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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Figures

Figure 1-1. Mine components

Figure 1-2. Methods of actuating mines

Figure 1-3. Types of fuses

Figure 1-4. AHD incorporating a release mechanism

Figure 1-5. AHD not attached to the mine

Figure 1-6. Hand-emplaced US AHDs

Figure 2-1. Tactical versus protective obstacles

Figure 2-2. Tactical-obstacle effects

Figure 2-3. Minefield variables

Figure 2-4. Vehicle mine encounter probability versus minefield density

Figure 2-5. Disrupt-effect group

Figure 2-6. Fix-effect group

Figure 2-7. Turn-effect group

Figure 2-8. Block-effect group

Figure 2-9. Obstacle zones

Figure 2-10. Obstacle belts

Figure 2-11. Obstacle groups

Figure 2-12. TF defense COA

Figure 2-13. TF direct-fire analysis

Figure 2-14. TF obstacle-intent integration and priorities

Figure 2-15. Obstacle-plan refinement

Figure 2-16. Scheme-of-obstacle overlay

Figure 2-17. Sample obstacle-execution matrix

Figure 2-18. Minefield siting

Figure 2-19. Example of minefield resourcing

Figure 2-20. Mine resupply

Figure 2-21. Supply-point resupply method

Figure 2-22. Service-station resupply method

Figure 2-23. Tailgate resupply method

Figure 2-24. Minefield marking

Figure 2-25. Marking of minefields and obstacle groups

Figure 2-26. Sample obstacle-turnover work sheet

Figure 3-1. AP SCATMINEs

Figure 3-2. AT SCATMINE

Figure 3-3. Emplacement of ADAMs and RAAMs

Figure 3-4. Gator SCATMINE system

Figure 3-5. Gator minefield

Figure 3-6. Flipper mine dispenser

Figure 3-7. Flipper stop-and-dispense point

Figure 3-8. Flipper disrupt and fix minefields

Figure 3-9. Flipper turn and block minefields

Figure 3-10. Volcano mine system

Figure 3-11. Volcano components

Figure 3-12. Volcano disrupt and fix minefields

Figure 3-13. Volcano turn and block minefields

Figure 3-14. MOPMS

Figure 3-15. MOPMS emplacement and safety zone

Figure 3-16. MOPMS in a disrupt minefield

Figure 3-17. MOPMS in a fix minefield

Figure 3-18. Flipper minefield

Figure 3-19. Ground Volcano minefield

Figure 4-1. M86 PDM

Figure 4-2. M18A1 claymore

Figure 4-3. SLAM

Figure 4-4. SLAM in bottom-attack mode

Figure 4-5. SLAM in side-attack mode

Figure 4-6. SLAM in timed-demolition mode

Figure 4-7. SLAM in command-detonation mode

Figure 4-8. M93 Hornet

Figure 4-9. Hornet reinforcing a conventional minefield

Figure 4-10. Hornet reinforcing a Volcano minefield

Figure 4-11. Hornet area-disruption obstacle

Figure 4-12. Hornet gauntlet obstacle (one cluster)

Figure 4-13. Hornet gauntlet obstacle (platoon)

Figure 4-14. Hornet-enhanced turn-and fix-obstacle groups

Figure 5-1. AT mines

Figure 5-2. AP mines

Figure 5-3. Prong-activated AP mine

Figure 5-4. Trip-wire-activated AP mine

Figure 5-5. Buried mine with pressure plate

Figure 5-6. Buried mine with tilt rod

Figure 5-7. Buried and concealed mines

Figure 6-1. Minefield requirements computation work sheet

Figure 6-2. Step-by-step procedures for completing the minefield requirements computation work sheet

Figure 6-3. Site layout

Figure 6-4a. Laying a minefield

Figure 6-4b. Laying a minefield (continued)

Figure 6-5. Laying an IOE short row

Figure 6-6. Sample strip feeder report

Figure 6-7. Laying a row minefield

Figure 6-8. Measuring distances between mines with sandbags

Figure 6-9a. Sample DA Form 1355 for a row minefield (front)

Figure 6-9b. Sample DA Form 1355 for a row minefield (back)

Figure 6-10. Standardized disrupt and fix row minefields

Figure 6-11. Standardized turn row minefield

Figure 6-12. Standardized block row minefield

Figure 6-13. Site layout

Figure 7-1. Minefield layout

Figure 7-2. Cluster compositions

Figure 7-3. Arrangement of clusters in a mine strip

Figure 7-4. IOE baseline with short strips

Figure 7-5. Clusters on an IOE short strip

Figure 7-6. Minefield lanes and gaps

Figure 7-7. Mine-emplacement procedures

Figure 7-8. Laying and fusing mines

Figure 7-9. Lane closure

Figure 8-1. Conventional minefield/munition field reporting chain

Figure 8-2a. Sample DA Form 1355 (front side) for a standard-pattern minefield/munition field

Figure 8-2b. Sample DA Form 1355 (inside) for a standard-pattern minefield/munition field

Figure 8-2c. Sample DA Form 1355 (back side) for a standard-pattern minefield/munition field

Figure 8-3a. Sample DA Form 1355 (front side) for a Hornet minefield/munition field

Figure 8-3b. Sample DA Form 1355 (back side) for a Hornet minefield/munition field

Figure 8-4. Sample DA Form 1355-1-R

Figure 8-5. Hasty protective row minefield/munition field record

Figure 8-6a. Sample DA Form 1355 (front side) for a nuisance minefield/munition field

Figure 8-6b. Sample DA Form 1355 (inside) for a nuisance minefield/munition field

Figure 8-7. Scatterable minefield/munition field report and record work sheet

Figure 8-8. Sample SCATMINWARN

Figure 8-9. Scatterable minefield/munition field report and record for an ADAM/RAAM artillery mission

Figure 8-10. Scatterable minefield/munition field report and record for a Flipper mission

Figure 8-11. Sample SCATMINWARN for an artillery mission

Figure 8-12. Minefield/munition field overlay symbols

Figure 9-1. Sample OBSTINTEL report.

Figure 10-1. AN/PSS-12 mine detector

Figure 10-2. ASTAMIDS

Figure 10-3. IVMMD components

Figure 10-4. MICLIC

Figure 10-5. AVLM

Figure 10-6. MICLIC employment in a minefield less than 100 meters deep

Figure 10-7. MICLIC employment in a minefield of uncertain depth or greater than 100 meters

Figure 10-8. Skip zone

Figure 10-9. ESMB

Figure 10-10. APOBS

Figure 10-11. Bangalore torpedo

Figure 10-12. Skim technique

Figure 10-13. MCB

Figure 10-14. Mine-blade width compared to track-vehicle widths

Figure 10-15. MCR. 10-17

Figure 10-16. Mine-roller width compared to track-vehicle widths

Figure 10-17. Panther

Figure 10-18. MiniFlail

Figure 10-19. Grizzly

Figure 10-20. CEV with mine rake

Figure 10-21. Tripod

Figure 10-22. Initial lane marking

Figure 10-23. Intermediate lane marking

Figure 10-24. Full lane marking

Figure 10-25. Marking devices

Figure 10-26. NATO standard marker

Figure 10-27. NATO lane-marking conversion

Figure 10-28. NATO standard marking for limited visibility

Figure 11-1. IBASIC

Figure 11-2. Platoon-size sweep team

Figure 11-3. Squad-size sweep team

Figure 11-4. Sweep teams in echelon

Figure 11-5. Linear clearance method

Figure 11-6. Combat clearance method

Figure 11-7. Deliberate route clearance

Figure 11-8. Hasty route clearance

Figure 11-9. Area clearance site layout

Figure 11-10. Sample enemy obstacle report

Figure 11-11. Sample route status report

Figure 11-12. Sample mine incident report

Figure 12-1. Outrigger techniques

Figure 12-2a. Sample DA Form 1355 (front side) for river mining

Figure 12-2b. Sample DA Form 1355 (inside) for river mining

Figure 12-3. Building sketch and mine plan (DA Form 1355)

Figure 12-4. Underground passageway

Figure 12-5. Open spaces

Figure 12-6. Street obstacles

Figure 12-7. Roof obstacles

Figure 12-8. Building obstacles

Figure 12-9. Probable M14 AP mine emplacement

Figure 12-10. Probable M16 AP mine emplacement

Figure 12-11. Probable M18A1 AP mine emplacement

Figure 12-12. AT mine emplacement in urban areas

Figure 12-13. AT mine emplacement in industrial and transportation areas

Figure 12-14. ADAM/RAAM employment

Figure 12-15. MOPMS employment

Figure 13-1. Typical electric and nonelectric booby traps

Figure 13-2. Methods of actuation

Figure 13-3. Remotely connected traps

Figure 13-4. Standard booby-trap sign

Figure 13-5a. Sample DA Form 1355 (front side) for a booby-trapped area

Figure 13-5b. Sample DA Form 1355 (inside) for a booby-trapped area

Figure 13-6. Improvised electrical FDs

Figure 13-7. Improvised nonelectric FDs (shear-pin operated)

Figure 13-8. Improvised nonelectric FDs (spring-operated)

Figure 13-9. Improvised, electric delay devices

Figure 13-10. Improvised, nonelectric delay devices

Figure 13-11. Typical punjis

Figure 13-12. Side-closing trap

Figure 13-13. Spike board

Figure 13-14. Venus fly trap

Figure 13-15. HE, artillery-shell AT device

Figure 13-16. Platter charge

Figure 13-17. Improvised claymore device

Figure 13-18. Grapeshot AP device

Figure 13-19. Barbwire AP device

Figure A-1. M14 AP mine

Figure A-2. M22 wrench

Figure A-3. M14 mine in ARMED position

Figure A-4. Removal of safety clip

Figure A-5. Bottom view of M14 mine

Figure A-6. M16A1 AP mine

Figure A-7. M16A1 mine and M25 wrench

Figure A-8. M605 fuse

Figure A-9. Safety pins

Figure A-10. Buried mine with a trip wire

Figure A-11. Metal collar on an M605 fuse

Figure A-12. M15 AT mine

Figure A-13. M20 wrench

Figure A-14. Correct safety-pin configuration

Figure A-15. Greasing the M624 fuse

Figure A-16. Tightening the fuse with the extension rod

Figure A-17. M15 mine in the hole

Figure A-18. Extension-rod assembly

Figure A-19. Assembly of the extension rod into the fuse ring

Figure A-20. Removal of safety pin

Figure A-21. ARMED position

Figure A-22. SAFE position

Figure A-23. Safety fork

Figure A-24. Clearance test

Figure A-25. M15 mine in the hole

Figure A-26. M19 AT mine

Figure A-27. Removal of the pressure plate

Figure A-28. Firing pin

Figure A-29. M21 AT mine

Figure A-30. M607 fuse

Figure A-31. M26 wrench

Figure A-32. Buried M21 mine

Figure A-33. Removing the band and the stop

Figure A-34. M5 FD

Figure A-35. Arming the M15

Figure A-36. M142 FD

Figure A-37. Ml activator

Figure B-1. PDM components

Figure B-2. SLAM components

Figure B-3. Hornet components

Figure B-4. Hornet controls and indicators

Figure C-1. GMZ armored tracked mine layer

Figure C-2. Threat-style rapidly emplaced minefield

Figure C-3. Threat-style antitrack minefield

Figure C-4. Threat-style antihull minefield

Figure C-5. Threat-style AP minefield

Figure C-6. UMZ SCATMINE system

Figure C-7. Chemical-mine employment

Figure C-8. BAT-M with BTU bulldozer blade

Figure C-9. KMT-4 plow

Figure C-10. IMP portable mine detector

Figure C-11. DIM mine detector

Figure C-12. KMT-5 plow-roller combination

Figure C-13. IMR armored engineer tractor

Figure C-14. M1979 armored mine clearer

Figure D-1. Air Volcano system

Figure D-2. Turn obstacle

Figure D-3. Block obstacle

Figure D-4. Disrupt obstacle

Figure D-5. Fix obstacle

Figure D-6. Site layout

Figure D-7. Sample Volcano card

Figure D-8. Fencing for an air Volcano minefield

Figure E-1. M16 AP mine

Figure E-2. M18A1 AP mine

Figure E-3. M15 and M19 AT mines

Figure E-4. M21 AT mine

Figure E-5. Excerpt from Risk-Assessment Techniques Manual, prepared by the Department of Transportation's Transportation Safety Institute, August 1986

Figure E-6. Preliminary hazard-analysis work sheet (arming M15)

Figure E-7. Preliminary hazard-analysis work sheet (disarming M15)

Figure E-8. Preliminary hazard-analysis work sheet (arming M16)

Figure E-9. Preliminary hazard-analysis work sheet (disarming M16)

Figure E-10. Preliminary hazard-analysis work sheet (arming M19)

Figure E-11. Preliminary hazard-analysis work sheet (disarming M19)

Figure E-12. Preliminary hazard-analysis work sheet (arming M21)

Figure E-13. Preliminary hazard-analysis work sheet (disarming M21)

Figure E-14. Preliminary hazard-analysis work sheet (command detonation)

Figure E-15. Preliminary hazard-analysis work sheet (peripheral factors)

Figure F-l. AN/PSS-12 metallic mine detector

Figure F-2. AN/PSS-12 packed components

Figure F-3. Electronic unit

Figure F-4. Battery installation

Figure F-5. Sensitivity check

Figure F-6. X-pattern sweeping movement

Tables

Table 2-1. Echelons of obstacle control and effect

Table 2-2. Planning factors for the mine dump

Table 2-3. Planning factors for work rates

Table 2-4. Planning factors for standardized row minefields

Table 2-5. Planning factors for scatterable minefields

Table 2-6. Ranges of common weapons

Table 2-7. Personnel requirements for a Class IV/V supply point

Table 2-8. Class IV/V haul capacity

Table 3-1. Characteristics of AP SCATMINEs

Table 3-2. Characteristics of AT SCATMINEs

Table 3-3. SD windows

Table 3-4. Emplacement authority

Table 3-5. Coordination responsibilities

Table 3-6. RAAM and ADAM minefield density and size

Table 3-7. Flipper minefield data

Table 3-8. Marking scatterable minefields

Table 3-9. Safety and fragment hazard zones

Table 4-1. Hornet minimum emplacement distances

Table 5-1. Characteristics of AT mines

Table 5-2. Characteristics of AP mines

Table 5-3. Sympathetic detonation chart

Table 7-1. Platoon organization and equipment

Table 7-2. Sample mines tally sheet

Table 8-1. Minefield/munition field obstacle numbering system

Table 8-2. Abbreviations for obstacle types

Table 9-1. Lane widths

Table 10-1. Lane marking

Table 10-2. Guidelines for lane-marking devices

Table 11-1. Sample task organization for a route clearance

Table 11-2. Personnel and equipment requirements for a sweep team

Table 11-3. Sample task organization for an area clearance

Table 13-1. Tactical reports

Table 13-2. Clearing equipment

Table C-1. Normal parameters for threat-style minefields

Table D-l. Air Volcano capabilities and limitations

Table D-2. Air Volcano minefield data

Table D-3. Planning process (H-hour sequence)

Table D-4. Air Volcano dispensing times based on air speed

Table E-1. Mine color-coding system

Table F-1. Risk-assessment criteria

Table F-2. Sample risk assessment

Table G-1. Mounted breaching assets versus threat obstacles

Table G-2. Dismounted breaching assets versus threat obstacles

Table G-3. Foreign track-width AT mines

Table G-4. Foreign full-width AT mines

Table G-5. Foreign side-attack AT mines

Table G-6. Foreign pressure-fused AP mines

Table G-7. Foreign trip-wire/break-wire-fused AP mines

Table G-8. Foreign emplaced minefields

Table G-9. Foreign mine delivery systems

Table H-1. Metric conversion chart



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