPTER 1

THE ROLE OF THE TANK AND MECHANIZED INFANTRY BATTALION TASK FORCE

Section

I.

Battalion and Task Force Mission Essential Tasks

1-1.

Battalion Task Force Mission Essential Task Development

1-2.

Operational Environment

1-3.

Full-Spectrum Operations

Section

II.

Operational Framework

1-4.

Area of Operations

1-5

Area of Interest

1-6.

Battlespace

1-7.

Battlefield Organization

1-8.

Decisive Operations

1-9.

Shaping Operations

1-10.

Sustaining Operations

1-11.

Main Effort

CHAPTER 2

ORGANIZATION AND CAPABILITIES

Section

I.

Organization, Capabilities, and Limitations

   

2-1.

Organization

   

2-2.

Capabilities

   

2-3.

Limitations

   

2-4.

Task Force Battlefield Focus

Section

II.

Duties and Responsibilities of Key Personnel

   

2-5.

Task Force Commander

   

2-6.

Personal Staff Group

   

2-7.

Coordinating Staff and Organizations

   

2-8.

The Headquarters and Headquarters Company Commander and the Forward Support Company Commander in Force XXI Organizations

   

2-9.

Company Team Commanders

   

2-10.

Scout Platoon Leader

   

2-11.

Mortar Platoon Leader

   

2-12.

Special Staff

CHAPTER 3

BATTLE COMMAND

Section

I.

The Art of Command

3-1.

Role of the Commander

3-2.

Mission Command

3-3.

Location of the Commander

3-4.

Combining the Art of Command and the Science of Control

Section

II.

Command and Control

3-5.

The Command and Control System

3-6.

Digitation and the C2 System

3-7.

Exercising Command and Control

3-8.

Distribution of Task Force Command and Control

Section

III.

Planning for Operations

3-9.

Information Systems Enhancement to Decision-Making

3-10.

The Military Decision-Making Process

3-11.

Roles of the Commander and Executive Officer

3-12.

The Role of Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance

Section

IV

The Military Decision-Making Process

3-13.

Receipt of Mission

3-14.

Mission Analysis

3-15.

Course of Action Development

3-16.

Course of Action Analysis (War Game)

3-17.

Course of Action Comparison

3-18.

Course of Action Approval

3-19.

Orders Production

3-20.

Decision-Making in a Time-Constrained Environment

Section

V.

Preparing for Operations

3-21.

Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Operations

3-22.

Security

3-23.

Force Protection

3-24.

Plan Revision and Refinement

3-25.

Coordination and Liaison

3-26.

Rehearsals

Section

VI.

Execution

   

3-27.

The Command and Control System During Execution

   

3-28.

Adapting to Changes

   

3-29.

Assessment

   

3-30.

Decisions

   

3-31.

Directing Action

   

3-32.

Training and Performance

CHAPTER 4

 

INTELLIGENCE, SURVEILLANCE, AND RECONNAISSANCE OPERATIONS

Section

I.

Fundamentals of Information Collection Management

4-1.

Collection Management

4-2.

Tiers of Reconnaissance

4-3.

Reconnaissance Operations

4-4.

Reconnaissance Guidance

4-5.

Forms of Reconnaissance

4-6.

Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance Order Development

4-7.

Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance Overlay

4-8.

Enemy Situation Template

4-9.

Terrain Management

Section

II.

Security Operations

4-10.

Screen

4-11.

Guard

4-12.

Area Security

4-13.

Cover

Section

III

Reconnaissance

4-14.

Task Force Reconnaissance and Surveillance

4-15.

Fundamentals

4-16.

Capabilities

4-17.

Integration of Brigade Reconnaissance Troop and Task Force Scout Platoons

4-18.

Supporting Assets Normally Available to Task Force

CHAPTER 5

OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS

Section

I.

Fundamentals of Offensive Operations

5-1.

Characteristics of Offensive Operations

5-2.

Contact Continuum

5-3.

Organization of Offensive Operations

Section

II.

Forms of Maneuver

5-4.

Envelopment

5-5.

Penetration

5-6.

Turning Movement

5-7.

Infiltration

5-8.

Frontal Attack

5-9.

Sequence of Offensive Operations

5-10.

Movement Techniques and Formations

Section

III

Types of Offensive Operations

5-11.

Movement to Contact

5-12.

Approach March Technique

5-13.

Integration of CS and CSS Elements

5-14.

Planning

5-15.

Execution

5-16.

Attacks

5-17.

Characteristics of the Attack

5-18.

Force-Oriented Attack against a Stationary Enemy Force

5-19.

Force-Oriented Attack against a Moving Enemy Force

5-20.

Terrain-Oriented Attacks

5-21.

Exploitation

5-22.

Pursuit

5-23.

Special Purpose Attacks

Section

IV

Transition Operations

5-24.

Consolidation

5-25.

Reorganization

5-26.

Continuing Operations

5-27.

Defend

CHAPTER 6

 

DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS

Section

I.

Fundamentals of the Defense

6-1.

Purpose of the Defense

6-2.

Organization of Defensive Actions

6-3.

Characteristics of the Defense

Section

II.

Types of Defensive Operations

   

6-4.

Area Defense

   

6-5.

Mobile Defense

   

6-6.

Retrograde Operations

   

6-7.

Delay

   

6-8.

Delay Organization

   

6-9.

Delay Planning Considerations

   

6-10.

Delay Scheme of Maneuver

   

6-11.

Maximizing the Use of Terrain in a Delay

   

6-12.

Forcing the Enemy to Deploy and Maneuver in a Delay

   

6-13.

Avoiding Decisive Engagement in a Delay

   

6-14.

Parameters of the Delay Order

   

6-15.

Alternate and Subsequent Positions in a Delay

   

6-16.

Fire Support in a Delay

   

6-17.

Engineer Support in a Delay

   

6-18.

Air Defense Support in a Delay

   

6-19.

Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Support in a Delay

   

6-20.

Combat Service Support in a Delay

   

6-21.

Delay Preparations

   

6-22.

Execution of a Delay

   

6-23.

Withdrawal

   

6-24.

Withdrawal Organization

   

6-25.

Withdrawal Planning Considerations

   

6-26.

Withdrawal Scheme of Maneuver

   

6-27.

Withdrawal Preparation

   

6-28.

Withdrawal Execution

   

6-29.

Concealing the Withdrawal

   

6-30.

Disengagement in a Withdrawal

   

6-31.

Actions on Contact in a Withdrawal

   

6-32.

Terminating the Withdrawal

   

6-33.

Retirement

Section

III

Defensive Planning Considerations

   

6-34

Defensive Planning

   

6-35.

Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield

   

6-36.

Reserve

Section

IV

Sequence of the Defense

   

6-37.

Occupation and Establishment of Security

   

6-38.

Preparation and Continued Security Operations

   

6-39.

Security Area Engagement

   

6-40.

Main Battle Area Engagement

   

6-41.

Follow-On Missions

Section

V.

Defensive Techniques

   

6-42.

Defense of an Area of Operations

   

6-43.

Defense from a Battle Position

   

6-44.

Reverse Slope Defense

   

6-45.

Defense of a Strongpoint

   

6-46.

Perimeter Defense

   

6-47.

Counterattack

Section

VI

Countermobility, Mobility, and Survivability Integration

   

6-48.

Countermobility

   

6-49.

Survivability

CHAPTER 7

URBAN OPERATIONS

Section

I.

Introduction

   

7-1.

General Considerations of Urban Operations

   

7-2.

Armor and Mechanized Forces Role in Urban Operations

   

7-3.

Tactical Challenges

Section

II.

Mission, Enemy, Terrain and Weather, Troops and Support Available, Time Available, and Civil Considerations (METT-TC)

   

7-4.

Mission

   

7-5.

Enemy

   

7-6.

Urban Mapping

   

7-7.

Terrain and Weather

   

7-8.

Troops

   

7-9.

Time

   

7-10.

Civil Considerations

Section

III

Controlling Operations

   

7-11.

Enemy Focus

   

7-12.

Commander's Critical Information Requirements

7-13.

Task-Organization of Units to Accomplish Specific Tasks

   

7-14.

Rehearsals

   

7-15.

Fire Support

   

7-16.

Field Artillery

   

7-17.

Mortars

   

7-18.

Communications

   

7-19.

Weapons Effects

Section

IV

Offensive Operations

   

7-20.

Offensive Framework

   

7-21.

Types of Attack during Urban Offensive Operations

   

7-22.

Transition

   

7-23.

Movement to Contact

   

7-24.

Attack of a Village

   

7-25.

Nodal Attack

Section

V.

Defensive Operations

   

7-26.

Defensive Framework

   

7-27.

Defensive Planning

   

7-28.

Integrating the Urban Area into the Defense

   

7-29.

Nodal Defense

   

7-30.

Delay

CHAPTER 8

 

STABILITY OPERATIONS AND SUPPORT OPERATIONS

Section

I.

Stability Operations

   

8-1.

Purpose

   

8-2.

Types of Stability Operations

   

8-3.

Peace Operations

   

8-4.

Foreign Internal Defense

   

8-5.

Security Assistance

   

8-6.

Humanitarian and Civic Assistance

   

8-7.

Support to Insurgency

   

8-8.

Support to Counterinsurgency

   

8-9.

Support to Counterdrug Operations

   

8-10.

Combating Terrorism

   

8-11.

Noncombatant Evacuation Operations

   

8-12.

Arms Control

   

8-13.

Show of Force

   

8-14.

Planning Considerations

   

8-15.

Decentralized Operations

   

8-16.

Rules of Engagement

   

8-17.

Rules of Interaction

   

8-18.

Force Protection

   

8-19.

Task Organization

   

8-20.

Media Considerations

   

8-21.

Operations with Outside Agencies

   

8-22.

Specific Considerations by BOS

   

8-23.

Intelligence

   

8-24.

Maneuver

   

8-25.

Aviation Support

   

8-26.

Fire Support

   

8-27.

Mobility and Survivability

   

8-28.

Air Defense

   

8-29.

Combat Service Support

   

8-30.

Command and Control Information Systems

   

8-31.

Techniques

   

8-32.

Presence Patrols

   

8-33.

Observation Posts

   

8-34.

Providing Security for Indigenous Authorities

   

8-35.

Static Security Posts

   

8-36.

Searches

   

8-37.

Roadblocks and Other Checkpoints

   

8-38.

React to Civil Disturbance

Section

II.

Support Operations

   

8-39.

Types of Support Operations

   

8-40.

The Army's Role in Support Operations

   

8-41.

Forms of Support Operations

   

8-42.

Planning Considerations

   

8-43.

Considerations for Support Operations

   

8-44.

Planning Process

   

8-45.

Command and Control

   

8-46.

Maneuver

   

8-47.

Intelligence

   

8-48.

Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance

   

8-49.

Fire Support

   

8-50.

Mobility and Survivability

   

8-51.

Air Defense

   

8-52.

Combat Service Support

   

8-53.

Information Operations

   

8-54.

Other Planning Considerations

   

8-55.

Pattern of Operations

   

8-56.

Sequence of Operations

   

8-57.

Transition to Combat

   

8-58.

Training Considerations

   

8-59.

Training for Support Operations

   

8-60.

Domestic Support Operations- or Foreign Humanitarian Assistance-Specific Training

   

8-61.

Additional Requirements

CHAPTER 9

 

COMBAT SUPPORT OPERATIONS

Section

I.

Fire Support

   

9-1.

Fires

   

9-2.

Fire Support Organizations

   

9-3.

Fire Support Planning and Coordination

   

9-4.

Essential Fire Support Tasks

   

9-5.

Scheme of Fires

   

9-6.

Quick Fire Planning

   

9-7.

Observation Planning

   

9-8.

Top-Down Fire Planning

   

9-9.

Battle Damage Assessment

   

9-10.

Fire Support Coordination

   

9-11.

Rehearsals

   

9-12.

Clearance of Fires

   

9-13.

AFATDS and Clearance of Fires

   

9-14.

FBCB2 and Clearance of Fires

   

9-15.

Radar Zones

   

9-16.

Fire Support Assets

   

9-17.

Mortars

   

9-18.

Mortars in the Task Force Close Fight

   

9-19.

Close Air Support

   

9-20.

Army Aviation

   

9-21.

FBCB2-Generated Fire Missions

Section

II.

Close Air Support

   

9-22.

Missions

   

9-23.

Planning Considerations

   

9-24.

Air Force Support

   

9-25.

Close Air Support Planning Duties and Responsibilities

   

9-26.

Suppression of Enemy Air Defense

   

9-27.

Weather

Section

III

Engineers

   

9-28.

Battalion Planning for Maneuver Support

   

9-29.

Mobility

   

9-30.

Countermobility

   

9-31.

Survivability

   

9-32.

General Engineering

   

9-33.

Geospatial Engineering

   

9-34.

Engineer Battalion

   

9-35.

Engineer Company

   

9-36.

Combat Engineer (Sapper) Platoon

   

9-37.

Assault and Obstacle Platoon

   

9-38.

Engineer Assets

   

9-39.

SCATMINE Capabilities

   

9-40.

SCATMINE Limitations

   

9-41.

Command and Control of SCATMINES

Section

IV

Air Defense Support

   

9-42.

Mission

   

9-43.

Organizations

   

9-44.

Air Defense Planning Considerations

   

9-45.

Air Defense Officer Duties

   

9-46.

Offensive Considerations

   

9-47.

Defensive Considerations

   

9-48.

Air Defense Types

   

9-49.

Air Defense Warnings and Weapons Control Status

   

9-50.

Air Defense Assets

CHAPTER 10

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

Section

I.

Combat Service Support Functions and Organization

   

10-1.

Overview

   

10-2.

Combat Service Support Responsibilities

   

10-3.

The Headquarters and Headquarters Company (AOE)

   

10-4.

The Force XXI Forward Support Company

   

10-5.

Forward Support Company Organization

Section

II.

Combat Service Support Operations

   

10-6.

Arm (Class V)

   

10-7.

Fuel (Class III, Bulk)

   

10-8.

Fix

   

10-9.

Move

   

10-10.

Sustain

   

10-11.

Man

Section

III

Combat Service Support Planning

   

10-12.

Planning Overview

   

10-13.

Logistics Estimate

   

10-14.

Supporting Offensive Operations

   

10-15.

Supporting Defensive Operations

   

10-16.

Echelon of the Trains

   

10-17.

Movement of the Trains

   

10-18.

LOGPAC Operations

   

10-19.

Trains and FSC Security

   

10-20.

Command and Control

   

10-21.

Communications

Section

IV

Reconstitution

   

10-22.

Reorganization

   

10-23.

Regeneration

CHAPTER 11

COMMAND POST OPERATIONS

Section

I.

Command and Control Facilities

   

11-1.

Command Group

   

11-2.

Main Command Post

   

11-3.

Combat Trains Command Post

   

11-4.

Task Force Support Area Command Post (Force XXI)/Field Trains Command Post (AOE)

   

11-5.

Command Post Survivability

   

11-6.

Displacement

Section

II.

Command Post Operations

   

11-7.

Standing Operating Procedures

   

11-8.

Communications

   

11-9.

Maps

   

11-10.

The Battle Captain

Section

III

Communication

   

11-11.

Responsibilities

   

11-12.

Means of Communications

   

11-13.

Communications Security

Section

IV

Communications Systems

   

11-14.

Combat Net Radio

   

11-15.

Army Command User System

   

11-16.

Army Data Distribution System

   

11-17.

The Digital Battlefield

   

11-18.

Tactical Internet

   

11-19.

Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below

   

11-20.

Enhanced Position Location Reporting System with Very High Speed Integrated Circuits

   

11-21.

Responsibilities

Section

V.

Digital Command and Control Systems and Architecture

   

11-22.

Army Battle Command System Components

   

11-23.

Digital Command and Control Techniques

   

11-24.

Standing Operating Procedure Considerations

   

11-25.

Integrating Digital and Analog Units

CHAPTER 12

TACTICAL ENABLING OPERATIONS

Section

I.

Relief Operations

   

12-1.

Planning Considerations

   

12-2.

Conducting the Relief

   

12-3

Command and Control

Section

II.

Security Operations

   

12-4.

Screen

   

12-5.

Guard

   

12-6.

Area Security

   

12-7.

Cover

Section

III

Battle Handover and Passage of Lines

   

12-8

Battle Handover

   

12-9.

Passage of Lines

   

12-10.

Forward Passage of Lines

   

12-11.

Rearward Passage of Lines

   

12-12.

Rehearsal

Section

IV

Linkup Operations

   

12-13.

Control during Linkup Operations

   

12-14.

Forms of Linkup

Section

V.

River Crossing Operations

   

12-15.

General Considerations

   

12-16.

Assault of the Crossing Site

Section

VI

Combined Arms Breaching Operations

   

12-17.

Breach Tenets

   

12-18.

Combined Arms Breach during Deliberate Operations

   

12-19.

Combined Arms Breach during Hasty Operations

Section

VII.

Tactical Road March

   

12-20.

March Elements

   

12-21.

March Column Organization

   

12-22.

Techniques

   

12-23.

Planning Considerations

   

12-24.

Movement Order

   

12-25.

Control Measures

   

12-26.

Security

Section

VIII.

Assembly Area Operations

   

12-27.

Assembly Areas

   

12-28.

Organization

   

12-29.

Quartering Party

   

12-30.

Occupation

   

12-31.

Actions in the Assembly Area

   

12-32.

Security

   

12-33.

Departure from the Assembly Area

APPENDIX A

INTEGRATION OF HEAVY AND LIGHT FORCES

APPENDIX B

AVIATION SUPPORT TO GROUND OPERATIONS

APPENDIX C

OPERATIONS IN NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL, AND CHEMICAL CONDITIONS

APPENDIX D

RISK MANAGEMENT AND FRATRICIDE AVOIDANCE

APPENDIX E

ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

APPENDIX F

SNIPER EMPLOYMENT

APPENDIX G

FIRES INTEGRATION

APPENDIX H

DEPLOYMENT

APPENDIX I

PLANNING AND OPERATIONS CHARTS

APPENDIX J

AIR ASSAULT OPERATIONS

GLOSSARY

REFERENCES

AUTHENTICATION

 

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited.

*This publication supersedes FM 71-2, dated 27 September 1988.

 



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