COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT
The modern battalion task force requires independent logistical systems and procedures and poses new challenges for CSS functions and leaders. With the development of new technological methods of sharing information such as FBCB2 and CSSCS, leaders at battalion task force and company team levels can provide the foresight and responsiveness necessary to anticipate and maintain the high operations tempo of TF operations.
The concepts and organizational structures found in this chapter reflect a paradigm shift from the supply-based CSS system of Army of Excellence to a technology-enhanced, distribution-based CSS system. A distribution-based logistics system combines information capabilities with efficient delivery systems to form an efficient distribution pipeline. Direct throughput of supplies from division and brigade to the battalion task force or company team is the rule rather than the exception with distribution-based logistics. The forward support company is the cornerstone of the distribution-based logistics system. The FSC is essentially all of the logistical elements that were in the AOE headquarters company maneuver battalion (except medical and communications repair) now organized as part of the forward support battalion. Personnel service support (PSS) functions, including manning and sustaining soldiers through religious, legal, and command information support, are the same as in the AOE structure.
Section I. COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT
FUNCTIONS AND ORGANIZATION
As much as possible, the burden of CSS is removed from the company team commander and placed under control of the task force. The company team commander concentrates on fighting his unit to accomplish the tactical mission. The CSS responsibility at company team level is primarily to report and request requirements and to ensure that CSS is properly executed once it arrives in the team's area.
Regardless of whether the task force operates under the AOE or Force XXI CSS structure, the commander ensures that CSS is provided not only for his organic and attached elements but for any OPCON or supporting units as well. The task force provides mission-essential CSS to supported attachments. The S4 coordinates CSS for the attachments and verifies who is to provide this CSS and how it is to be requested. When a large attachment joins the task force, the attachment should bring an appropriate slice of CSS assets from its parent unit. These assets are controlled by the task force S4. The attached unit leader must coordinate with the task force S1 and furnish him with a copy of his unit battle roster. Thereafter, the attached unit submits reports and requests resupply according to the task force SOP.
a. In most tank and mechanized infantry battalion task forces, CSS assets are assigned to the task force HHC or the forward support company in Force XXI structured units. Under both CSS structures, the focal point for combat service support is the task force combat trains CP. The combat train CP anticipates, requests, coordinates, and supervises execution of combat service support either by HHC or FSC assets.
b. Key CSS functions include logistics support, personnel service support, and health services support.
(1) Supply. The supply function acquires, receives, and issues all classes of supply required by the task force.
(2) Transportation. The tranportation function moves units, personnel, equipment, and supplies as required to support the concept of operations.
(3) Maintenance. The maintenance function keeps equipment and weapons in a serviceable, operational condition and conducts battle damage assessment and repair as necessary.
(4) Field Services. This function includes graves registration, clothing exchange, bath, salvage, laundry, textile renovation, airdrop and airlift, and bakery.
(5) Personnel Service Support. PSS includes a variety of functions that support a commander's ability to accomplish his mission and contributes to the welfare and morale of the soldier. Major CSS personnel service functions include —
- Personnel and administration services, which include strength and personnel accountability, replacement operations, casualty reporting, awards and decorations, and personnel management.
- Chaplain activities, which include conduct of services, personal and religious counseling, and pastoral care.
- Legal services.
- Finance services.
- Public affairs.
- Postal services.
- Enemy prisoner of war support.
(6) Health Services Support. This function includes treatment and evacuation, medical supply support, and preventive medicine.
c. The task force receives service support from various elements depending on the applicable CSS structure, either Army of Excellence or Force XXI.
(1) Army of Excellence. The XO, assisted by the command sergeant major, is responsible for coordinating all CSS in the task force.
(a) The S4 is responsible for the logistical support of the task force and for preparing paragraph 4 of the OPORD. He is assisted by the S4 section and the HHC support platoon.
(b) The S1 is responsible for personnel service support within the battalion and he coordinates the actions of the medical platoon. To assist him in this effort, he has a personnel and administration center (PAC).
(c) The battalion maintenance officer (BMO) is responsible for maintenance support and directs the activities of the maintenance platoon.
(d) The principal source of external support to the task force is the forward support battalion. It is organized with a headquarters and headquarters detachment, a supply company, a maintenance company, and a medical company to provide support to a maneuver brigade. Additional support can be provided by the main support battalion of the division support command (DISCOM).
(2) Force XXI CSS Redesign. For the Force XXI task force, all CSS, minus medical, has been consolidated into the forward support company. The XO is still responsible for coordinating all CSS in the task force, and the S4 identifies the logistical requirements for the task force maneuver plan and provides the requirements to the FSC commander. The FSC provides all CSS (less medical) to the task force and is the CSS operator at the task force level. The principal source of external support to the task force is still the FSB; it is organized with a headquarters and distribution company (HDC), a base support company (BSC), a medical company, and three FSCs that provide DS centralized CSS support to each brigade maneuver task force. DISCOM still provides additional support from the MSB.
d. The increasing use of assured communications and improvements in information technology provide the CSS operator (either the HHC or FSC commander) and the S4 the information dominance and digital tools needed to tailor the CSS package. Through near real-time information, the task force battle staff is able to make timely adjustments in its support requirements. If equipped, CSSCS and FBCB2 are combat multipliers that provide logistics status and information in support of CSS planning and operations. CSSCS receives subordinate unit logistical reports from task force FBCB2 terminals, and it transmits reports and requirements to echelons-above-brigade support elements. The S1 and S4 link their FBCB2 terminal to the brigade CSSCS. They use this terminal to input data into the CSSCS network to conduct personnel transactions and to coordinate and receive supplies. Requesting of supplies and other logistical services is accomplished using standard Army management information systems (STAMIS) such as unit-level logistics system-general (ULLS-G), standard Army retail supply subsystem (SARSS), satellite automatic monitoring system (SAMS), supply property book system-revision (SPBS-R), and SIDPERS. The S1 and S4 use their FBCB2 logistics reports to provide input to both the brigade S1 and S4 and their supporting FSC.
10-2. COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT RESPONSIBILITIES
The primary CSS functions required by the task force include casualty treatment and evacuation, resupply operations, maintenance activities, and personnel service support. The task force S1 and S4 sections collocate to form the rear CP in the combat trains. The following have the primary responsibility for CSS.
a. S1 Section. The S1 section is responsible for personnel services and the general administration of the task force. The S1 is assisted by the PAC supervisor and the personnel staff NCO. The S1 section has personnel at both the combat trains CP and the field trains (or TFSA under Force XXI). The S1 and his staff in the combat trains CP primarily perform the critical tasks of strength accountability and casualty reporting as well as command post functions. The S1 personnel in the field trains or TFSA perform replacement operations, administrative services, personnel actions, legal services, and finance services. The S1 also has primary staff responsibility for EPW operations and medical planning. He coordinates with the S2 for interrogation of prisoners and the S4 for processing captured equipment and transportation requirements. The S1 coordinates with the medical platoon leader to ensure that patient treatment and evacuation is planned and coordinated throughout the task force area.
b. Medical Platoon. The medical platoon sorts, treats, and evacuates casualties or returns them to duty. It stocks medical supplies for the task force and provides all Class VIII support. It is also responsible for maintaining and evacuating battalion medical equipment. The medical platoon's survivability and mobility are increased by the use of armored evacuation vehicles and aid stations. The medical platoon leader (a physician), with the aid of a physician's assistant, operates the battalion aid station. The medical operations officer, a medical service corps officer, coordinates the operations, administration, and logistics of the medical platoon. His duties include coordinating patient evacuation to the supporting medical company and providing support to company teams.
c. S4 Section. The role of the S4 differs somewhat, depending on the CSS structure that the task force operates under.
(1) Under AOE, the S4 section is responsible for all supply, transportation, and field service functions. It coordinates requisition and distribution of supplies to company supply sections and turns in captured supplies and equipment as directed. Personnel in the section are in the field trains and the combat trains CP. They are cross-trained with personnel of the S1 section in critical tasks to permit continuous operations. The S4 section is supervised by the S4 who is assisted by the battalion supply sergeant. Under Force XXI, the S4 focuses on planning CSS, identifying requirements, and coordinating for support through the FSC commander.
(2) In combat, under both AOE and Force XXI, the S4 concentrates on seven classes of supply: Classes I, II, III, IV, V, VII, and IX. The support platoon leader (or S&T platoon leader) coordinates the requisition, receipt, preparation, and delivery of Classes I, III, and V. This is done at the direction of either the FSC commander (Force XXI structure) or the HHC commander and S4 (AOE). The supply section coordinates the requisition, receipt, and delivery of Classes II, IV, VII, and IX.
(3) The S4 section and the support platoon (or S&T) are responsible for obtaining water and maps. Using transportation, water is obtained from the water supply point in or near the BSA or from forward sources tested and approved by the medical platoon leader. Maps are stocked by the supply and service company of the main support battalion, and they are requested through the forward support battalion. The S2 is responsible for distributing maps as required. Classified maps are obtained through G2 channels.
d. Support Platoon/S&T Platoon. Although AOE and Force XXI differ as to where the task force receives its transportation assets, the role of the support platoon (or S&T platoon) has the same primary function.
(1) AOE Support Platoon. The support platoon is comprised of a headquarters section, a transportation section (which includes a decontamination specialist), and mess sections. The transportation section is organized and equipped to transport fuel, ammunition, and supplies to the companies. The section normally transports a portion of the unit basic load of ammunition plus fuels and lubricants. The transportation section has a POL vehicle supervisor and, in armor battalions, an ammunition sergeant. It also has drivers assigned to operate the section's cargo vehicles. The mess section is organized and equipped to prepare meals for all elements of the task force. The support platoon also has the task force decontamination vehicle and operator to assist in unit decontamination. The support platoon leader works for the S4 and is under the supervision of the HHC commander in the field trains. The platoon leader is assisted by the support platoon sergeant.
(2) Force XXI Supply and Transportation (S&T) Platoon. The S&T platoon provides supply and transportation support to the Force XXI task force in the same manner as the AOE support platoon. It is comprised of a platoon headquarters section, distribution section, and a food service section.
(a) Platoon Headquarters Section. The S&T platoon HQ section manages the distribution of supplies and food service coming from or passing through the FSC in support of the task force. The section utilizes ULLS-G/SAMS-1 and SARSS-1 interfaces to provide supply receipt and issue management for all classes of supplies except VIII (medical). This facilitates on-site item management. This section performs the following functions:
- Operates the ULLS-G/SAMS-1 and SARSS-1 systems.
- Maintains a current listing for all on-hand commodities.
- Processes receipts, issues, and turn-ins.
- Processes turn-ins to maintenance (for repairable items).
- Establishes facilities for limited storage, receipt, and issue of all supported commodities.
- Performs limited storage, receipt, and issue of all supported commodities.
- Delivers issued assets (LOGPAC) and pickup retrogrades (turn-ins to maintenance or for disposal).
(b) Food Service Section. The food service section provides Class I food service and food preparation (from the TFSA) for its own company and the TF. The food service section can prepare and deliver hot meals to the maneuver company team area. It distributes prepackaged food, prepared food, or both, from the TFSA. It can provide one "heat-and-serve" meal and one "cook-prepared" (A or B ration) meal per day.
(c) Distribution Section. The distribution section is responsible for supporting all classes of supply (except IX) coming from or passing through the FSC in support of a mechanized or armor battalion task force. This includes retail refuel operations from organic assets and ammunition resupply. The distribution section has the ability to conduct simultaneous Class III and V support to the company teams, HHC, and the FSC itself. The platoon is equipped with the following (the number of personnel and trucks varies slightly in each section based on the task organization of the TF):
- Ten HEMTT cargo trucks.
- Nine 2,500-gallon fuel truck tankers.
- Two fuel dispensing tankers.
- Eight 2-1/2-ton cargo trucks.
- Four light-medium tactical vehicle (LMTV) cargo trucks.
e. Maintenance Platoon. In both AOE and Force XXI, the maintenance platoon provides field maintenance to the task force. The platoon consists of a headquarters section, maintenance control section, recovery section, maintenance and service section, and the AOE company maintenance teams (CMT) or Force XXI combat repair teams. The maintenance platoon provides command and control and reinforcing maintenance to the CMT/CRTs. The CMT/CRTs provide field maintenance and battle damage assessment and repair to the company teams. As the commander task-organizes the force, all or part of a CRT goes with the company teams in order to maintain habitual support. The platoon maintains a limited quantity of combat spares (prescribed load list [PLL] and shop stock) in the maintenance control section. The maintenance platoon operates the UMCP in the combat trains or field trains/TFSA area, depending on METT-TC. The maintenance platoon performs unit maintenance on all task force equipment except COMSEC and medical equipment. The platoon leader is normally the battalion maintenance officer. He is assisted by the maintenance technician and the battalion motor sergeant. When a company is detached from the battalion, the BMO detaches a supporting maintenance package that includes the personnel, tools, test equipment, and PLL stocks necessary to support the company.
(1) Headquarters Section. The maintenance platoon headquarters section provides command, control, and supervision for all administrative functions of the platoon. With guidance from the HHC/FSC commander, it plans and conducts all necessary training activities.
(2) Maintenance Control Section. The maintenance control section is the primary manager for all field maintenance in the task force. The maintenance control section performs all of the Army maintenance management system (TAMMS) and dispatching operations and tracks scheduled services for the task force using ULLS-G. All company team ULLS-G boxes and PLL clerks are collocated with the maintenance control section. The maintenance control supervisor manages the ULLS-G operators. The ULLS-G clerks operating each company team box process each DA Form 5988-E completed by the operator or crew and verified by the CMT/CRT.
(3) Maintenance and Service Section. The maintenance and service section provides habitual field maintenance for the FSC and maneuver TF HHC. This section also provides maintenance support to elements attached to the task force and provides reinforcing maintenance to the CMT/CRTs.
(4) Recovery Section. The recovery section provides recovery support to elements of the FSC (or task force HHC). This section also provides limited reinforcing recovery support to CMT/CRTs. The major equipment in this section consists of three wreckers (one 5-ton, one medium tactical vehicle, and one 8x8 heavy tactical vehicle) and six M88 recovery vehicles. When reinforcing recovery support is required, CMT/CRTs submit a support request to the maintenance control section.
(5) Company Maintenance Teams/Combat Repair Teams. The task force's first level of support comes from the FSC CRTs (under Force XXI) or from the HHC CMT (under AOE), which are organized to provide field maintenance (organizational and direct support maintenance levels) for all combat platforms organic to company teams. The CRT functions in the same manner as the CMT under AOE except that the organizational maintenance mission has been added to the CRTs' responsibility. The company team commander sets the CMT/CRT priorities. The CMT/CRT operates under the control of the maneuver company team 1SG and is supervised by the CMT/CRT maintenance NCOIC. CMT/CRTs carry limited onboard combat spares to help facilitate repairs forward. If inoperable equipment is not repairable, due either to METT-TC or a lack of repair parts, the team uses recovery assets to recover the equipment to the UMCP or designated linkup point. CMT/CRTs are fully integrated into the maneuver units' operational plans. Major equipment in the CMT/CRT includes—
- One M113 personnel carrier.
- One M88A2 recovery vehicle.
- One 5-ton cargo truck.
- One 2-1/2-ton cargo truck.
- One contact maintenance truck (Force XXI).
- One forward repair system (Force XXI).
f. Support Operations Section (Force XXI Design). This section coordinates and provides technical supervision for the FSC's CSS mission. This mission includes DS supply, field maintenance and recovery operations, and the coordination of transportation and field services. The support operations section (consisting of the support operations officer and four enlisted soldiers) collocates with the S1 and S4 sections at the CTCP. The FSC support operations section performs the following general tasks:
- Coordinates and provides technical CSS assistance to the task force S4.
- Advises the task force commander on requirements versus available assets.
- Determines CSS requirements in coordination with the FSB support operations section, task force S4, and the logistics representatives from attached units.
- Provides input to the task force logistics estimate and service support paragraph of the OPORD.
- Plans and monitors support operations and makes necessary adjustments to ensure support requirements are met.
- Tracks available assets through subordinate company teams, FSB support operations section, TF S4, and other units.
- Keeps the FSB support operations section abreast of the logistics situation and requests backup support when needed.
- Recommends support priorities and enforces priorities received from higher headquarters.
- Coordinates with the S4 and HHC commander on CTCP locations.
- Plans and executes contingency operations as required.
- Coordinates with the S3 and S4 on primary and alternate routes into the TFSA.
- Plans and coordinates allocation of available resources.
- Establishes and monitors brigade and task force logistics situation report (LOGSITREP), logistics status (LOGSTAT), and logistics (LOG) spot reports IAW SOP.
- Plans future logistics operations in coordination with the S4.
- Develops and maintains tactical and CSS overlays.
- Develops the CSS synchronization matrix.
10-3. THE HEADQUARTERS AND HEADQUARTERS COMPANY (AOE)
Under the Army of Excellence, the battalion (BN)/TF HHC provides the BN/TF supply, maintenance, medical, and transportation support similar in scope to that of the forward support company. The HHC, augmented by the FSB maintenance, supply, and medical companies, provides field maintenance and all classes of supply, including medical, to its supported BN/TF.
a. The BN/TF HHC includes a support platoon and a maintenance platoon organized to provide direct support to the battalion. The BN/TF echelons support into combat and field trains. TF combat trains are normally situated one to four kilometers behind the BN/TF while the BN/TF field trains are located within the brigade support area, 15 to 25 kilometers to the rear. The maneuver unit company supply sergeants are located in the field trains. They assemble their LOGPACS and then move their vehicles forward to the BN/TF logistics release point. The company first sergeant or his representative then meets the LOGPAC and guides it to the company resupply point.
b. The BN/TF locates the S1/S4 in the combat trains command post within the TF combat trains. These trains are normally comprised of a unit maintenance collection point, battalion aid station, and emergency classes of resupply (such as Class III and V) loaded onto support platoon assets. The TF combat trains are controlled by the S4, who is assisted by the S1 and battalion maintenance officer. Maintenance teams are sent forward to each company team under the supervision of their respective 1SGs. The 1SG also has under his control combat medical teams with track ambulance capability from the HHC. Casualties are evacuated by track ambulance to the casualty collection point, consolidated, and further evacuated back to an ambulance exchange point. Figure 10-1 shows a doctrinal template on how to deploy the HHC to support the BN/TF. Figure 10-2 depicts the HHC organization.
Figure 10-1. CSS operations brigade and below AOE.
Figure 10-2. Headquarters and headquarters company.
10-4. THE FORCE XXI FORWARD SUPPORT COMPANY
Under Force XXI, the FSC commander is the CSS operator for the task force. The FSC is tasked and emplaced by the task force commander. The FSC provides field maintenance and all classes of supply, minus medical, to the task force while the task force provides Echelon 1 medical support to the supporting FSC. The FSCs accomplish their core functions through centralization of support. Centralization of support accomplishes the dual functions of providing the task force commander with greater mobility as well as increased efficiency and effectiveness in the flow of support and supplies. Centralized support allows the FSB commander to cross-level between FSCs and weight the battle logistically or surge, as required. Centralization of support is enhanced through employment of maturing technology available to the division logistician. The FSC has the capability to command, control, and integrate attached units such as engineer support teams or teams from corps. When equipped with FBCB2, the FSC has the capability to provide near real-time information on the battlefield which greatly assists in the support effort.
a. The FSC is a multi-functional unit that includes an S&T platoon and a maintenance platoon organized to provide habitual and direct support to a maneuver battalion. Based on METT-TC, the FSCs locate 4 to 12 kilometers behind their supported task force in the task force support area. The maneuver unit company supply sergeants are located in the TFSA. They assemble their LOGPACS and then move their vehicles forward to the logistics release point. The company first sergeant or his representative meets the LOGPAC and guides it to the company resupply point.
b. The FSCs collocate their support operations cell with the task force CTCP in order to integrate the S4 and S1 with the FSC support operations officer (SPO). This CTCP is located within the TF's combat trains, one to four kilometers behind the BN or TF, and controlled by the task force HHC commander. Based on METT-TC, the HHC commander has the flexibility to locate the UMCP, recovery, emergency resupply of Class III and V, and other assets throughout the task force area of operation. The task force will also normally locate its aid station within the combat trains for force protection and proximity considerations. Combat repair teams from the FSCs are attached to each company team under the supervision of the company or team 1SG. The 1SG also has under his control the combat medical team with track ambulance capability from the HHC. Casualties are evacuated by track ambulance to the casualty collection point where they are consolidated and further evacuated back to an ambulance exchange point. Figure 10-3 shows a doctrinal template on how to deploy the FSC to support the task force. Figure 10-3 and Figure 10-4 show doctrinal templates on how to deploy the FSC to support the task force.
c. Both the FSB and the task force commander must ensure that the FSC is tightly integrated into the task force's operations in garrison, in training, and when deployed. In combat, the task force commander is responsible for the positioning, movement, and security of the FSC.
d. The FSB provides backup support to the FSC when requirements exceed its capabilities. The CSS structure's capability to project, receive, and support the task force directly affects the effectiveness of the task force and its ability to accomplish its mission.
Figure 10-3. CSS operations brigade and below for Force XXI BCT.
Figure 10-4. Forward support company doctrinal template.
10-5. FORWARD SUPPORT COMPANY ORGANIZATION
Under Force XXI, the FSC has replaced many of the HHC CSS functions for the task force as shown in Figure 10-5. The field trains command post has been replaced with the FSC CP headed by the FSC company commander. The FSC organization and functions differ from those of the former HHC organization and function.
Figure 10-5. Forward support company.
Section II. COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT OPERATIONS
At the tactical level, CSS elements provide centralized support that is coordinated and tailored for the warfighter. They control austere supply inventories and the maintenance, transportation, personnel, medical, finance, and field service capabilities necessary to satisfy specific tactical requirements. Increasingly efficient digital information systems enable the CSS manager and tactical leadership in the task force to anticipate, diagnose, and monitor the status, control, and flow of support assets that are required to support the immediate CSS situation. This information is essential during deployment as the organization arrives in its assigned area of operation. (See Appendix H, Deployment.) Even with these advanced capabilities, the combat service support system is challenged to sustain the task force in full-spectrum operations. This section addresses the six essential support (sustainment) functions of arm, fuel, fix, move, sustain, and man.
10-6. ARM (CLASS V)
Units report on-hand ammunition status to the 1SG, with an information copy going to the company team commander. The 1SG consolidates the unit's on-hand quantities and forwards them to the S4 using FM, hardcopy turned in at the LRP, or using rollup procedures in the LOGSTAT in FBCB2, with information copies to the FSC and support operations officer. Company team commanders indicate in their LOGSITREP any critical ammunition shortages or forecasted changes in ammunition requirements. By continuously analyzing the task force ammunition status, the S4 can recommend cross-leveling between company teams or request for additional Class V from the TFSA or field trains. The FTCP or TFSA CP determines whether or not the request can be filled at its level. If so, it tasks the support/S&T platoon to supply and deliver the Class V. If the FTCP or FSC cannot fill the request, it forwards the request to the FSB SPO located at the BSA. (Refer to Figure 10-6 for an example of Class V distribution to the task force.)
Figure 10-6. Class V resupply (Force XXI).
a. The S4 determines when there is a change in mission or continuous support ammunition resupply requirements based on information provided in the situation report (SITREP), LOGSTAT, and guidance received from the task force commander and S3.
b. The S4 ascertains whether the request is normal resupply or an emergency requirement. Submission of daily LOGSTATs in accordance with unit SOPs addresses normal resupply, although the S4 may submit a request to the brigade administrative/logistical operations center (ALOC)/FSB support operations.
c. The S4 submits company team rollups for ammunition resupply to the brigade S4 through the LOGSTAT report. The brigade S4 consolidates the ammunition requests and passes the consolidated request to the support operations officer located in the supporting FSB. The support operations officer then requests the ammunition support from the division ammunition officer (DAO) located in the Class V section of the division support operations section.
10-7. FUEL (CLASS III, BULK)
In Force XXI, the base support company S&T platoon of the FSB is responsible for receipt, storage, issue, quality control, delivery, and dispensing of Class III (B). It provides direct support resupply to the FSCs and area support to brigade units. The section also provides retail service in the BSA. It provides supply point distribution to units in the BSA. The section can provide a normal half-day supply to the FSCs. Under AOE, the FSB supply company provides the same Class III service to the task force HHC support platoon.
a. The distribution section of the support/S&T platoon is responsible for distribution of Class III (B) to the task force. The HHC/FSC's HEMTTs conduct resupply fuel operations for the company teams.
b. Fuel status is initiated at the platoon or company team level and reported to the 1SG. Information copies are furnished to commanders at each echelon. The 1SG consolidates on-hand quantities and submits the fuel status to the S4, with an information copy to the FSC support operations section. In the absence of reports, the S1, S4, and HHC/FSC should anticipate unit requirements when assembling LOGPACs.
c. The S4s submit their forecasts and status reports to the brigade S4 and the FTCP or FSC support operations section which in turn passes the request along to the FSB SPO. The FSB support operations section submits the consolidated forecast and requirements to the DISCOM support operations section.
d. For emergency resupply, the units request fuel via FM voice followed up with an FBCB2 call for support (CFS) (if equipped). If the FSC cannot fill the request, it forwards the request to the FSB support operations section with a copy to the brigade S1/S4. (Refer to Figure 10-7 for an example of Class III [B] distribution to the task force.)
Figure 10-7. Class III (B) resupply (Force XXI).
The overarching principle of performing maintenance as far forward as possible on the battlefield remains unchanged in task force operations. Mechanics accomplish their mission by using advanced diagnostics and prognostics to diagnose the major component fault and then replace the component under the replace-forward concept. "Replace forward" focuses on "on-system" maintenance tasks or those tasks that can be performed at the breakdown site (if possible) or at the UMCP. An operator performs preventive maintenance checks and service (PMCS), and the fault(s) are transmitted using electronic technical manual-interface (ETM-I). Depending on the urgency of the fault, the operator may notify the CMT/CRT via FM or FBCB2 (if equipped). The CMT/CRT diagnoses the fault and identifies the Class IX required. If the part is on hand, the CMT/CRT repairs the fault. If the part is not on hand, a request is passed to the maintenance control section. The maintenance control section determines whether the part is on hand in the supporting PLLs. If on-hand, it is released; if not, the maintenance control section requests the part via ULLS-G or SAMS. These requests are forwarded to the SARSS-1 located in the HHC/FSC's supply section. Since the SARSS-1 site does not maintain stockage of Class IX, the request is forwarded to the SARSS-1 in the AOE maintenance company or Force XXI BSC. (Refer to Figure 10-8 for typical maintenance communication flow within the division.)
Figure 10-8. Maintenance communication flow (Force XXI).
a. Company Maintenance Teams/Combat Repair Teams. The CMT/CRTs are the first level of support for the task forces. If the time, tools, test equipment, and parts are available, the team repairs the equipment, returning it to mission-capable status. Most of their support during combat, however, consists of BDAR, diagnostics, and on-system maintenance through the replacement of line replacement unit (LRU) components. The CMT/CRTs operate in the company team's combat trains and directly support the company team. The CMT/CRT NCOIC, who coordinates all support requirements with the company team, controls the movement of the CMT/CRTs as directed by the company team 1SG or XO. The CMT/CRTs respond to the company team's voice or FBCB2 (if equipped) requests for support. They also provide recovery support for the company team. They evacuate jobs according to a set timeline (Figure 10-9). The CMT/CRTs do not carry large quantities of Class IX but do carry limited combat spares and selected LRUs (tailored to their supported unit) to facilitate repairs forward. When the workload exceeds the CMT/CRTs' capabilities, they request reinforcement through the maintenance platoon's maintenance control section located in the UMCP or TFSA. The maintenance platoon provides limited Class IX support and can provide additional repair and recovery support.
Figure 10-9. Maintenance time guidelines.
b. Maintenance Platoon. The maintenance platoon (-) positions behind the CRTs in the UMCP. This platoon provides C2 and backup maintenance to the company team CRTs. The platoon (-) locates in the combat trains and establishes the task force UMCP. Backup maintenance support is provided to the FSC by the BSC or AOE maintenance company. Additionally, the FSB can provide a combat authorized stockage list (ASL) that includes major assemblies, key tank, and BFV LRU components.
Dependent on AOE or Force XXI structure, either the FSC support operations section or CTCP assumes the movement, materiel management, and maintenance evacuation functions for the task force. The S4 coordinates with either the FTCP or the TFSA CP in order to synchronize the delivery of all classes of supply with units. Requirements not within the FTCP's or the TFSA's capabilities are transferred to the FSB support operations. The task force CTCP schedules and synchronizes transportation support. The FTCP or TFSA CP coordinates inbound and outbound shipments with the FSB movement control NCO.
a. When equipped, FBCB2 allows for the connectivity and visibility of assets and support for current and future operations. Additionally, the movements tracking system (MTS) provides near real-time visibility of the GPS location of the transportation resources throughout the brigade support area.
b. The S3 plans, coordinates, and controls tactical movement for the task force. The S3 plans unit movements, and the S4 normally coordinates them. The S4 is the logistical movement manager.
c. The support/S&T platoon provides the primary source of transportation and executes transportation missions for the task force. The S4 consolidates support requirements and passes them to the FTCP or TFSA support operations section for execution. The S4 also maximizes the use of returning vehicles by coordinating with company teams to return recoverable parts to the BSA/TFSA.
d. When units require additional transportation support, they submit a request to the S4. The S4 coordinates with either the FSC support operations section or coordinates with the FSB support operations section for additional assets if required. Information is also provided to the brigade S4 so that they have overall knowledge of activity within their respective area.
Sustainment functions include Classes I, II, III, IV, VI, VII, VIII, and IX, plus field, religious, postal, finance, and legal services.
a. Class I. The food service section (from the FSC or HHC) provides consolidated food preparation for the task force. The HHC/FSC has the ability to prepare meals forward in each company team area based on METT-TC. The food service section cooks unitize group ration A (UGR-A) or B (UGR-B), or heats the heat-and-serve meal in its organic mobile kitchen trailer (MKT). Food can be packed in insulated food containers and sent with the LOGPAC to company team locations where company team soldiers serve the meals.
(1) The supported force's head count determines the quantity of rations requested. Platoons transmit headcounts for rations through the company team to the task force. The S4 consolidates all subordinate unit head counts and transmits the total projected head count to the brigade S4 and or HHC/FSC support operations section. (Refer to Figure 10-10 for an example of the typical Class I distribution system within the division.)
(2) When the unit is engaged in combat, the ration-supplement health care package (HCP) is usually issued with the rations. These supplement HCPs should not be confused with Class VI supplies, which include toilet articles and confections.
Figure 10-10. Class I distribution (Force XXI).
(3) There is no organic water purification capability within the division. Corps water purification units can augment the FSB to provide water purification and storage. Within the brigade, the FSB can distribute water forward to the HHC/FSCs in the form of hard-wall tankers. Maneuver company team supply sergeants are required to fill their water trailers at the BSA/TFSA. In the division support area (DSA), the quartermaster company has the ability to store limited quantities of water in bags mounted on trailers or in hard-wall tankers.
(4) The primary method of water distribution is via supply point in the quartermaster company. (Refer to Figure 10-11 for typical water distribution operations within the division.) In an arid environment, an arid environment water team augments the division support battalion (DSB) and FSBs in order to increase water storage capabilities for water storage and distribution.
Figure 10-11. Water distribution (Force XXI).
(5) Bottled water may be locally procured or shipped from outside the theater of operations. Bottled or packaged water is particularly well suited for reception, staging, onward movement, and integration (RSOI) and initial operations but may be routinely issued throughout an operation or conflict depending on the situation. It is normally requisitioned and distributed along with Class I.
b. Classes II, III(P), and IV. Classes II, III(P), IV, and unclassified maps include a wide variety of supplies and equipment from clothing and tools to packaged petroleum products and barrier materials. Units continue to request supplies and materiel through the appropriate STAMIS (ULLS-S4 to SARSS-1 or global combat support system-Army [GCSS-A]). (Refer to Figure 10-12 for an example of the typical flow of Class II, III [P] and IV within the division.) The support/S&T platoon maintains limited stockage supporting the task force. Company team 1SGs consolidate requests and pass the requirements to the supply sergeant at the field trains or TFSA. The supply sergeant submits these requests via ULLS-S4. Unclassified maps and Class IV barrier materials follow the same requisition flow as Classes II, III (P), and IV supplies. These unclassified maps and barrier materials are stored in the receipt, storage, and issue section. Maps are issued through supply point distribution to supported units according to established tables of allowances or to fill special requirements. Classified maps are handled through S2 channels. Class IV countermobility materials are throughput to either an engineer pick-up point or site of emplacement.
Figure 10-12. Class II, III (P), and IV operations (Force XXI).
c. Class VI. Class VI supplies are those items used for personal hygiene, comfort, and welfare. They include such things as candy, gum, dental care products, soap, and stationery. Initially, the soldiers carry these personal items with them. As the supply system adjusts to demand, resupply is by ration-supplement HCP where personal demand items are issued gratuitously. Issue of Class VI items at battalion task force level follows SOP, normally through S4 channels, or coincides with the delivery of the Class I LOGPAC. When the situation permits, tactical field exchanges provide services to specified units or troop concentrations.
d. Class VII. Class VII items are intensively managed and are normally command-controlled. Class VII replacements are based on combat losses reported through command or S3 channels. This permits the commanders at all levels to remain apprised of the operational status of subordinate equipment. It also ensures distribution of items to those units having the most critical need. Weapons systems such as tanks are intensively managed by weapons system replacement operations (WSRO). If the item is a WSRO weapon system, the primary linkup points of the item with its crew may occur in the BSA or in designated assembly areas. Class VII requests are filled as combat loss reports are passed from company team level to the S4. The S4 consolidates the company team rollups and submits them to the brigade S4.
e. Class VIII. Class VIII items can be requisitioned as routine resupply or as immediate resupply.
(1) Routine Requisitions. The task force forwards its requirements for Class VIII resupply to the supporting medical company of the FSB. The medical company forwards an information copy of all requisitions within the task force directly to the supporting medical logistics (MEDLOG) company. An information copy also goes to the DISCOM medical material management branch (MMMB) and to the brigade surgeon's section (Figure 10-13).
(2) Immediate Requisitions. The task force submits its MEDLOG requests to the supporting medical company. The DISCOM MMMB attempts cross leveling within the medical companies in the division if it is the most expedient method of obtaining and shipping the required items to the requesting unit or element. If the DISCOM MMMB is unable to locate requested item(s) in the division, it forwards the request to the supporting MEDLOG company. The MEDLOG company forwards all immediate requests not filled to the MEDLOG task force's logistics support company located in the corps rear. The DISCOM MMMB monitors all immediate requisitions not filled by the MEDLOG company. The DISCOM MMMB expedites handling of these requests to ensure timely delivery and tracking of the critical Class VIII items.
Figure 10-13. Class VIII resupply operations at echelon I.
(3) Delivery of Class VIII. EAD transportation elements throughput Class VIII to the medical company in the BSA. The medical company configures Class VIII supplies in LOGPACs and transports them to the requesting medical units. Shipment of these Class VIII LOGPACs from the MEDLOG company is coordinated with the S4 and FTCP/TFSA CP.
f. Class IX. As a result of the implementation of field maintenance (combined organizational- and DS-level maintenance) under Force XXI, the maintenance control section of the FSC is now responsible for combat spares to include maintaining prescribed load lists and shop supply items. Both of these inventories have very different requirements for adding and maintaining parts on inventory.
(1) The maintenance control section manages the PLL using the ULLS-G; it manages the shop stock using the SAMS-1. With the fielding of GCSS-Army, the maintenance modules will consolidate ULLS-G and SAMS-1 functionality. This combination will give the PLL clerks the ability to manage all combat spares for the task force. Combat spares consist of a broad but shallow inventory of high-use, combat-essential parts that support the replace-forward maintenance system.
(2) As mentioned earlier, the maintenance platoon (-) positions behind the CMT/CRTs in the UMCP or TFSA. This platoon provides C2 and backup maintenance to the CMT/CRTs. The platoon (-) also establishes the UMCP.
(3) The platoon provides all TAMMS and scheduled services for the task force. The platoon focuses on the forward maintenance effort in order to maintain maximum combat power. The task force XO determines the maintenance platoon's priorities.
(4) The maintenance control section receives, stores, and issues combat spares for the company team.
g. Field Services. Field services include mortuary affairs, airdrop, and laundry and shower activities.
(1) Mortuary Affairs. Unit responsibilities include initial recovery, search, and identification of deceased personnel. The unit evacuates deceased personnel to the nearest mortuary affairs support collection point. The unit transmits initial findings of its search-and-recovery teams to the mortuary affairs team.
(a) The FSB's support operations section coordinates the transportation of remains within the BSA. All personal effects found on the remains accompany the deceased when evacuated.
(b) The recommended method of evacuation of remains is air evacuation in coordination with the task force S3 air.
(c) The maneuver unit transmits evacuation requests to the S4. The S4 then coordinates with the support platoon or TFSA CP for evacuation.
(d) If evacuation requirements exceed the support/S&T platoon's capabilities, the FSB support operations section coordinates for additional lift.
(2) Airdrop. The unit sends requests for airdrop of supplies or equipment to the S4, which forwards it to the brigade S4 and FSB support operations section. The brigade S4 and FSB support operations section coordinate to make the appropriate coordination with the division G3, G4, and DISCOM support operations section.
(3) Laundry and Shower. The unit sends requests for laundry and showers to the S4, which forwards it to the brigade S4 and FSB support operations section. The brigade S4 and FSB support operations section make the appropriate coordination with DISCOM support operations section and the G4.
h. Religious Support. The task force chaplain is the staff officer responsible for implementing the religious program. This program includes—
- Worship opportunities.
- Administration of sacraments.
- Rites and ordinances.
- Pastoral care and counseling.
- Development and management of the unit ministry team.
- Advice to the commander and staff on matters of morals.
- Advice to the commander and staff on matters of morale as affected by religion.
- Ministry to casualties to include support of combat shock casualty treatment.
The chaplain's assistant is trained to assist the chaplain in religious support and is essential to the religious support mission. The assistant advises the chaplain on matters of soldier morale and serves as liaison with enlisted soldiers. The chaplain's assistant also advises the commander in the absence of the chaplain. All elements enhance the total well being of the soldier and increase the cohesion of the task force.
i. Postal Services. Mail is the soldier's link to family and friends. Inefficient distribution of mail can quickly undermine morale. In the early stages of a conflict, postal services to individuals are usually restricted to personal mail that conforms to the free mailing privilege. The brigade S1 establishes a daily mail schedule. Outgoing mail is consolidated at the FTCP/TFSA S1 section prior to being forwarded to the brigade S1. S1 personnel drop outgoing and pick up incoming mail at the brigade S1 section. E-mail service should be made available to soldiers but OPSEC considerations must be addressed.
j. Finance Services. The mission of finance support organizations during conflict is to provide high-priority support to the soldier on an area basis. This means the same finance unit supports all soldiers within a geographical locale, regardless of unit affiliation. During deployments, mobile pay teams from corps-level finance organizations provide support to the brigade. Individual soldiers are given the choice of receiving a specified amount of combat pay or cashing personal checks or other negotiable instruments for the same specified amount or less. The S1 coordinates with the brigade S1 for the support of the mobile pay teams.
k. Legal Services. The division staff judge advocate provides and supervises legal support to the brigade. Detailed brigade judge advocates provide or coordinate all legal support to the brigade. Legal NCOs and specialists in the task forces provide paralegal support for the task force. The US Army Trial Judiciary and US Army Trial Defense Service are independent organizations that provide military judge and trial defense services to the brigade.
Manning the task force is the process of getting the right soldier to the right place at the right time and with the right capabilities. The connectivity between smart cards, CSSCS personnel module, tactical personnel system (TPS), the integrated total Army personnel database (ITAPDB), and FBCB2 enables the S1 to account for personnel through all operational phases. This capability provides the commander with near real-time personnel information and accurate personnel accounting and is the foundation for successful casualty operations and replacement operations.
a. Critical Manning Tasks. Critical manning tasks are predicting, resourcing, monitoring, assessing, and adjusting. These tasks are iterative and do not follow a prescribed order or sequence.
(1) Predicting. The S1 must complete a loss estimate based on enemy and friendly force capabilities. This estimate provides planning parameters for replacements, medical facility and support requirements, and graves registration and mortuary affairs assets. Automation allows the personnel planner to anticipate casualties using the digitized capabilities of the Army casualty information processing system (ACIPS) and FBCB2 (if equipped) to anticipate casualties.
(2) Resourcing. S1 planners fill units to their authorized strength according to the commander's priorities. This is the commander's "troops available" part of the METT-TC formula and is an essential part of the commander's combat power visibility. "troops available" includes soldiers, contractors, civilians, and personnel from other services and forces. The S1 then recommends available resource allocation of available resources to meet current and future requirements.
(3) Monitoring. The task of strength monitoring begins with establishing the unit-strength baseline. The S1, under the brigade S1's direction, manifests all deploying personnel. He transmits this information to the brigade- and division-level personnel operators performing manning tasks. The deployed database and personnel asset visibility data establishes the strength baseline. The S1 maintains unit status using manning updates primarily through standard unit reporting.
(4) Assessing. The S1 matches current and projected assets required to fight, maintain operations tempo (OPTEMPO), and achieve operational success. The S1 then determines the personnel required to maintain combat power in accordance with the commander's priorities and intent. He then recommends to the commander the method for individual personnel replacement.
(5) Adjusting. While predictive manning is critical to sustaining the future fight, all human resource leaders must be able to adjust manning plans quickly based on changing needs or capabilities and to support the commander's intent.
b. Task Force Actions. When soldiers deploy to an area of operations, the battalion S1 manifests soldiers to create the deployed database. Once the S1 establishes that baseline, units can report changes (exception reporting) to the baseline through personnel situation report (PERSITREP).
c. Task Force S1 Responsibilities. The S1 is the commander's principal staff officer for PSS. He advises the commander on human resource support matters. FM 12-6 establishes the foundation for the personnel support activities of personnel organizations (including S1 sections) and authorities. The S1 coordinates personnel services, personnel support, finance services, chaplain activities, command information services, medical services, and legal services support. He prepares the unit personnel service support SOP. In conjunction with the S4, he also prepares the administration and logistics (A/L) portion of the unit tactical orders. He participates in the OPORD process and develops personnel service support annex materials. He coordinates personnel service support with other staff elements and pays particular attention to mortuary affairs and medical support.
d. Additional Services. Personnel (S1) sections provide additional services at home station. When deployed, the S1 performs postal operations, essential personnel services (awards, promotions, evaluations, reassignments, and military pay), and MWR support. To maximize this capability, personnel systems, to include TPS, ITAPDB, and the CSSCS personnel module, may be required.
(1) Before Operations. The S1 creates a deployed database through the manifest process. Before deployment, the S1 receives a download of all deploying personnel in the units and uploads this data into TPS. The S1 or personnel service detachment (PSD) uses TPS, CSSCS, and the manpower requirements criteria (MARC) identification (ID) card that all deploying soldiers possess to compile a manifest of personnel. A member of the manifest team operates a TPS terminal on the on-ramp of the transportation asset. As each person enters the gateway, he inserts his ID card into a scanner. The scanner reads the identification card bar code and identifies the personnel being deployed. Using the manifests from the different serials, TPS creates the task force's deployed database. After completing the manifest, the S1 produces the deployed personnel roster. The deployed personnel roster contains the name, grade, battle roster number, duty military occupational specialty (DMOS), gender, and unit of each individual manifested. TPS sorts this roster by last name and first name. Key personnel players use this roster to obtain personnel information on soldiers. The primary use is to determine a battle roster number for soldiers, which enables the completion of duty status reports.
(2) During Operations. As casualties occur, the platoon sergeant informs the company team first sergeant of the casualty via the most expedient method available (FBCB2 or FM voice). Using the personnel situation report, the first sergeant submits a duty status change directly to the S1 on all casualties. Attached elements report to the supported unit for manning activity requirements. Throughout this process, the S1 can monitor, assess, and adjust the command's personnel status.
(3) After Operations. The S1 reviews updated personnel strength figures through FBCB2 or TPS and reorganizes units based on the commander's assessment from the strength data. The S1 also uses TPS data information to decide where to return soldiers to duty or assign replacements. He uses by-name accountability to monitor his manning requirements. (In the future, defense integrated military human resources system (DIMHRS) will provide data to strategic assignment systems.) The S1 updates duty status changes through FBCB2 or TPS. The S1 depends on his TPS database for detailed personnel data.
Section III. COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT PLANNING
The S4, S1, and XO are the principal CSS planners. If operating under Force XXI, the FSC support operations officer also plays a role in the planning process. The XO, operating from the task force main CP, monitors CSS operations and ensures appropriate synchronization of support. The S4 and S1 and the HHC/FSC commander maintain a continuous CSS estimate during all operations. They use the CSS estimate to determine CSS capabilities, anticipate support requirements, identify and resolve shortfalls, and develop support plans. They integrate all planning to develop and synchronize CSS with maneuver and fire plans. CSS planners must thoroughly understand the mission, tactical plans, and task force commander's intent. They must know the following information:
- Mission, task organization, and concept of operations for all subordinate units in the task force.
- Brigade CSS plans.
- Known and anticipated branch plans and sequels.
- The density of personnel and equipment of each subordinate unit.
- Known and anticipated enemy situation and capabilities.
- Unit basic loads.
- Mission-related consumption rates.
10-12. PLANNING OVERVIEW
CSS planners must understand the task force's current and projected CSS capabilities. They use information collected from operational, personnel, and logistics reports to determine the personnel, equipment, and supply status of each unit within the task force. They consider the disposition and condition of all supporting CSS units as well as individual unit-level capabilities. They analyze this data and the current situation to determine the task force's logistical capabilities and limitations. This data is provided to the commander in the form of a logistics estimate.
10-13. LOGISTICS ESTIMATE
A logistics estimate is an analysis of logistics factors affecting mission accomplishment. Logistics planners use these estimates to recommend courses of action and to develop plans to support selected concepts of operation. The key concerns of task force logistics planners are the status of supply Classes III, IV, and V and the operational status of tanks, BFVs, and other combat vehicles. Logistics estimates at the task force level are rarely written. They are frequently formulated in terms that answer the following questions:
- What is the current and projected status of maintenance, supply, and transportation?
- How much of what is needed to support the operation?
- How will it get to where it is needed?
- What external (FSB) support is needed?
- Can the requirements be met using LOGPAC operations or are other techniques necessary?
- What are the shortfalls and negative impacts?
- What courses of action can be supported?
a. CSS planners must anticipate and understand the support requirements of a tactical plan or COA. The S4 analyzes all COAs and modifications to current plans. He assesses their sustainment feasibility, identifies support requirements, and determines requirements for synchronization. The S4, like the commander, must visualize how the battle will unfold in order to determine critical requirements for each sustainment function. He logically considers the requirements for each sustainment function during the operational phases of before (prior to commitment), during (commitment to battle), and after (reconstitution and future missions). He analyzes each COA or plan and considers—
- Type and duration of the operation.
- Task organization, tasks, and CSS requirements of subordinate forces.
- Ramifications of tactical operations such as river crossings, tactical pauses, long movements, preparatory fires or defenses.
- Need for special equipment, supplies, or services.
- Requirements to separate, disassemble, reconfigure, uncrate, or transload supplies above normal requirements.
- Requirements for reconstitution.
- Required varieties and quantities of all classes of supplies, especially III, V, and IX.
- Requirements for support of reconnaissance forces, security operations, or deception efforts.
- Need for Class IV and V obstacle material.
- Prepositioned stockage requirements.
- Emergency resupply requirements.
b. The S4's analysis also includes estimated attrition based on likely outcomes of subordinate missions. Analysis of estimated attrition primarily focuses on critical systems such as tanks, M2s, ADA, and engineer systems. The S1 assists by projecting potential personnel losses. To perform this analysis, the S1 and S4 use current unit personnel and equipment densities, standard planning factors, the CSSCS COA planning function, historical data, or any combination of these. This projection helps the commander understand the potential losses and associated risks of each COA.
c. In order to understand the task force's capabilities and determine support requirements, CSS planners should apply a METT-TC analysis to the situation. The following paragraphs give an example of general CSS considerations for tactical operations.
(1) Mission considerations include—
- Task force mission and commander's intent.
- Concept of the operations.
- Higher headquarters' mission and concept of operation.
- Higher headquarters' concept of support.
- Type and duration of the operation.
- Commanders tracked items list (CTIL)
- Controlled supply rate.
- Required supply rate.
(2) Enemy considerations include—
- Enemy capabilities and tactics that could threaten CSS operations.
- Enemy avenues of approach.
- Enemy unconventional tactics that could threaten CSS operations.
- Anticipated number of EPWs.
(3) Troops and support available considerations include—
- Task force task organization to include supporting CSS units.
- Location and condition of all units, including CSS units.
- Current and projected status of personnel, equipment, and classes of supply.
- Availability and status of services.
- Unit-level CSS capabilities.
(4) Terrain and weather considerations include—
- Effects of weather and terrain on CSS operations.
- Additional CSS requirements of the task force due to weather and terrain.
- Condition of infrastructure such as roads and bridges.
(5) Time available considerations include—
- Impact on the ability to replenish supplies.
- Planning and preparation time for CSS units.
- Impact of time on support requirements and distribution methods.
(6) Civil considerations include—
- Host-nation support and contract services.
- Impact of civilian and refugee movement.
- Potential for hostile reactions by civilians against CSS operations.
- US (civilian) contractors on the battlefield.
d. The S4 must balance support requirements with available CSS capabilities. He considers existing stockages, anticipated receipts, capacities, and capabilities. He must assess the status of all sustainment functions required to support the task force and compare them to available capabilities. He identifies potential shortfalls and recommends actions to eliminate or reduce their effects on the operation.
e. When a CSS shortfall is identified, the CSS planning staff takes every action available to eliminate or reduce its effect. The staff must understand its potential impact on the force, the risk it presents to mission accomplishment, its duration, and what requirements exceed the unit's capabilities. It analyzes the shortfall to determine its cause (for example, battle losses, supply availability, resource availability, equipment, time, people, or distribution shortfall). The staff considers the following actions to resolve a shortfall:
- Shift supplies or assets by phase of the operation.
- Request support or an additional asset from higher headquarters.
- Use alternate distribution methods.
- Consider prepositioning supplies or attaching additional CSS capabilities to subordinate forces.
- Modify the COA or plan.
f. Based on the CSS estimate, the S4/S1 develops support plans. The overall CSS plan is briefly described in the concept of support. The concept of support provides all commanders and staff sections with a general understanding of the commander's priorities and how the operation will be logistically supported. Detailed CSS plans are outlined in a CSS annex to the OPORD or as part of a FRAGO. The HHC/FSC commander also issues an OPORD to all units under his control. The HHC/FSC commander, in conjunction with the S4 and XO, closely monitors the implementation of the CSS plan. He adjusts CSS operations or shifts resources to account for a change in METT-TC factors or to replace lost CSS capabilities.
10-14. SUPPORTING OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS
The main purpose of CSS in the offense is to maintain the momentum of the attack. If offensive momentum is not maintained, the enemy may recover from the shock of the first assault, gain the initiative, and mount a successful counterattack. Therefore, the CSS priority must be to maintain the momentum of the attack. A key part of the plan is the CSS overlay produced by the S4. The overlay ensures that both the supported units and the HHC/FSC know the location of all support assets in relation to the maneuver units and maximizes the support given. The CSS overlay can be sent digitally via FBCB2 or distributed manually. To maintain mobility and keep up with the maneuver units, the field trains or TFSA remains uploaded as much as possible. A well-defined SOP or plan should determine when and how the BSA and or TFSA move in relationship to the TF main body. The field trains/TFSA commander must maintain the lines of communication and supplies with the FSB; coordination with the FSB support operations section is critical. The HHC/FSC commander must be able to determine and recommend to the S3 the proper positioning and movement windows for the field trains/TFSA so uninterrupted support continues. The support/S&T platoon must be ready to push immediate resupply forward quickly. Additionally, the task force combat trains should be postured to provide immediate maintenance and recovery support.
a. Anticipate. Logistics planners must be proactive in planning CSS operations. The CSS system must be flexible to support contingencies or future operations. Anticipating the task force's CSS requirements is crucial to maintaining the momentum of offensive operations. Some considerations for anticipating CSS in the offensive include the following:
- Increased consumption of Classes III, V, and IX.
- Resupply operations.
- Heavy requirements on task force transportation assets.
- An increase in equipment maintenance requirements.
b. Class V. Special considerations concerning Class V availability are necessary before and during offensive operations. Some of those considerations include the following:
- Ensure subordinate units are fully resupplied with Class V prior to the operation.
- The task force should carry additional stockage of critical ammunition.
- Use and request preconfigured combat loads.
- Ensure resupply of special Class V requirements.
c. Maintenance Support. The following are planning considerations for maintenance support in offensive operations:
- Ensure rapid repair and return of non-mission-capable equipment to support the operation.
- Establish command maintenance priorities based on what systems and units are critical to the success of the operation.
- Emphasize BDAR.
- Plan a series of maintenance collection points.
- Establish criteria for requesting additional recovery assets.
- Identify critical combat spares and have them ready to move forward on short notice.
d. Medical Support. Ineffective medical support during offensive operations can slow the advance and significantly detract from mission accomplishment. Some considerations in planning medical support include the following:
- Anticipate the potential of high casualty rates and decrease long evacuation times.
- Place attached or assigned FSB medical assets as far forward as possible.
- Ensure all company team ambulance squads have a full basic load of supplies before the operation begins.
- Position prepackaged sets of Class VIII supplies at the BAS.
- Position additional ground evacuation assets at the BAS.
- Ensure responsive medical support is established for task force scouts and other forward reconnaissance elements.
- Identify and coordinate AXPs along the axis of advance and on the objective.
- Identify nonmedical transportation assets to support mass casualty evacuation situations.
- Ensure integration of air ambulance support to include coordination of A2C2 requirements.
- Establish clear lines of authority and criteria to execute a MEDEVAC mission.
- Identify PZs and LZs along the axis of advance to support MEDEVAC operations.
e. Class III. Immediate resupply of Class III is critical in offensive operations. Some planning considerations include the following:
- Ensure all units are topped off with fuel and are carrying their basic load of POL package products prior to execution.
- Ensure all forward stocks are resupplied and the Class III point is prepared to move forward rapidly. Set up tactical refueling points and refuel-on-the-move (ROM) sites.
- Plan refueling operations based on the consumption estimates for each individual company team and unit.
f. Synchronized Support. The most successful operations are those that are synchronized. The following are considerations for the synchronization of support:
- Plan support and resupply operations based on anticipated support needs of each subordinate unit.
- Integrate refueling and resupply operations with the scheme of maneuver to ensure proper timing and to avoid interfering with likely or planned maneuver actions.
- Plan for refueling and resupply operations as far forward as possible in covered and concealed locations.
- Plan triggers for activating and deactivating casualty collection points, ambulance exchange points, and LRPs based on the task force's scheme of maneuver.
- Coordinate the locations, displacements, and routes of CSS assets and units to maintain responsive support.
- Include security of the MSRs in the tactical plan to minimize the risk to support elements.
- Ensure open lines of communications and coordination are maintained with the FSC and or FSB support operations section and the brigade movement control officer on all information regarding throughput deliveries.
- When planning subsequent positions, consider throughput delivery schedules.
g. Security. As discussed previously, CSS assets are vulnerable and may need security support. Possible security considerations include the following:
- Ensure adequate security of routes and CSS assets based on the potential threat of undetected enemy forces.
- Conduct rehearsals so that dedicated security forces (if available) and CSS units are prepared for enemy contact.
- Anticipate the need for route clearance and reconnaissance to support the movement of wheeled vehicles based on the terrain and roads available. (This is especially true if CSS traffic moves across previous enemy positions that may contain obstacles and large amounts of unexploded ordnance.)
- Ensure CSS preparations for the mission do not give away tactical plans.
10-15. SUPPORTING DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS
The aim of CSS activities in the defense is to support defensive preparations, security operations, and the main battle area engagement and to transition to subsequent missions. A plan for the support of the mobility, countermobility, and survivability effort in the task force's AO is critical. Class IV supplies should be pushed from corps directly to the emplacement site. Class V is given the highest priority of all critical supplies during defensive operations. The increased expenditures of ammunition significantly affect transportation assets. Use throughput supply to expedite deliveries as far forward as possible. As in offensive planning, the S4 prepares and distributes the CSS overlay. It includes MSRs, Class IV and V stockage points, and LRPs. In the defense, CSS units are positioned farther to the rear to avoid interfering with the movement of maneuver units between positions and the forward movement of the counterattack force. The following paragraphs describe CSS considerations during the defense.
a. Anticipation of Requirements. The following areas require proactive planning:
- Anticipate increased consumption of Classes IV, V, and VIII; a decrease in Class III requirements; and the potential for mass casualties.
- Establish mass casualty criteria for the task force and company team commanders.
- Anticipate the immediate requirement to replenish ammunition and provide additional ammunition stocks based on subordinate unit tasks.
- Anticipate that the demand for decontamination and chemical protection equipment may increase.
- Estimate the requirements for Class IV and V obstacle materials and push materials forward early to facilitate defensive preparations.
- Plan and allocate additional Class III and maintenance support for engineer assets during the preparation phase.
b. Positioning. CSS assets are most vulnerable in defensive operations. Properly positioning these assets can deter detection by the enemy. The following are considerations for positioning CSS assets:
- Avoid positioning CSS sites and units along enemy ground or air avenues of approach, in the vicinity of artillery units, or near templated enemy NBC target areas.
- Coordinate movement and terrain requirements with maneuver plans and the positioning of other units such as artillery.
- Position the field trains or TFSA and CSS units as far to the rear as possible but close enough to provide responsive support.
- Periodically move combat trains and other CSS assets, based on the threat level, to decrease their vulnerability of detection.
- Maximize the use of cover and concealment, dispersion, and the protection provided by the terrain.
c. Avoiding Patterns. Creating patterns of support increases the risk to CSS units. Some recommendations include the following:
- Avoid setting patterns of support in order to decrease vulnerability to enemy interdiction.
- Vary LOGPAC times and LRP locations.
- Consider conducting LOGPACs and other routine CSS activities during limited visibility.
- Maintain OPSEC.
d. Providing Support in Depth. The CSS structure must support the entire defense. Suggested ways to accomplish this include the following:
- Ensure the initial focus of support is to the defensive preparation effort.
- Ensure maintenance, resupply, and evacuation plans support security forces and forward reconnaissance assets. As the battle develops, the CSS priorities normally shift to support the task force's main battle area.
- Ensure MSRs support the entire scheme of maneuver to include all contingencies, subsequent positions, and counterattack options.
- Plan alternate and contaminated MSRs for contaminated equipment and casualties to provide flexibility.
- Develop and rehearse triggers for the movement, displacement, and evacuation of CSS sites based on the enemy situation and the scheme of maneuver.
e. Classes IV and V (Obstacle Material). The proper placement and resupply of obstacle materials is critical to a successful defense. The following are some placement and handling considerations:
- Identify Class IV and V requirements to support company teams and directed obstacle belts early in the planning process.
- Identify locations of task force Class IV and V points early by coordinating with the engineer company.
- Push materials forward as soon as possible.
- Ensure Class IV and V points are centrally located to support directed obstacle belts while remaining concealed from the enemy.
- Ensure material-handling equipment is positioned at each Class IV and V point.
- Coordinate sufficient maneuver support to organize materials and uncrate mines, cut overhead cover for fighting positions, and load material onto haul assets.
- Closely track the usage of Class IV and maintain the flexibility to shift materials based on refinements to the plan, changes in the situation, and the progress of obstacle construction.
- Plan to withdraw unused Class IV and V supplies based on an event trigger to prevent the loss of unused materials.
- Consider attaching additional transportation assets to engineers to support the movement of obstacle materials to construction sites.
- Maximize the use of corps throughput to transport Class IV and V supplies directly to task force Class IV and V points.
f. Class V. Improperly resupplying Class V in defensive operations will result in failure. Some planning considerations include the following:
- Push as much Class V forward as possible based on the commander's priorities of support and the anticipated ammunition requirements of each unit.
- Prestock ammunition at primary and subsequent positions and ensure it is properly guarded and stored.
- Ensure the resupply plan supports specialized ammunition requirements of all units, such as ADA and engineers.
- Maintain emergency resupply stocks within the combat trains and with the field trains/TFSA in depth.
g. Maintenance Support. Responsive maintenance support speeds up the return of essential combat systems to battle. Maintenance planning should include—
- Maintenance priorities approved or established by the commander.
- Maintenance teams dispatched as far forward as possible to reduce the requirement to evacuate equipment. The thrust of the maintenance effort is to replace forward and fix rear.
- Rapid evacuation of damaged equipment from the UMCP to the BSA in the event defending forces must reposition.
h. Medical Support. Medical support planning is critical to provide rapid treatment and avoid confusion. The following are planning factors for medical support:
- Position AXPs and medical evacuation assets to support timely casualty movement.
- Coordinate evacuation routes and plans with maneuver plans and obstacle locations.
- Develop a contingency plan for the loss of one or both aid stations.
- Ensure medical support to CS and CSS elements such as C2 facilities, engineers, ADA, and communication nodes.
- Maximize the use of nonstandard ambulances to replace lost ambulances or provide additional evacuation support.
- Always plan for mass casualties and ensure that adequate evacuation means, to include air transportation, are identified and rehearsed.
10-16. ECHELON OF THE TRAINS
Under AOE, the task force CSS assets are normally echeloned into company combat trains, task force combat trains, and task force field trains. The combat trains are organized to provide immediate critical support for the combat operation and are controlled by the task force S4. Field trains are normally in the BSA and under the control of the HHC commander, who coordinates with the forward support battalion commander for security and positioning. Under Force XXI, the trains are echeloned into combat trains under the control of the HHC commander and a task force support area under the control of the FSC commander.
a. The most forward CSS elements are the company team combat trains. A medical evacuation team (routinely attached to the company) and the company maintenance team tracked vehicles, when forward, form the company team trains. The company team first sergeant positions these elements, tasks the medical evacuation team, and establishes priority of work for the company maintenance team.
b. When operating in echeloned trains, the company team supply sergeant usually operates from the field trains or from the TFSA. Coordination between the company team supply sergeant and the first sergeant is conducted through the CTCP over the A/L net or FBCB2 and is supplemented by face-to-face coordination during LOGPAC operations.
c. The task force combat trains normally include the CTCP, BAS and other medical platoon elements, decontamination assets, all uploaded Class III and V vehicles, elements of the communications platoon, and the UMCP along with some supporting elements from the FSB such as the FSC support operations cell. The combat trains are controlled by the S4 under AOE and the HHC commander under Force XXI; either is assisted by the S4. Elements of the combat trains operate on the A/L net and are linked to the company team 1SGs via FBCB2, if equipped.
d. The task force combat trains should be close enough to the FLOT to be responsive to the forward units but not within range of enemy direct fire. The combat trains can expect to move frequently to remain in supporting distance of the combat elements. The following factors govern the positioning of the combat trains.
(1) Communications are required between the CTCP, the main CP, the field trains CP (or TFSA CP), brigade rear CP, and forward units.
(2) Room for dispersion and cover and concealment from both air and ground observation are desired.
(3) The ground must support vehicle traffic.
(4) A suitable helicopter landing site should be nearby.
(5) Routes to logistical release points or to company team positions must be available.
(6) Movement into and out of the area must not be restricted.
e. Built-up areas are good locations for trains. They provide cover and concealment for vehicles and shelter that enhances light discipline during maintenance. When built-up areas are used, task force trains elements should occupy buildings near the edge of the area to preclude being trapped in the center.
f. The UMCP is established and supervised by the BMO to provide forward maintenance support to the task force. It is normally located near or within the task force combat trains. The UMCP and task force combat trains may combine to form a base cluster for defense.
g. Under AOE, the field trains are usually in the BSA and are controlled by the HHC commander. Generally, the field trains include the PAC, the mess sections, the company supply sections, the HHC command post, and the remainder of those elements of the maintenance and support platoons that are not forward. Under Force XXI, the task force consolidates CSS within a task force support area located 4-12 kilometers from front line combat units. The TFSA is commanded by the FSC commander and includes the assets that under AOE had been positioned in the field trains.
h. The BSA is that portion of the brigade rear area occupied by the brigade rear CP, the FSB, and the task force field trains. CSS assets in the BSA include elements from the FSB, maneuver and combat support unit field trains, and selected corps support command (COSCOM) and division (DISCOM) resources, as required.
10-17. MOVEMENT OF THE TRAINS
The task force commander directs the movement of combat and field trains in the task force OPORD. The XO and S4 plan the execution of the movement of the trains (or the FSC) to ensure responsive forward support. The displacement of the field trains or TFSA must be carefully coordinated with the tactical scheme of maneuver, location of the BSA and MSRs, communication links, establishment of digital nodes, priorities of support, and time available for corps throughputs and displacement. It is important for the task force staff to understand the impact of corps throughput delivery schedules during the planning process. Movement of the trains or the FSC may severely constrain the maneuver commander's plan unless each echelon of CSS is considered during the planned or emergency move.
a. Security of CSS assets is a major consideration. The task force has sufficient transportation assets to move its CSS personnel and equipment in one lift. However, downloaded supplies at supply points and disabled equipment at maintenance sites create mobility problems. The task force staff must closely monitor mobility status and anticipate mobility problems well in advance to develop solutions. For all additional transportation requirements beyond the task force's capability, the S4 must coordinate for external support with the FSB support operations section.
b. In addition to conducting planned moves, both the combat trains and the field trains (or TFSA) should have an SOP for conducting emergency moves. Emergency moves normally occur when the trains or support area must relocate quickly to avoid a significant enemy threat. The task force designates alternate trains/TFSA locations and sufficient movement routes. Alternate trains/TFSA locations should be coordinated with the XO, staff, and the FSB commander of the impending move.
c. SOPs and CSS operational logistics (OPLOG) plans ensure adequate means are employed to detect enemy threats early enough to avoid loss of the task force's CSS capabilities. The combat trains, field trains, or FSC commander disseminate emergency movement plans to all task force CSS elements in an OPORD. Leaders reconnoiter movement routes and alternate locations to ensure suitability. Emergency plans are rehearsed as time allows.
(1) Movement of Trains within the TF Formation. This technique is used when the likelihood of enemy contact is minimal, logistical demands are light, and the task force (or separate units) can use basic loads and organic recovery assets to satisfy initial requirements. Sufficient time must be allowed for the field trains or TFSA to establish services and resupply from the FSB prior to mission execution. HHC or FSC elements are dispersed within march columns and are secured by other elements of the task force. This technique provides timely movement and march security but precludes any meaningful support until movement ceases. This technique may be useful during tactical road marches or approach marches.
(2) Support from BSA Displaced as an Entity. When brigade operations are conducted in clearly defined phases with identifiable windows between phases (such as in river crossings) the FSB may support the brigade from a fully deployed BSA that includes the HHCs/FSCs and then displace as an entity to subsequent TFSA or BSA locations. This allows the FSB to maximize support from a mature logistical base that facilitates resupply and maintenance activities. This concept also enhances command and control of the FSB and simplifies actions for supported forces since a single point of contact is established for each service and facility of the BSA. Because displacing the BSA as an entity affects the quality of support, echelon displacement may be the preferred method.
(3) TFSA Displacement by Bounds. Force XXI allows for a unique capability when operations require continuous logistical support. Critical CSS assets are divided and displaced by successive bounds from one TFSA location to a new TFSA location. The FSC commander normally moves with the forward logistics element (FLE) to ensure rapid setup of the displacing echelon. This technique provides more responsive support by minimizing the throughput distances to FSC elements. It also enhances the survivability of logistical assets by positioning them in different areas. Because of echelonment, C2 of the FSC operations may be degraded. A heavy reliance on unit SOPs, communication links, and OPLOG plans is vital to ensure smooth displacement of the FSC.
10-18. LOGPAC OPERATIONS
The most efficient resupply of forward task force units is accomplished by logistics packages.
a. LOGPACs are organized in the field trains or TFSA by the company supply sergeant under the supervision of the HHC or FSC commander and the support/S&T platoon leader. LOGPACs are organized for each company team and separate element in the task force and moved forward at least daily for routine resupply. When possible, all LOGPACs are moved forward in a march unit under the control of the support/S&T platoon leader. Special LOGPACs are organized and dispatched as required by the tactical situation and logistical demands.
b. The S4 must plan and coordinate LOGPAC operations to ensure that they fully support the commander's tactical plans.
c. Task force SOP establishes the standard LOGPAC. Normally, a company team LOGPAC includes the following elements.
(1) Unit Supply Truck. This vehicle contains the Class I requirements based on the ration cycle—normally one hot meal and two meals, ready to eat, (MREs) per man. The supply truck tows a water trailer and carries some full water cans for direct exchange. In addition, the truck carries any Class II supplies requested by the unit, incoming mail, and other items required by the unit. The truck may also carry replacement personnel.
(2) POL Trucks. Bulk fuel and packaged POL products are on these vehicles.
(3) Ammunition Trucks. These vehicles contain a mix of ammunition for the weapons systems of the company team. Unit SOP establishes a standard load; reports and projected demands may require changes to this standard load.
(4) Vehicles Carrying Additional Supplies and Replacements. These vehicles join the LOGPAC as coordinated by the support platoon leader and supply sergeant.
d. LOGPACs for platoon-sized attachments are usually loaded on a single truck. Water and Class III resupply is often accomplished by using 5-gallon cans and pods mounted on trailers.
e. When the company team LOGPAC has been formed, it is ready to move forward under the control of the supply sergeant. The support/S&T platoon leader normally organizes a convoy for movement of all company LOGPACs under his control; in emergencies, he dispatches unit LOGPACs individually. The convoy may contain additional vehicles such as a maintenance vehicle with Class IX to move to the UMCP or an additional ammunition or fuel vehicle for the combat trains. The LOGPACs move along the MSR to a logistics release point, where the unit first sergeant or a unit guide takes control of the company LOGPAC.
f. From the LRP, the company first sergeant or guide controls the LOGPAC and conducts resupply as described in FM 3-90.1. The unit first sergeant informs his supply sergeant of requirements for the next LOGPAC. The supply sergeant collects outgoing mail, personnel, and equipment for movement to the rear. The LOGPAC then follows unit SOP and returns to the LRP, field trains, or TFSA.
g. LRP locations are determined by the S4 based on the tactical situation. They should be well forward and easily located. Normally, two to four LRPs are planned. LRPs, as well as the MSR, combat trains, and field trains and or TFSA locations are included on the operations overlay, if possible. The CTCP notifies subordinates and the field trains/TFSA CP well in advance which LRP(s) will be used. The LOGPAC convoy arrival time at the LRP and the length of time it remains normally are established by SOP. If the tactical situation dictates otherwise, the S4 must determine the time and notify units accordingly. LOGPACs may be scheduled to arrive shortly after arrival at a BP or intermediate objective. Armor units will also require more frequent Class III resupply. Subordinates must ensure that the resupply vehicles are returned to the LRP as soon as possible so that the vehicles can return to the field trains and begin preparation for the next mission. Class III and V vehicles never sit empty. If the LOGPAC cannot be completed on schedule, the CTCP must be notified.
h. At least one senior representative from the combat trains (S4, S1, or senior NCO) should be present at the LRP while it is in effect. His purpose is to meet with the unit first sergeants and support/S&T platoon leader for coordination of logistical requirements and to ensure that the LOGPAC release and return takes place efficiently. A brief meeting is normally held immediately before the first sergeant picks up his LOGPAC. Coordination may include—
- Changes in logistical requirements reflecting any last-minute task organization.
- Reports on personnel, logistics, and maintenance from the first sergeants.
- Confirmation of receipt of digital LOGSITREPs (if FBCB2 equipped)
- First hand updates on the tactical situation and logistical status.
- Delivery, receipt, and distribution of unit mail.
i. The company team supply sergeant or support platoon leader moves the LOGPAC from the LRP back to the field trains/TFSA. The supply sergeant and support platoon leader then begin organization of the next LOGPAC.
j. Resupply of the scout and mortar platoons, the main CP, combat trains, and attached support units must be planned and coordinated. The HHC first sergeant coordinates and supervises resupply of these elements. Under AOE, the HHC first sergeant operates near the task force main CP when forward and at the field trains CP upon completion of daily resupply. Under Force XXI, the HHC 1SG operates out of the task force combat trains.
(1) The platoon sergeant of these elements or senior NCO at a facility must report his requirements to the HHC first sergeant or to the combat trains CP. The most desirable method of resupply is to form small LOGPACs for these elements, which the platoon sergeant picks up at the LRP in the same manner as a company first sergeant. Attachments larger than a platoon must come to the task force with sufficient CSS vehicles to carry their LOGPACs.
(2) In some cases, the HHC first sergeant delivers the LOGPAC to the main CP, combat trains, and scout and mortar platoons. Attachments can receive resupply at one of these locations or as previously coordinated.
(3) Another option is for attachments to be resupplied from a nearby company team LOGPAC. The S4 coordinates this resupply before the LOGPACs are dispatched.
(4) Resupply operations for the scout platoon pose several unique problems. Special procedures may be necessary to resupply the scout platoon, to include—
- Resupplying the platoon by having each track individually pull off line and move to a resupply site. (This method may be feasible when the platoon is performing security for a stationary force.)
- Resupplying the platoon near the combat trains as the platoon repositions between missions.
- Designating one Class III vehicle in the combat trains to fuel the platoon on short notice.
k. Units in direct support or under OPCON of the task force are responsible for the coordination of resupply of their elements operating forward with the task force, except as noted.
(1) The ADA battalion or battery commander coordinates for the task force to resupply ADA units in direct support with some classes of supply. This may be directed in higher headquarters' SOPs and usually includes Class I, III, and V, and common item IX.
(2) The task force provides engineer materials (Classes IV and V) to supporting engineer units. Additionally, engineer units under OPCON of the task force receive Class I, III, V, and IX support to the maximum extent possible. This support is coordinated through or directed by brigade before the OPCON directive becomes effective.
(3) The parent unit S4 or company commander of the supporting element coordinates with the task force S4 or HHC commander on resupply of the forward elements. Normally, the supporting units' resupply elements assemble in the BSA and move to the task force field trains area. The HHC commander then dispatches these resupply elements forward, along with the task force LOGPACs, to the LRP. At the LRP, the platoon sergeant of the forward supporting element takes control of the resupply element. These resupply elements maintain contact with the combat trains CP while forward in the task force area. If coordinated between the supporting parent unit and the task force, the resupply of these forward elements is directly managed by the task force. The parent unit must provide the additional logistical assets necessary to supplement the task force's capabilities. No matter how support was coordinated, any element within the task force area of operation must either be under the task force commander's control or at least remain in contact with the task force combat trains CP to avoid interfering with task force maneuver.
l. While the LOGPACs are the preferred methods of resupply, there will be times when other methods of resupply are required.
(1) Resupply from the Combat Trains (Emergency Resupply). The combat trains have a limited amount of Class III and V for emergency resupply. The S4 coordinates emergency resupply from the combat trains and then refills or replaces the combat trains' assets.
(2) Prestocking. Prestocking is the placing and concealing of supplies on the battlefield. This is normally done during defensive operations when supplies are placed in subsequent battle positions.
(3) Mobile Prepositioning. This is similar to prestocking except that the supplies remain on the truck, which is positioned forward on the battlefield
10-19. TRAINS AND FSC SECURITY
CSS elements behind the FLOT form base clusters and must be prepared to defend themselves against guerrillas and partisans and forces that have broken through or bypassed the defense.
a. Under AOE, the S4 is responsible for trains security when operating in a unit trains configuration. When trains are echeloned, the S4 is responsible for securing the combat trains, and the HHC commander is responsible for securing the field trains. If the task force commander collocates his field trains with the BSA, the HHC commander coordinates with the FSB commander and brigade rear CP to integrate the task force field trains into the BSA defensive plan. When CSS is consolidated under the Force XXI concept, the FSC commander is responsible for CSS security.
b. A perimeter defense is normally planned in all trains areas, and elements in the trains are assigned a specific sector to defend. Mutually supporting positions that dominate likely avenues of approach are selected for vehicles armed with heavy machine guns. Reaction forces and OPs are established based on the unit SOP. To enhance security, an alarm or warning system is arranged. Sector sketches, fire plans, and obstacle plans should be prepared. Rehearsals are conducted to ensure that all personnel know the part they play in the defensive scheme. The OIC at each location establishes a shift schedule for operations and security on a 24-hour basis
10-20. COMMAND AND CONTROL
CSS command and control is the responsibility of the task force XO. The S4 routinely coordinates all logistics operations, based on the XO's guidance. Command and control facilities are the CTCP and the field trains/TFSA CP.
a. The CTCP includes the S4 CP carrier (M1068) (with enough S1 and S4 personnel cross-trained to ensure continuous operation) and the communications platoon (M1068) and personnel. Under Force XXI it will also include the FSC support operations (M1068). The combat trains must stay abreast of the tactical situation and task organization; monitor the task force command net to identify CSS requirements; and receive requests, reports, and requirements from task force subordinate elements. Subordinate requirements are analyzed, consolidated, and forwarded to the field trains or TFSA CP or to the appropriate supporting agency. The HHC/FSC commander coordinates and directs elements in the field trains/TFSA to take action to meet the forward units' requirements.
b. The field trains/TFSA CP is the coordination and control center for the support/S&T platoon, PAC, maintenance platoon (-), and the task force and company team supply sections. Personnel from these sections operate the field trains/TFSA CP under supervision of the HHC/FSC commander. The HHC/FSC commander coordinates all requirements for task force organic and attached elements with all units in the BSA/TFSA and parent units as necessary.
At task force level, CSS communications may be by any combination of FM radio, digital connectivity, courier, or wire. Under AOE, the A/L radio net is used for most CSS traffic. Under Force XXI, FBCB2 is the primary means of CSS communication.
a. The CTCP is the NCS for the A/L net. The S4, S1, HHC/FSC commander, BMO, support platoon leader, medical platoon leader, company first sergeants, and others (as required) operate in the task force A/L net. The combat trains CP also operates in the brigade A/L net and in the task force command net.
b. Communications are critical to expedite the CSS effort. Unit first sergeants must report their losses and requirements as soon as practical. When use of radio or FBCB2 is not possible, messages are sent with resupply or evacuation vehicles. The CTCP and field trains/TFSA CP maintain control of vehicles moving forward to the LRPs. Task force SOP establishes procedures for resupply without request in the event communications fail
Section IV. RECONSTITUTION
Planners must be prepared for mass casualties, mass destruction of equipment, and the destruction or loss of effectiveness of entire units. This section discusses reconstitution and shows how the task force or company teams that have been catastrophically depleted or rendered ineffective are returned to combat effectiveness. Reconstitution consists of the actions to restore companies to a desired level of combat effectiveness commensurate with mission requirements and availability of resources. Reconstitution differs from sustaining operations in that it is undertaken only when a unit is at an unacceptable level of combat readiness. Sustainment operations are routine actions to maintain combat readiness. Commanders reconstitute by either reorganization or regeneration.
Reorganization is the action taken to shift resources within a degraded company team to increase its combat power. Measures taken include cross-leveling equipment and personnel, matching operational weapons systems with crews, or forming composite companies.
a. Immediate battlefield reorganization is the quick and often temporary restoration of companies conducted during an operation; for example, reorganizing on the objective and implementing the established succession of command.
b. Deliberate reorganization is a permanent restructuring of the unit. It is the type of reorganization considered during reconstitution planning. Deliberate reorganization is supported with higher echelon resources (such as maintenance and transportation), and additional replacements and other resources may be made available. Deliberate reorganization must be approved by the parent-unit commander one echelon higher than that reorganized. For example, the task force commander cannot approve the deliberate reorganization of an attached company, but the parent battalion commander or the brigade commander can approve it.
Regeneration is incremental or whole-unit rebuilding through large-scale replacement of personnel, equipment, and supplies; reestablishing or replacing essential command, control, and communications; and conducting the necessary training for the rebuilt unit. The unit must be removed from combat to be regenerated. Divisions regenerate battalions or companies; corps regenerate brigades or battalions. To regenerate a unit, the division or corps commander must balance priorities for supplies, equipment, or other CSS, and he must task the support organizations to provide direct support
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