Military

APPENDIX B

HAND GRENADE SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS

As simple as the fragmentation hand grenade may seem, it is a very powerful and dangerous weapon. Soldiers must understand the fatal effects that might take place with a hand grenade training accident. Since 1990, a number of fatal accidents have happened throughout training areas within the US. These training accidents have been recorded with basic training soldiers as well as seasoned soldiers within our armed forces. This appendix lists precautions and other considerations to be followed by hand grenade users. It should be used with Appendix A, Live Hand Grenade Range Operations Checklist, to educate leaders to safely conduct hand grenade training.

B-1. GENERAL PRECAUTIONS

Observe general precautions applicable to the use of any ammunition. More specific instructions to grenade users include the following:

a. Do not open the grenade containers or remove the protective devices until just before use.

b. Never make unauthorized modifications to hand grenades.

c. Do not remove the safety clip or the safety pin until the grenade is about to be thrown.

(1) A safety clip can be removed and reattached to a hand grenade if the safety pin is still in place.

(2) Never attempt to reinsert a safety pin into a bursting hand grenade during training. In combat, however, it may be necessary to reinsert a safety pin into a bursting grenade. Take special care to replace the pin properly. If the tactical situation allows, it is safer to throw the grenade rather than to trust the reinserted pin. Safety pins may be replaced in smoke and burning riot-control grenades.

B-2. TRAINING PRECAUTIONS

Treat any thrown grenade that fails to detonate as a dud, regardless of safety pin, safety clip, or safety lever status.

a. Know the status of the grenade.

(1) SAFE-a grenade with all safety devices intact.

(2) LIVE-a thrown grenade from the instant it is released until the expected fuze time has elapsed.

(3) DUD-a thrown grenade that failed to detonate after the expected fuze time has elapsed.

b. During training, the pit NCO determines a dropped grenade's status (safe, live, or dud).

c. Throwers must consider the flight path of the grenade to make sure no obstacles alter the flight of the grenade or cause it to bounce back toward them.

d. Make sure that the impact area is level and free of debris before throwing the casualty-producing hand grenade in training.

e. Do not handle, approach, recover, or otherwise tamper with dud grenades. Explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) personnel handle dud grenades.

f. Observe caution when using hand grenades with igniting type fuzes (M14-TH3, AN-M18, M7A2/A3, and AN-M83). These grenades ignite with a flash and should be thrown at least 10 meters from all personnel to avoid hazardous conditions.

B-3. DUDS

Duds must be regarded as dangerous. The following procedures must be followed if a grenade does not detonate:

a. M69 Practice Grenade. Wait 5 minutes before defuzing the M69 practice grenade. Keep the bottom of the grenade oriented in a safe area. Place the dud fuze in a sand-filled container and return it to the issuing facility.

b. Fragmentation Grenade. The thrower and supervisor wait in the throwing pit for 5 minutes before returning to a covered area. Notify EOD immediately. Do not throw any hand grenades into the area of the dud until it has been neutralized. If range facilities provide, continue training on adjacent impact area separated by berms.

B-4. DROPPED LIVE HAND GRENADES

If a casualty-producing grenade is dropped accidentally after the safety pin has been removed, the throwing pit safety NCO is responsible for reacting accordingly. He is responsible for the safety of the thrower, and he decides what actions are the most appropriate. His actions are dependent upon many factors, such as the safety design of the throwing pit, the location of the dropped grenade, the location of the thrower, and possibly his ability to physically move the thrower. All of these factors need to be considered before the safety pin is pulled.

a. Throwing Pit With Knee Wall. It is recommended that all throwing pits for live grenade training have knee walls (Figure B-1). Knee walls provide the quickest and safest means of reacting to a dropped grenade. In most instances, the throwing pit safety NCO reacts to a dropped live grenade by yelling GRENADE to alert all other personnel in the area and by physically pushing the thrower over the knee wall, then falling on top of him. If a hand grenade is dropped over the knee wall, the throwing pit safety NCO yells GRENADE and forces the thrower to the ground inside the throwing pit.

Figure B-1. Throwing pit with knee wall.

b. Throwing Pit Without Knee Wall. Throwing pits that do not have knee walls must have safety pits attached to both sides (Figure B-2). In most instances, the throwing pit safety NCO reacts to a dropped live grenade by yelling GRENADE to alert other personnel in the area and by physically moving the thrower out of the throwing pit and into a safety pit. If the hand grenade is dropped to the rear of the throwing pit, the throwing pit safety NCO yells GRENADE and forces the thrower over the front of the throwing pit. He follows the thrower over the wall. The safety NCO's first responsibility is the thrower's safety. His immediate action must be to remove the thrower from the danger area.

Figure B-2. Throwing pit with safety pits.

c. Sumps. Do not kick or throw grenades into sumps. In response to a dropped grenade, soldiers move from the danger area and drop to the prone position with Kevlars facing the direction of the grenade. This reduces the soldiers' exposure and increases the protection of the Kevlars.

B-5. PROPER GRIP

Hold the safety lever firmly. An insufficient grip on the safety lever could result in the striker rotating and striking the primer that ignites the delay element. This can occur on most grenades without the safety lever being detached from the grenade.

B-6. HELICOPTERS

Do not throw fragmentation grenades from low flying or hovering helicopters. The fragments present a hazard to the aircraft and its passengers. Generally, throwing hand grenades from medium- or high-flying helicopters is limited to mission-critical situations.

B-7. AIRBORNE

During training missions, do not attach hand grenades on ammunition pouches during airborne operations. Carry the grenades in the main body of the rucksack instead. During wartime conditions, it is essential that soldiers are prepared to engage the enemy as soon as the chopper hits the ground; therefore, soldiers must carry their grenades in their ammunition pouches with the secondary safety removed. The following are suggested techniques to be used during training missions.

a. Before removing grenades from canisters, make sure inspection procedures are followed IAW TM 9-1330-200-12. Remove grenades from canisters and tape the safety pin and safety lever to the grenade. Fold back the tape for a quick release.

b. Return grenades to the canister for carrying. When taking out grenades, inspect them again to make sure tape and safeties are intact.

B-8. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

All leaders, trainers, and soldiers must comply with environmental laws and regulations. The leader must identify the environmental risks associated with training individual and collective tasks. Trainers must work to reduce and avoid damage to training areas and environment caused by realistic training. Environmental risk management parallels safety risk management and is based on the same philosophy. Environmental risk management consists of the following steps:

a. Identify Hazards. Identify the potential sources for environmental degradation during the analysis of METT-T factors. This requires identification of environmental hazards. An environmental hazard is a condition with the potential for polluting air, soil, or water or destroying cultural or historical artifacts.

b. Assess Hazards. Analyze the potential severity of environmental degradation by using the environmental risk assessment matrixes in FM 3-100.4 and the example risk management worksheet shown in Figure B-3. The severity of environmental degradation is considered when determining the potential effect an operation may have on the environment. The risk effect value is defined as an indicator of the severity of environmental degradation. Quantify the risk to the environment resulting from the operation as extremely high, medium, or low using the environmental assessment matrixes.

c. Make Environmental Risk Decisions. Make decisions and develop measures to reduce high environmental risks.

d. Brief Chain of Command. Brief the chain of command (to include installation environmental office, if applicable) on proposed plans and pertinent high-risk environmental matrixes. Risk decisions are made at a level of command that corresponds to the degree of risk.

e. Implement Controls. Implement environmental protection measures by integrating them into plans, orders, SOPs, training performance standards, and rehearsals.

f. Supervise. Supervise and enforce environmental protection standards.

Figure B-3. Example of risk management worksheet.

Figure B-3. Example of risk management worksheet (continued).

Figure B-3. Example of risk management worksheet (continued).

Figure B-3. Example of risk management worksheet (continued).

Figure B-3. Example of risk management worksheet (continued).

Figure B-3. Example of risk management worksheet (continued).

Figure B-3. Example of risk management worksheet (continued).

Figure B-3. Example of risk management worksheet (continued).

Figure B-3. Example of risk management worksheet (continued).



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