Psychological Operations and Military Police Support
|SECTION II MILITARY POLICE|
5-23. Military police forces provide a robust and dynamic combat capability during a counterinsurgency. Military police Soldiers possess the diverse mobility capabilities, lethality in weapons mix, and trained communications skills to operate in any environment. The actions of the 18th Military Police Brigade supporting Operation Iraqi Freedom demonstrate the diversity and flexibility of military police functions. These Soldiers conducted over 24,000 combat patrols; processed over 3,600 enemy prisoners of war, detainees, and insurgents; confiscated over 7,500 weapons; and trained over 10,000 Iraqi police officers. Military police patrols came under direct or indirect attack over 300 times throughout the operation.
5-24. The five military police functions--maneuver and mobility support operations, area security, police intelligence operations, law and order, and internment/resettlement operations--all apply to counterinsurgency operations.
MANEUVER AND MOBILITY SUPPORT OPERATIONS
5-25. Military police support counterinsurgency operations through maneuver and mobility support operations in a variety of ways, to include--
- Supporting straggler and displaced person operations.
- Conducting route reconnaissance and surveillance missions.
- Conducting main supply route regulation and enforcement operations (to include checkpoints and roadblocks).
5-26. Military police operations within the area security function to support counterinsurgency may include--
- Reconnaissance operations.
- Conducting critical site, asset, and high-risk personnel security operations, to include security of high-value convoys (Class III or V).
- Conducting combat patrols throughout the AO (to include cordon and search operations).
- The military police firepower, mobility and communications ability provide critical reconnaissance, information-collection, and response-force capabilities to the command.
TF 504 Military Police established the police intelligence collection and analysis council (PICAC) in support of TF Falcon 3B's peacekeeping operations in Multinational Brigade (East), Kosovo. PICAC was a joint law enforcement forum with an exclusive membership of key leaders and decision makers that spanned across national and international law enforcement, security, and intelligence agencies, to include the UN Civilian Police, UN Border Police and UN Security; TF Falcon ACE chief, analyst, and targeter; CID commander and investigators; military police S-3 and S-2; and joint law enforcement intelligence and operations officers. The PICAC came together weekly for a fusion and targeting forum. The PICAC was responsible for the detention of over a dozen wanted felons, to include subjects of war crimes investigations. In fact, during one PICAC meeting, a civilian police investigator from the Kacanik municipality mentioned a criminal's name in association with a known gang. The criminal had been convicted for attempted murder, had not served his term, and remained at large with no means to identify him. The TF Falcon ACE chief immediately phoned his office to crosscheck the criminal's name in the ACE databases. TF Falcon ACE was able to provide a picture of the criminal during that same forum, enabling UN Civilian Police to identify and arrest the man the next day.
POLICE INTELLIGENCE OPERATIONS
5-27. Police intelligence operations are a military police function that supports, enhances, and contributes to the commander's force protection program, common operational picture, and situational understanding. The police intelligence operations function ensures that information collected during the conduct of other military police functions is provided as input to the intelligence collection effort and turned into action or reports (FM 7-15). Military police gather information regarding threat, insurgent, and criminal groups for evaluation, assessment, targeting, and interdiction. Working closely with military intelligence personnel and turning the information into actionable intelligence products, military police conduct police intelligence operations through integrated patrols (both mounted and dismounted) and coordination with joint, interagency, and multinational assets. Military police patrols greatly assist in confirming or denying the commander's critical information requirements.
LAW AND ORDER OPERATIONS
5-28. Military police perform a variety of functions in support of counterinsurgency:
- Law enforcement patrols throughout the AO, maintaining and assisting in stability and security operations.
- The conduct of criminal investigations through coordination and synchronization of Criminal Investigation Division assets.
- Military police are the ideal force for conducting crowd and riot control operations, including the extraction of leaders. Military police control antagonistic crowds engaged in rioting, looting, and demonstrating.
- Military police are trained and equipped to assist in the training and mentoring of local police forces.
INTERNMENT AND RESETTLEMENT OPERATIONS
5-29. Military police conduct internment and resettlement operations to maintain stability and security throughout the AO. Critical assets to the proper conduct and success of internment and resettlement operations in a counterinsurgency environment are--
- Staff judge advocate representatives.
- Civil affairs.
- Military intelligence.
- Medical and dental.
- Liaison with International Committee of the Red Cross.
- Public affairs.
- Religious representation.
5-30. Because of their contact with the local populace in counterinsurgency, military police must be aware of how they are perceived by the local culture. Military police must be trained to be cognizant of cultural differences that can have a negative impact on the PSYOP campaign. There also must be clear lines of authority and responsibility established for military police guarding prisoners or detainees. Negative propaganda from mistreatment of prisoners or detainees can undermine US and HN credibility. (See Appendix I.)
USA CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION DIVISION COMMAND
5-31. The Criminal Investigation Division Command investigates offenses committed against US forces or property, offenses committed by military personnel or civilians serving with US forces, or where there is a military interest. Its agents investigate violations of international agreements and the law of war. The command's missions include--
- Investigating and deterring serious crimes.
- Conducting sensitive/serious investigations.
- Collecting, analyzing, processing, and disseminating criminal intelligence.
- Conducting protective-service operations for designated personnel.
- Providing forensic-laboratory support.
- Maintaining Army criminal records.
- Enhancing the commander's crime-prevention and force-protection programs.
- Performing logistic security operations.
MILITARY WORKING DOGS
5-32. Military working dogs are a largely untapped resource. Dogs are trained in many skills, some of which can make a difference between success and failure of many combat missions. Dogs are trained for patrolling, searching buildings, scouting, or explosive detection. All of these skills compliment performing the five military police functions. The ability of dogs to detect an ambush and to find an explosive device planted by insurgents can be critical to the overall success of the mission. The use of military working dog teams to increase combat potential and enhance response shortages is limited only by a lack of training on how to employ dogs. Dogs cannot be used as a security measure against detainees. They can be used to reinforce security measures against penetration and attack by enemy forces. Some examples of employment techniques are--
- Perimeter patrolling.
- Main supply route patrolling.
- Security of designated personnel, units, or facilities.
- Use during checkpoints and roadblocks.
- Enemy prisoner of war, detainee, and insurgent control.
- Mine and tunnel detection.
- Area reconnaissance operations.
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