This appendix provides guidance on planning, organizing, directing, and controlling installation crime-prevention programs. It provides guidance on developing an installation program, criminal analyses to identify crimes, guidance on which crimes to address, command and individual countermeasures for particular crimes, and program-evaluation procedures.
B-1. In the past few years, the Army has shifted an increasingly larger percentage of its manpower from combat-service-support activities to combat organizations. This change means that fewer MP personnel are available to support a larger number of units. To meet this challenge, it is necessary to reevaluate the way we do business and to emphasize those programs or procedures that have the greatest impact on our installation crime rates. Crime prevention is one program that can have a major impact on installation crime rates at a relatively minor cost in both dollars and manpower. It takes less effort to discourage a criminal from perpetrating a crime or to teach a soldier to avoid becoming a victim than it does to investigate a crime, identify the offender, prosecute him, and punish him. In addition, a proactive approach to law enforcement can help maintain the high quality of service life that can improve the retention of first-term soldiers.
B-2. The Army is a large organization that performs a variety of activities in many different environments. Crimes that are major problems on one installation may be totally absent from others. For example, most military installations have a significant number of robberies while most depots have none. Because of this, any rigid, centrally controlled programno matter how carefully thought outis bound to be inappropriate in many locations. Therefore, DA has elected to provide only the most general guidance and to allow commanders to develop crime-prevention programs that address their local problems.
B-3. The installation is the smallest practical level for implementing crime-prevention programs. If these programs are developed and implemented at a lower level, then crime is often not eliminated but is merely displaced from units with good programs to units with less effective programs. Also, crime does not affect personnel only when they are in their place of duty. In many cases, a company commander's troops are victimized in areas over which he has little control. Unit commanders are responsible for implementing many anticrime measures; however, the selection of overall program goals, the ID of appropriate countermeasures, and quality control should be done at the installation level.
B-4. Crime prevention must always be recognized as a commander's program rather than as an MP program. MP personnel have the expertise to analyze data, identify major problems, and develop lists of possible countermeasures. They should perform these functions in support of an installation crime-prevention council appointed by the installation commander and composed of representatives of all of the installation's major organizations and activities. The advantages of using this type of system are
- It provides representatives of all major segments of the post population with a forum where they can identify criminal problems that are of the greatest concern to them.
- It allows the representatives of all major commands to review the available options to counter a crime and to select the level of resource commitment that is compatible with their missions and internal priorities.
- It helps ensure that the resources of the entire community, rather than only those of the MP force, are mobilized to attack the problem.
- It is easier to obtain the support of the whole population if its representatives are instrumental in the development of the program.
B-5. The installation's crime-prevention officer is normally a senior NCO or an officer who has a solid background as an MP investigator or a physical-security inspector (PSI). He supports the installation council by performing a crime-data analysis to identify problem areas, drafting programs for the council's consideration, inspecting the implementation of council-mandated measures, and coordinating the efforts of unit crime-prevention officers in the implementation of the crime-prevention program.
B-6. As a member of the PM's staff, the crime-prevention officer develops the law-enforcement section of the crime-prevention program, develops and maintains the written crime-prevention plan, and coordinates crime-prevention programs with civilian police agencies and community groups.
B-7. Crime-prevention officers are also appointed in each organization down to the company level. At this level, written crime-prevention plans are not required; however, SOPs are established. The crime-prevention officers serve as their organizations' focal points for coordinating installation crime-prevention plans; they supervise the implementation of the installation's program within their organizations.
B-8. The starting point for developing a crime-prevention program must be a thorough analysis of criminal activity on the installation. This identifies significant criminal problems that are susceptible to crime-prevention efforts. Crimes that are most susceptible to crime-prevention measures are those for which a high probability of reoccurrence exists. Crimes such as murder normally are not repetitive and are poor candidates for inclusion in the crime-prevention program. Since it is seldom practical to attack all criminal problems simultaneously, they should be prioritized based on their impact on the command's ability to perform its mission and their impact on installation personnel. Next, the whole range of countermeasures that can be used to combat each problem must be identified (see Figure B-1). Table B-1 below identifies (by offense) programs that have been successful in countering specific criminal problems. Sections III and V of this appendix contain discussions of the strengths, weaknesses, and applicability of the countermeasures listed in Table B-1. Once developed and prioritized, the list of criminal problems and possible countermeasures must be presented to the installation crime-prevention council for action. The council should decide which crimes will be addressed and which countermeasures will be used for each crime. The council must then identify specific objectives for its anticrime campaigns.
Table B-1. Offenses Countermeasure Matrix
- What crime will be reduced.
- What target population will be addressed.
- What specific changes and behaviors on the part of the victims or perpetrators will be encouraged.
- What actions the command must take to reduce the opportunity for the crime to occur.
B-10. Once objectives have been clearly defined, specific areas of responsibility should be assigned to each council member (based on their organization's primary area of responsibility) and major milestones should be identified for developing the campaign against each targeted crime.
B-11. The prerequisite skills for successful performance as an installation crime-prevention officer are best developed through on-the-job experience as the supervisor of MP investigations or physical-security inspections. More important than any technical skill is the cultivation of a frame of mind that instinctively examines each case to determine not only what occurred, but also how the crime could have been prevented. Technical skills (such as criminal-data analysis) that may not have been developed as an MP investigator or physical-security supervisor are presented in courses taught by several civilian agencies. These classes should be used to the fullest extent possible.
B-12. There are many civilian crime-prevention organizations at the national, state, and local levels. Many of these organizations have produced crime-prevention material (including posters, radio spots, and leaflets). Material and programs sponsored by civilian agencies should be used to support Army crime-prevention efforts. However, when material from a source outside of DOD is used, a copyright release must be obtained. Normally, it is necessary to get a release for each separate item that is used. If there is any doubt as to the necessity of securing a copyright release, the crime-prevention officer should refer the matter to the local SJA.
B-13. Criminal analysis is a system for identifying trends and patterns where they may exist. It is a routine, ongoing function for the PM and battalion- and brigade-level staffs. Criminal analysis is the foundation upon which the installation force-protection program is based. Moreover, criminal analysis is an integral component of the police intelligence-operations function and is applicable across the operational continuum. An effective criminal analysis establishes the following:
- Crimes having a significant impact on the installation.
- The segments of the population being victimized.
- The ID of criminals/perpetrators.
- The most common time of occurrence.
- The areas that experience the highest number of incidents.
- Offense information (such as types of weapons or victims' actions that contribute to the offense).
- Information critical to an installation's VA.
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