Find a Security Clearance Job!

Military

CHAPTER 5 (Cont.)

MARKSMANSHIP TRAINING

Section II. BASIC GUNNERY

Basic gunnery allows the grenadier to zero and apply the fundamentals of marksmanship during live-fire exercises in day, night, and NBC conditions.

5-9. ZEROING THE M203 GRENADE LAUNCHER

A correct zero consists of the elevation and windage sight settings that enable the grenadier to hit the point of aim at a given range with one of the three sighting systems: leaf, quadrant (discussed here), or nightsight (discussed later in the chapter). To zero the M203 using either the leaf sight or quadrant sight, the grenadier engages a target at 200 meters. (The M203 is normally zeroed using only the quadrant sight, but may be zeroed with only the leaf sight, or with both sights):

a. Zeroing the Leaf Sight. A red mark at 50 meters on the leaf sight reminds the grenadier not to zero at this range.

    (1) Select a target at 200 meters.

    (2) Place the sight in the upright position.

    (3) Place the center mark of the windage scale on the index line on the rear of the sight base.

    (4) Loosen the elevation adjustment screw on the leaf sight; place the leaf sight's index line on the sight mount's center elevation mark.

    (5) Tighten the elevation adjustment screw.

    (6) Assume a prone supported firing position.

    (7) Load one round of 40-mm HE or TP ammunition.

    (8) Use correct sighting and aiming procedures to align the target with the front leaf sight.

    (9) Fire a round, sense the impact, and adjust the sight.

      (a) Windage. Turn the sight windage screw clockwise to move the leaf sight to the left, and vice versa. One increment moves round impact 1 1/2 meters at a range of 200 meters.

      (b) Range. Use a 40-mm cartridge case and turn the elevation adjustment screw to raise the leaf sight (this increases range) or to lower the leaf sight (this decreases range). Turning the screw one increment moves round impact 10 meters at a range of 200 meters.

    (10) Fire two more cartridges, readjusting the sight after each. Once a round impacts within 5 meters of the target, the weapon is zeroed.

    (11) After you have zeroed the weapon, record the zero data on your scorecard. As soon as you can, transfer the information to a separate (small) piece of paper, and tape this inside the M16 pistol grip.

b. Zeroing the Quadrant Sight.

    (1) Select a target at 200 meters.

    (2) Ensure that the quadrant sight is correctly mounted on the rifle's carrying handle.

    (3) Open the front sight post and rear sight aperture.

      (a) Move the front sight post to its highest position, then back 2 1/2 turns.

      (b) Depress the rear sight retainer. Slide the rear sight aperture to the left until its white index line aligns with the edge of the sight aperture arm.

    (4) Move the sight latch rearward, and reposition the quadrant sight arm to zeroing range (200 meters).

    (5) Assume a prone supported firing position.

    (6) Use correct sighting and aiming procedures to align the target with the front sight post and rear sight aperture.

    (7) Load one round of 40-mm HE or TP ammunition.

    (8) Fire a round, sense the impact, and adjust the sight.

      (a) Elevation. Turn the front sight post right to decrease or left to increase elevation. At a range of 200 meters, one full turn equals 5 meters.

      (b) Windage. Press the sight aperture retainer; move the rear sight aperture away from the barrel to move the trajectory to the left, or vice versa. At a range of 200 meters, one notch on the rear sight aperture equals 1 1/2 meters.

    (9) Fire two more cartridges, readjusting the sights after each. If the round lands within 5 meters of the target, the weapon is zeroed.

    (10) After you have zeroed the weapon, record the zero data on your scorecard. As soon as you can, transfer this information to a separate (small) piece of paper, and tape this inside the M16 pistol grip.

5-10. OVERALL QUALIFICATION STANDARDS

To qualify with an M203, a grenadier must perform to prescribed standards and must score at least 60 of 90 possible points. Each target hit is worth 10 points. Zeroing is not included on the scorecard, because the weapon must be zeroed before qualification firing. However, the zero data should already have been entered on the scorecard when the weapon was zeroed. HE familiarization may be included in qualification firing, but is not scored. DA FORM 2946-R (40-MM Grenade Launcher Scorecard) is used for qualification firing and is provided in the back of this manual. This form must be locally reproduced on 8 1/2 by 11-inch paper. Figure 5-11 shows an example completed scorecard. Ratings are awarded based on the point chart on the scorecard.

FIGURE 5-11. EXAMPLE COMPLETED DA FORM 2946-R, 40-MM GRENADE LAUNCHER SCORECARD.

5-11. DAY RECORD FIRE

Day record fire gives the grenadier the confidence and experience he needs to progress from dry-firing exercises to record fire. Day record fire includes two NBC tasks (Tasks 4 and 5). All soldiers must be prepared to accomplish their missions, even in protective clothing. This exercise is conducted on a grenade launcher range IAW Firing Table I (Table 5-1). Before they fire for qualification, grenadiers must first zero their weapons. They receive instruction on the objectives, range, targets, and qualification standards. Each firing order consists of two grenadiers, one of whom assists. The unit is organized in firing orders based on range constraints. Grenadiers fire this exercise from the following fighting positions: kneeling supported, midrange supported, long-range supported, NBC midrange point target, and NBC midrange area target. For each of these tasks, the grenadier can designate which target he will engage first.

WARNING

BEFORE ALLOWING ANYONE TO MOVE BETWEEN STATIONS, ENSURE THAT ALL RIFLES AND GRENADE LAUNCHERS HAVE BEEN CLEARED, THAT BOLTS REMAIN TO THE REAR, AND THAT BARREL ASSEMBLIES REMAIN IN THE OPEN POSITION. ANYONE OBSERVING AN UNSAFE ACT SHOULD CALL "CEASE FIRE" AND NOTIFY RANGE PERSONNEL IMMEDIATELY.

a. Station 1, Zeroing. The grenadier zeroes with both quadrant and leaf sights at Station 1.

    (1) Leaf sight. From a prone supported firing position, fire to zero the weapon. This reinforces the experience gained during dry firing and allows practice in loading and firing with the most accurate sensing and adjustments obtainable. If you zero in three rounds, use the other two rounds to confirm the zero. If you cannot zero with five rounds, you are removed from the firing line for remedial training.

      (a) Prepare the sight for zeroing.

      (b) Assume a good prone supported firing position.

      (c) When you receive the following fire command, repeat each element as it is given:

                    GRENADIER
                    FRONT
                    200 (ZERO PANEL)
                    ONE ROUND
                    COMMENCE FIRING

      (d) Load one round, obtain the proper sight picture, and announce "Up" to your assistant.

      (e) When the tower operator gives the command to commence firing, fire one round at the panel marked "Z."

      (f) Sense the impact of the round. If the round did not land within 5 meters of the zero panel, adjust the sights for windage and elevation.

      (g) Repeat until a round lands within 5 meters of the zero panel.

      (h) Once you have zeroed the weapon, record the zero data on your scorecard. As soon as you can, transfer the information to a separate (small) piece of paper, and tape this inside the M16 pistol grip.

    (2) Quadrant sight. From a prone supported firing position, fire to zero the weapon. This reinforces the experience gained during dry firing and gives you practice in loading and firing with the most accurate sensing and adjustments you can obtain. The steps for zeroing with the quadrant sight are the same as those for zeroing with the leaf sight.

b. Station 2, Task 1, Kneeling Position. (Only TP rounds may be used at this station.)

    (1) When you receive the command DESIGNATE THE TARGET, identify the target you intend to engage by announcing "Window" or "Bunker. "

    (2) When you receive the command DETERMINE THE RANGE, announce the range to the target.

    (3) Load one of the three rounds allotted. Because HE may not be fired at ranges of less than 165 meters on the basic grenade launcher range, use only TP rounds.

    (4) When you receive the following fire command, repeat each element as it is given:

                    GRENADIER
                    FRONT
                    3 ROUNDS
                    100 (WINDOW) OR 115 (BUNKER)
                    COMMENCE FIRING

    (5) Acquire the proper sight picture and announce "Up" to the grader.

    (6) Engage the target given in the fire command until you hit it. Fire any remaining rounds at the second target. You need no other fire command. For each round you fire, your assistant announces "Hit" or "Miss."

.Time Rounds Type Target and Range
Task 1
2
minutes
3
TP
Window at 90 to 100 meters;
bunker at 105 to 115 meters
Task 2
2
minutes
3
TP
Bunker at 135 to 150 meters;
automatic weapon at 200 to 250
meters
Task 3
2
minutes
3
TP
Troops in open emplacement at
275 to 300 meters; troops in open
at 325 to 350 meters
Task 4
2
minutes
3
TP
Bunker at 135 to 150 meters
Task 5
2
minutes
3
TP
Automatic weapon at 200 to 250
meter
Table 5-1. Firing Table I, day record fire qualification.

c. Station 3, Task 2, Midrange Position.

    (1) When you receive the command DESIGNATE THE TARGET, identify the target you intend to engage by announcing "Bunker" or "Automatic weapon."

    (2) When you receive the command DETERMINE THE RANGE, announce the range to the target.

    (3) Load one of the three rounds allotted.

    (4) When you receive the following fire command, repeat each element as it is given:

                    GRENADIER
                    FRONT
                    3 ROUNDS
                    150 (BUNKER) or 250 (AUTOMATIC WEAPON)
                    COMMENCE FIRING

    (5) Acquire the proper sight picture, and announce "Up" to the grader.

    (6) Engage the target given in the fire command until you hit it. Fire any remaining rounds at the second target. You need no other fire command. For each round you fire, your assistant announces "Hit" or "Miss. "

d. Station 4, Task 3, Long-Range Supported Position.

    (1) When you receive the command DESIGNATE THE TARGET, identify the target you intend to engage by announcing "Troops in the open emplacement" or "Troops in the open. "

    (2) When you receive the command DETERMINE THE RANGE, announce the range to the target.

    (3) Load one of the three rounds allotted.

    (4) When you receive the following fire command, repeat each element as it is given:

                    GRENADIER
                    FRONT
                    3 ROUNDS
                    300 (TROOPS IN THE OPEN)
                    COMMENCE FIRING

    (5) Acquire the proper sight picture, and announce "Up" to the grader.

    (6) Give the command to FIRE.

    (7) Engage the target given in the fire command until you hit it. Fire any remaining rounds at the second target. You need no other fire command. Before firing, you must know the procedure to follow in the event of a stoppage. For each round you fire, your assistant announces "Hit" or "Miss."

e. Station 3, Task 4, Midrange Position (NBC), Point Target.

    (1) Put on, clear, and check your mask within nine seconds. Within the next six, pull the hood over your head and zip the front of it closed.

    (2) Load one of the three rounds allotted.

    (3) When you receive the following fire command, repeat each element as it is given:

FIRE MISSION FRONT 3 ROUNDS 150 (BUNKER) AT MY COMMAND

    (4) Acquire the proper sight picture, and announce "Up" to your assistant.

    (5) Have your assistant signal the tower operator that you are ready.

    (6) When the tower operator gives the command to commence firing, engage the target given in the fire command until you hit it. For each round you fire, your assistant announces "Hit" or "Miss."

f. Station 3, Task 5, Midrange Position (NBC), Area Target.

    (1) Load one of the three rounds allotted.

    (2) When you receive the following fire command, repeat each element as it is given:

                    FIRE MISSION
                    FRONT
                    3 ROUNDS
                    200 (AUTOMATIC WEAPON POSITION)
                    AT MY COMMAND

    (3) Acquire the proper sight picture, and announce "Up" to your assistant.

    (4) Have your assistant signal the tower operator that you are ready.

    (5) When the tower operator gives the command to FIRE, engage the target. Engage the target given in the fire command until you hit it. For each round you fire, your assistant announces "Hit" or "Miss. "

5-12. DAY RECORD FIRE QUALIFICATION STANDARDS

Before firing, each grenadier must know the tasks, the time and ammunition required, the procedures to follow if a stoppage occurs, the penalties for failure to stop firing when commanded or signaled to do so, and the method used for scoring targets.

a. Time and Ammunition. Each grenadier determines the target and its distance before loading any rounds. When the grenadier receives the command to FIRE, the time allotted for that task in Firing Table I begins.

b. Stoppages. The grenadier must apply immediate action procedures if a stoppage occurs. If he can reduce the stoppage, he can continue to fire the course. The trainers allow each grenadier an extra 15 seconds for each application of immediate action.

    (1) If a stoppage occurs that you cannot reduce by immediate action, raise your hand and announce "Time."

    (2) When you say "Time," the assistant trainer notes the time, ensures that a real stoppage exists, and tries to clear the stoppage. If he clears it, you can complete firing. If he is unable to clear it, the grader will clear it, and you will be allowed 15 seconds for each round remaining to complete firing.

    (3) If you made an error that caused the stoppage, you do not receive extra time, and your score consists only of whatever you had earned when the stoppage occurred.

    (4) If the grenade launcher must be replaced, you are allotted 10 rounds to zero a new one, then you may repeat the exercise.

    (5) If malfunctions prevent you from finishing the exercise in the time allowed, you can finish it in an "alibi run" after all other grenadiers complete firing.

c. Penalties. Five points are deducted from the score of any grenadier who fails to stop firing when the trainer commands or signals to do so. If a grenadier fires at the wrong target, he loses the rounds allotted for the other target, which leaves him only the remainder of his rounds to expend on both targets.

d. Target Scoring. The trainer or assistant trainer records scores on DA Form 2946-R. They determine whether each grenade fired is a hit or miss, then assign 0 points for a miss or 10 points for a hit. Tasks 1 through 3 each consist of two targets, so the total available for each of these tasks is 20 points. The grenadier may select which of the two targets to engage first. If he scores a hit on the first, the trainer permits him to engage the second, and he returns all unexpended rounds to the assistant trainer. Tasks 4 and 5 each consist of firing one target, for a total of 10 points each.

    (1) Window or door. To score a hit on a window or door, the grenade must either strike the target or go through the opening in the center of the target.

    (2) Bunker. To score a hit on the bunker the grenade must strike anywhere on the face of the bunker.

    (3) Automatic weapon. To score a hit on an automatic weapon, the grenade must strike within 10 meters of the target.

    (4) Troops. To score a hit on troops, the grenade must strike within 10 meters of the target.

5-13. MOUNTING THE AN/PVS-4

The grenadier must mount the AN/PVS-4 to the weapon before he zeroes it, and he must do both before he can qualify with the M203 grenade launcher. To mount the scope, he must--

a. Remove the quadrant sight.

b. Position the mounting bracket assembly on the left side of the rifle so that the two clamps project through the opening under the handle. Loosen the wing nuts completely (Figure 5-12).

c. Turn the clamp plates so that the pointed ends are in the UP position and are seated against the handle.

d. Tighten the wing nuts clockwise until the mounting bracket is secure against the weapon.

e. Position the sight in the groove on top of the bracket, and align the threaded hole in the base of the sight mounting adapter with the lever screw assembly. Tighten the screw clockwise firmly to secure the sight to the bracket.

5-14. ZEROING THE AN/PVS-4 TO THE M203

After the nightsight is mounted on the M203, it is zeroed to the M16. This must be done before the nightsight can be zeroed to the M203. FM 23-9 provides instructions for doing this. Then the M16 is used to zero the nightsight to the M203. The grenade launcher rounds are fired only to confirm the zero. To zero the nightsight to the M203--

a. Center the Reticle Pattern. Use the aiming points on the nightsight reticle (Figure 5-13) and the range settings on the mounting bracket. Center the nightsight's reticle pattern within the field of view (FOV). Note that it may not be centered even if it appears to be. To ensure it is, rotate the azimuth control knob either way until it stops. Then, rotate it back the opposite way, counting the number of clicks until it stops again (this may be any number of clicks between 200 and 600). Divide the number of clicks in half, and rotate the knob in the original direction by that number of clicks. For example, if the total number of clicks is 500, rotate the knob back 250 clicks in the original direction. Center the elevation using the same procedure with the elevation control knob. The total amount of elevation clicks also varies between 200 and 600.

b. Adjust the Reticle Pattern. Before adjusting the reticle pattern, the grenadier should fire three 5.56-mm rounds, then retighten the mount wing nuts to securely seat the sight. Once this is done, the grenadier fires at a 10-meter target, because hitting and spotting this target is easier than hitting a 25-meter target. This procedure may be performed in daylight using the daylight cover:

    (1) Turn the sight on and adjust the reticle intensity to the desired level of illumination.

    (2) Place an M16 25-meter target at 10 meters and stabilize the weapon.

    (3) Fire a 5.56-mm round at the center of the target and mark the hole the round makes.

      (a) If the round misses the entire target, reseat the sight exactly as previously described.

      (b) If the round hits the target but not within 20 centimeters (8 inches) of the center, adjust the azimuth and elevation controls to bring the impact point toward the center of the target, then fire a second round. Continue to fire single rounds and adjust the controls until the rounds strike within the desired distance from the center.

    (4) Once the reticle is adjusted, move the 25-meter target out to 25 meters and zero the grenade launcher. DO NOT REMOVE the nightsight from the weapon until you have obtained a zero.

c. Zero at 25 Meters. This zero is not recorded. To obtain a 25-meter zero, the grenadier must--

    (1) Stabilize the weapon.

    (2) Center the reticle's zeroing range aiming point on the target aiming point (center of the target) (Figure 5-13). Fire until you obtain a good three-round shot group. Triangulate and locate the center of the shot group.

    NOTE: Even if the nightsight is dismounted and remounted on the same weapon, some changes in its zeroing will occur, so it must be zeroed again.

    (3) Turn the azimuth and elevation control knobs to adjust the sight reticle. Move the center of the shot group 9.8 centimeters (3 7/8 inches) below and 4.2 centimeters (1 5/8 inches) to the right of the target aiming point (Figure 5-14). For example, if the shot group is high and to the left of the desired impact point, adjust the elevation down (DN) and the azimuth right (RT). One click of the azimuth or elevation adjustment moves the strike of the round .63 centimeter (1/4 inch) at a range of 25 meters. Two clicks move the reticle about one square on the target.

    (4) After adjusting the reticle, assume a stable position. Place the reticle aiming point on the target aiming point, and fire three more rounds.

    (5) Repeat Steps 4 and 5 until the rounds strike within a 3.2 centimeter (1 1/4 inch) circle in the desired location 9.8 centimeters (3 7/8 inches) below and 4.2 centimeters (1 5/8 inches) to the right of the aiming point, or until you have fired 12 rounds, whichever occurs first. If you are unable to zero the AN/PVS-4 after 12 rounds, the trainer must send you to remedial training.

    (6) Confirm the zero on the grenade launcher range using a 200-meter target. Place the nightsight into operation and use its reticle, which has two parts. Use the vertical line in the upper part of the reticle to estimate range and the lower part to aim the weapon.

      (a) Set the range as estimated on the range indicator of the mounting bracket (Figure 5-13).

      (b) Engage the target, placing the aiming point of the sight reticle on the target's center of mass (Figure 5-14). Fire the weapon using all your marksmanship skills. You have confirmed the zero if two of three rounds strike within 5 meters of the target.

FIGURE 5-14. ADJUSTMENT OF ROUNDS.

5-15. NIGHT RECORD FIRE

Night or limited visibility firing trains grenadiers to apply the fundamentals of grenade launcher marksmanship while using the AN/PVS-4 nightsight. This training increases the grenadiers' confidence. Each grenadier learns to zero the M203 to the AN/PVS-4 on the 25-meter range, then fires at one area target on the M203 grenade launcher range. The grenadiers are instructed before night firing in its objectives, fundamentals, fire commands, and targets. The unit is organized in firing orders based on the range constraints. Each firing order should consist of a grenadier and assistant. The assistant performs his duties in a manner similar to day record fire. Night record fire consists of one task: Station 3, Task 6, midrange fighting position (night), area target.

a. Load one of the three rounds allotted.

b. When you receive the following fire command, repeat each element as it is given:

                    GRENADIER
                    FRONT
                    3 ROUNDS
                    200 (AUTOMATIC WEAPON POSITION)
                    AT MY COMMAND

c. Acquire the proper sight picture, and announce "Up" to the grader.

d. When the grader gives the command FIRE, engage the target given in the fire command until you hit it. Fire any remaining rounds at the second target. You need no other fire command. For each round you fire, your assistant announces "Hit" or "Miss."

5-16. NIGHT RECORD FIRE QUALIFICATION STANDARDS

Before firing, each grenadier must know the tasks, the time and ammunition required for each, the procedures to follow if a stoppage occurs, the penalties for failure to stop firing when commanded or signaled to do so, and the method used for scoring targets.

a. Time and Ammunition. Firing Table II (Table 5-2) provides the night firing task and its time and ammunition requirements.

b. Stoppages. The procedure for stoppages is the same as for other qualification firing exercises.

c. Penalties. The procedure for penalties is the same as for other qualification firing exercises.

d. Target Scoring. The target-scoring procedure is the same as for other qualification firing exercises.

e. Conditions. Night record fire trains the grenadier to engage targets between 150 and 250 meters under ideal moonlight conditions.

Time Rounds Type Target and Range
2
minutes
3
HE
Automatic weapon at 200 to
250 meters
Table 5-2. Firing Table II, night firing qualification.



NEWSLETTER
Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list