COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT
"Without supplies neither a general nor a soldier is good for anything." Clearchus of Sparta, 401 BC
Combat service support (CSS) is the assistance provided to sustain combat forces, primarily in the fields of administrative/logistics. The mission of the CSS system is to sustain the combat power of the cavalry on a continuous basis as far forward as possible. The sole measurement of successful sustainment is the generation of combat power at the decisive time and place. The CSS system facilitates the commander's ability to generate combat power and allows freedom to maneuver.
PART I. Combat Service Support SystemSection I. Fundamentals
Section II. Planning
Section III. Organization
Section IV. Squadron and Troop Operations
PART II. Combat Service Support for the Armored Cavalry Regiment
Section I. Corps Support
Section II. Organization
Section III. Supply
Section IV. Transportation
Section V. Maintenance
Section VI. Field Services
Section VII. Personnel Support
Section VIII. Combat Health Support
Section IX. Reconstitution
PART III. Combat Service Support for Division CavalrySection I. Division Support
Section II. Organization
Section III. Supply and Transportation
Section IV. Maintenance
Section V. Field Services
Section VI. Personnel Support
Section VII. Combat Health Support
Section VIII. Reconstitution
PART I. COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT SYSTEM
Section I. Fundamentals
The CSS system will be challenged to sustain cavalry in fast-paced, wide-ranging operations. Modern battle will be characterized by consumption of supplies at higher rates than any warfare in history. All resupply and services must be planned to support the cavalry in spite of nonlinear battlefields, rapid transition from one mission to another, and extended lines of support. Logistics must be planned in advance and aggressively pushed forward to the troops without the delay imposed by reacting to requests. Coordination with CSS staffs must be constant to maintain the flow of support throughout extended operations and changing support relationships. Support systems for ground and air support must be streamlined and brought into the same channel as much as possible.
TACTICAL CSS FUNCTIONS
Tactical CSS involves six essential functions: manning, arming, fueling, fixing, moving, and sustaining soldiers and their systems.
Manning involves the personnel support activities that ensure the commander has the personnel required to accomplish the mission. It involves the management of personnel readiness, replacements, and casualties. Personnel managers coordinate with materiel and movement managers and with medical and mortuary affairs systems to ensure the right people are where they need to be at the right time.
During intense combat, arming the cavalry is a critical, demanding, and time-sensitive logistics function. Cavalry forces use a wide variety of sophisticated weapon systems that consume high tonnages of ammunition during combat. The arming system must be able to meet these needs through integration of supply, transportation, and maintenance functions. The system must be flexible enough to provide a surge capability to meet the high requirements of combat.
Fueling is the provision of fuels and lubricants to the cavalry. Like arming, fueling the force is demanding as high consumption rates for aircraft and armored vehicles will place a great demand on the system to keep them running over the extended distances that cavalry operates. All operations depend on movement of personnel, equipment, and supplies as well as the operation of equipment. Such activities are possible if logisticians are able to accurately forecast and effectively provide the fuel to meet these needs when required. Measures to reduce the variety of required fuels greatly reduce the complexity of fueling the force.
Fixing the force is a vital component of ensuring maximum availability of scarce equipment to the commander. Fixing entails maintaining, recovering, repairing, evacuating, and replacing the combat equipment of the cavalry. Preventive maintenance checks and services (PMCS) by operators are fundamental to sustaining equipment readiness and reducing needless downtime. Prompt recovery and repair by organizational maintenance elements keep systems in the cavalry and reduce turnaround time. Battle damage assessment, evacuation, and replacement of nonrepairable equipment keep the cavalry effort focused within its capabilities and recoverable equipment in the support system. Managing repair parts is a critical part of fixing.
Moving is inherent in the operations of all cavalry elements. Moving the force specifically relates to the planning and execution of the movement of soldiers, equipment, and supplies to and from the cavalry. It includes movement within the cavalry unit as well as to and from the support echelons. Transportation assets and the road networks they use are managed with maximum efficiency. Every support vehicle should carry something when moving either forward or to the rear.
Sustaining soldiers and their systems involves the provision of a wide range of services and supplies. Quality of life for the soldier is a command responsibility. It has a considerable effect on the soldier's readiness and willingness to fight. It is associated with all the services that directly ease his personal concerns. These include personnel service, combat health, field service, and general supply support. Quality of life also depends on the knowledge that a soldier's family is receiving care. Soldier sustainment involves the following systems:
- Personnel services support enhances soldier performance by providing services that bolster his morale and his sense of well-being. Specific functions include personnel services, religious support, legal service support, finance services, and resource management.
- Combat health support (CHS) provides a continuum of health care from all locations throughout a theater to the CONUS base.
- Field service support consists of a variety of capabilities designed to provide essential services and enhance a soldier's quality of life during operations. It includes food preparation, water purification, mortuary affairs support, airdrop support, laundry and shower services, and clothing and light textile repair.
General supply support refers to supply of subsistence,
clothing, water, barrier material, and major end items.
FM 100-5 and FM 100-10 discuss these functions in detail.
"What I want to avoid is that my supplies should command me."
Comte de Guibert, 1700
Sustainment enables the cavalry commander to accomplish the wide range of tasks he may be assigned. The logistics tail must not needlessly inhibit the operations of the cavalry. To meet this challenge, CSS leaders are guided by five imperatives: anticipation, integration, continuity, responsiveness, and improvisation.
CSS leaders must not only support the ongoing operation but anticipate future events and requirements. The S4 must anticipate the needs of the unit as an operation is occurring, coordinate to push support forward, keep the commander abreast of CSS status and capabilities, and keep the support echelons informed of requirements. If the CSS system becomes reactive, support will always be too late. The S4 must immediately begin planning when he receives the warning order and FRAGOs. He must determine support requirements, coordinate changes to support relationships, and alert the supporting units to new trains positions to maintain the flow of support.
Commanders and staffs must integrate CSS into the planning process. At troop level the commander and the XO do this. At squadron level the S4 has staff responsibility and works with the squadron commander, XO, S3, and HHT commander. At regimental level the S4 has staff responsibility and works with the regimental commander, XO, S3, and support squadron commander. A plan that cannot be supported logistically must be changed. CSS leaders must identify sustainment problems during the estimate process and before the operation starts.
Sustainment efforts are continuous. An operation should not be stopped or lose momentum because the CSS system cannot maintain the support effort. Continuous support will be challenged by changing support relationships, operating over wide ranges, and seizing tactical opportunities.
Responsiveness is the ability to meet changing or unforeseen requirements on short notice. The CSS system must be as agile as the maneuver system to allow the commander to successfully seize opportunities, exploit tactical success, or meet an enemy initiative.
Improvising is essential as CSS leaders seek to solve significant, often unanticipated problems. These problems may be caused by enemy action against the support system, mass casualties and destruction of maneuver assets, environmental conditions of the area of operations, or disruptions of command and control. Normal operating procedures may be suspended and extraordinary measures taken to overcome the problem. Agility, initiative, and ingenuity on the part of CSS leaders are essential.
These imperatives should be encompassed in SOPs as they establish the focus for organization and operations of the CSS system. FM 100-5 and FM 100-10 provide background on these imperatives.
Section II. Planning
CSS planning is the primary responsibility of the regiment and squadron S4s and the troop XO. It is fully integrated into all operations planning. The concept of operations must be synchronized with logistics support. CSS planning is continuous and concurrent with ongoing support execution, and is conducted to ensure support during all phases of an operation. The CSS plan is as detailed as time permits. The SOP should be the basis for squadron CSS operations with planning conducted to determine specific requirements and to prepare for contingencies. Squadron and troop orders should address only specific support matters for the operation and any deviations from SOP.
To provide effective support, CSS planners and operators must understand the mission statement, intent, and concept of the operation. To predict support requirements, CSS planners must determine the following:
- What type of support is required.
- What quantities of support are required.
- The priority of support, by type and unit.
With these support requirements determined, CSS planners assess the following information:
- What CSS resources are available (organic and supporting).
- Where the CSS resources are.
- When CSS resources can be made available to the squadron and troop.
- How they can be made available.
With this information, the planners develop the support plans for the operation. Several planning tools are available. The logistics estimate described in FM 101-5 is the formal, detailed process of CSS planning. It is used when time is available. Normally, logistics estimates at the regimental level are in note form. Frequently at squadron level and normally at troop level, CSS planning is more informal. It is normally formulated in terms of the following considerations:
- What the current and projected unit status of maintenance, supply, and transportation is.
- What quantities and types of logistics are needed to support the operation.
- How it will be transported to where it is needed.
- When it must be on hand.
- What external support is needed.
- What displacement of CSS assets is required.
- How requirements can be met.
- What host-nation support is available.
- What the shortfalls and impact on the operation are.What courses of action are supportable in priority.
- What the availability of CHS assets is, to include medical evacuation and treatment.
The information to address many of these considerations should be readily available to CSS planners to facilitate rapid planning. CSS operators maintain status charts and books, receive updated status reports when a warning order is issued, use established planning factors and data tailored for their unit, and use the procedures and organizations explained in the SOP. The OPLOG planner contains detailed planning data for combat operations. This data is supplemented by actual operational experience.
Squadrons and troops frequently use the "push" concept of resupply. Under this concept, standard loads of supply are brought forward to troops or platoons unless a specific request is made otherwise. Thus, reports and requests are used for changes in situation, and not merely for periodic repetition of numerical data.
SUPPORTING RECONNAISSANCE OPERATIONS
Maintaining the momentum of the operation is the overriding consideration in supporting reconnaissance. Certain general considerations guide planning and preparation. These considerations also apply to offensive security missions and offensive operations when conducted as an economy of force. The emphasis on any particular consideration varies with the mission assigned. Emphasis, priorities, and requirements may also shift as the operation is underway. The availability of adequate supplies and transportation to sustain the operation becomes more critical as the operation progresses. Main supply routes lengthen, communications are strained, and requirements for repair and replacement of weapon systems increase.
Planning considerations in support of reconnaissance are listed below.
- Echelon squadron trains. Combat trains remain mobile.
- Position a portion of each essential CSS asset, such as ammunition, POL, and maintenance in the combat trains.
- Ensure basic loads remain replenished.
- Plan for an increased consumption of POL. main supply route for further recovery by squadron assets.
- Use push packages of preplanned and preconfigured essential logistics items.
- Plan for increased vehicular maintenance, especially when operating over rough terrain.
- Use maintenance support teams well forward.
- Request unit distribution at forward locations.
- If time is short, use supporting unit vehicles to rearm and refuel combat vehicles in assembly areas so that squadron cargo and fuel trucks are fully loaded at the start of the operation.
- Request additional CSS assets from division or the regimental support squadron to support attachments or extended operations.Plan use of airlift and airdrop for resupply. a corresponding decrease of food-service prepared meals.
- Use captured enemy supplies and equipment, particularly support vehicles and POL. POL should first be tested for contamination.
- Vehicles must be well marked to prevent misidentification and engagement by friendly units.
- Test natural water sources before using.
- Suspend most field service functions.
- Select supply routes, logistics release points, and subsequent trains locations for the entire operation. Plan alternate routes and means.
- Plan and coordinate EPW operations. Anticipate greater numbers of EPWs.
- Plan for increased casualties, use of patient collecting points and ambulance exchange points, use of corps aeromedical evacuation resources, increased combat health logistics (Class VIII supplies and equipment) requirements, augmentation of medical treatment elements, and increased mortuary affairs.
- Upload logistics required for the operation in advance as much as possible.
- Plan for increasing distances and longer turn-around times for main supply route operations.
- Do not compromise the operation with CSS preparations.
SUPPORTING SECURITY OPERATIONS
Defensive-oriented security missions and defensive missions assigned as economy of force have similar general planning considerations. These missions tend to be dynamic in nature, involving substantial maneuver. As they become more dynamic, certain planning considerations for reconnaissance apply. The most important consideration for security operations is best use of available preparation time and front-loading of the CSS effort. As with reconnaissance, emphasis on any particular consideration varies with the mission assigned and shifts during mission execution. Planning considerations include the following actions:
- Plan for increased use of Class IV and Class V.
- Pre-position limited amounts of ammunition, POL, and barrier material in centrally located forward positions.
- Pre-position ammunition and other critical supplies on subsequent positions in depth.
- Request additional CSS support from division or the regimental support squadron for attachments.
- Consider the additional transportation requirements for movement of Class IV and pre-positioned stockpiles.
- Use push packages of critical supplies on a scheduled basis. Continue resupply until the using unit requests otherwise.
- Resupply during limited visibility to reduce the chance of enemy interference.
- Prepare to conduct emergency resupply on short notice well forward during lulls in the battle or as required.
- Plan to compensate for lost CSS capability.
- Use maintenance support teams well forward in the combat trains and at the UMCP.
- Echelon CSS assets in depth. Plan displacement of these assets so uninterrupted support continues.
- As missions become more dynamic in execution, increase the mobility of forward support assets to maintain pace with the unit.
- Select main supply routes that do not interfere with movement of units or a reserve force. Plan alternate routes and means.
- Plan mobility operations to maintain main supply routes.
- Plan displacement of support assets and supplies early to keep routes open and preclude unnecessary interference with maneuver units. Nonessential CSS assets should move as early as possible.
- Limit the forward flow of supplies to only those essential for the operation.
- Plan to destroy supplies and equipment (except medical) that cannot be evacuated.
- Plan alternate means of evacuation for casualties.
- Emphasize recovery and evacuation of equipment over forward repair to preclude loss to the enemy. Use all available noncombat vehicles to tow disabled vehicles.
CSS is never in reserve. Support is continuous during preparations before an operation begins, during the operation, and afterwards as the cavalry reconstitutes or prepares for another mission. Operator and organizational maintenance and repair work is done whenever the opportunity exists. Repairing and returning damaged equipment to the fight requires early diagnosis and identification of faults and is done as far forward as possible. Emergency resupply is conducted when needed, but routine resupply is usually conducted at night. Vulnerability and limited cross-country mobility of CSS vehicles dictate the predominant use of road and trail networks.
Continuous CSS operations require careful personnel management to provide sustained effort. Local security, routine details, and operator maintenance all compete for time with CSS operations. Fatigue can quickly degrade the effectiveness of soldiers who must simultaneously provide continuous support to the cavalry and maintain their own equipment. Carefully planned and strictly enforced rest plans help to ensure continuous support.
Section III. OrganizationSUPPORT AREAS
A support area is a designated area in which CSS elements, some staff elements, and other elements locate to support a unit. Trains are located in support areas. Types of support areas include the following:
- Division support area.
- Brigade support area.
- Regimental support area.
- Squadron support area.
The basic CSS tactical organization is the trains. Trains are any grouping of personnel, vehicles, and equipment organic or attached to a unit that provides CSS. Trains are under unit control. They can be employed in two basic configurations: in one location as unit trains, or echeloned into combat and field trains. Regiments normally employ unit trains. Squadrons normally echelon trains into troop combat trains, squadron combat trains, and squadron field trains. Unit trains at the squadron level are appropriate when the squadron is performing rear operations, during reconstitution, and during major movements.
Combat trains provide the CSS required for immediate response to the needs of forward tactical elements of the squadron. Combat trains provide immediate recovery, maintenance, medical, and emergency resupply. They are normally located well forward and remain mobile.
Field trains are the CSS elements not required to respond immediately. Field trains include those assets not forward with the combat trains and higher echelon support teams. They also facilitate the movement of service support forward and rearward.
UNIT MAINTENANCE COLLECTING POINT
Squadrons normally organize a UMCP out of maintenance assets in the combat trains. The UMCP becomes the focal point of ground systems maintenance support. It is normally collocated with or positioned in the immediate vicinity of the squadron combat trains. The UMCP is the place where the troop trains recover damaged equipment. The squadron maintenance officer devises the exact composition of the UMCP based on METT-T.
FORWARD ARMING AND REFUELING POINT
Squadrons with aviation troops designate FARPs. These are temporary facilities that provide fuel and ammunition to helicopters during combat and are located closer to the area of operations than the squadron support area. FM 1-104 describes FARP operations in detail.
MAIN SUPPLY ROUTE
Regiments and squadrons designate a main supply route (MSR) to provide a link between trains. The regiment normally designates one MSR to each squadron field trains. Squadrons normally designate one MSR from the field trains forward to a logistics release point. Additional release points may be designated along the MSR to facilitate efficient transfer of resupply elements.
All CSS facilities have similar siting requirements, to include-
- Cover and concealment.
- Room for dispersion.
- Level, firm ground to support vehicle traffic and CSS operations.
- Suitable helicopter landing site.
- Good road or trail networks.
- Good routes in and out of the area.
- Access to lateral routes.
- Positioned along or good access to the main supply route.
Section IV. Squadron and Troop OperationsThe tactical organization of CSS is tailored to the mission, but adheres to fundamental organizational tenets. CSS organization and operations are largely suitable for inclusion in squadron and troop SOPs. Standard methods of organizing the effort and accomplishing CSS allow planning to focus on the requirements of the current situation and facilitate execution by dispersed support elements.
COMMAND AND CONTROL
The environment of cavalry squadron logistics is very different from the environment of other maneuver units. This environment is characterized by longer distances, more dispersion, and fluid situations. Because of this, staff planners must be careful not to use task force or brigade planning factors when computing logistics requirements for cavalry.
Cavalry logistics often require more coordination than other units' logistics. Cavalry units have significantly longer lines of communication and wider frontages. Its units have two separate channels for support of combat vehicles and aircraft. Cavalry units sometimes have no associated direct support element; for instance, division cavalry squadrons may not have a dedicated support element from the division support command. All these factors result in a requirement for cavalry units to conduct a great deal of coordination for support.
Because the cavalry operates over larger frontages with longer lines of communication, the administrative/logistics lines of communications must reach long distances. Cavalry squadrons and regiments must be fully supported by the area common user (ACU) network and be able to send data traffic by radio, if necessary.
Cavalry logistics often require more planning and more detailed SOPs than other units' logistics. Cavalry units receive new missions more often with less transition time than other units. Its units are required to move over longer distances faster than others. Because the prevailing concept of support for cavalry is often one of area support, cavalry units must adapt to support relationships that change frequently.
Cavalry logistics are normally more vulnerable than logistics of other maneuver units. This is because cavalry combat units are often more dispersed and the battle is much more fluid.
Command and control of cavalry logistics must be tailored to the theater of war, intensity, abilities of key personnel, and the personality of the commander. This subsection will illustrate three methods of command and control of cavalry logistics at squadron level (see Figures 10-1 through 10-3).
Figure 10-1. Cavalry logistics command and control (method one).
Figure 10-2. Cavalry logistics command and control (method two).
Using method one, the S4 devotes all his efforts to staff duties. By collocating the combat trains command post (CTCP) with the main command post, operations and logistics planning are done face to face and simultaneously. During the battle, the operations staff and logistics staff have immediate access to the tactical and logistical situation.
The HHT commander operates the same as the regimental support squadron commander, but on a smaller scale. He is in charge of all logistics execution. He "commands" all logistics executors, such as the squadron maintenance officer, physician's assistant, and support platoon leader. He is based in the field trains, but is free to move to critical points for logistics execution.
The squadron maintenance officer is in charge of the combat trains and is assisted by the physician's assistant. The HHT XO is in charge of the field trains. The HHT first sergeant supports HHT elements, such as the main and tactical command posts, combat trains, and field trains. The signal officer, S1, or assistant S3 performs duties as the HHT commandant.
Using method two, the S4 is in charge of all logistics activities. He performs all planning functions and is also responsible for all execution. He directs the logistics executors. He runs the field trains assisted by his section and the S1. He is based in the field trains, but moves to the critical points for logistics execution. The CTCP is positioned in the field trains, providing good communications with higher and supporting logistics headquarters and a good alternate main command post.
The HHT commander and his staff devote their full attention to supporting the main and tactical command posts, combat trains, and field trains. The HHT commander is the headquarters commandant for the main command post and is based there.
The squadron maintenance officer is in charge of the combat trains and is assisted by the physician's assistant.
Using method three, the S4, in conjunction with the S1, is responsible for all logistics planning and execution. He directs the activities of the HHT commander, squadron maintenance officer, physician's assistant, and support platoon leader in executing logistics. He also runs the squadron combat trains. He positions himself with the CTCP. This provides good access to the logistics release points and the UMCP as well as good communications with subordinate units.
The HHT commander runs the field trains and is positioned there. The support platoon leader is controlled by the HHT commander when in the field trains and works for the S4 at all other times. The HHT XO and first sergeant support the main and tactical command posts, the combat trains, and the field trains. The HHT XO or the signal officer is the headquarters commandant.
Figure 10-3. Cavalry logistics command and control (method three).
Logistics Command and Control Facilities
CSS command and control facilities are the field trains command post and the CTCP. The CTCP may be located at the TOC, combat trains, field trains, or unit trains. It is the primary service support planning center. When located at a trains site, the CTCP serves as the trains element command post. All CSS operators must provide reports and support requests to the CTCP as established in unit SOP. The field trains command post controls all assets in the field trains. The CTCP controls combat trains operations, including emergency resupply.
At troop level, there is normally no dedicated service support radio net. Logistical reports and requests for support are sent on the troop command net to the command post. The first sergeant eavesdrops, coordinates with the XO as necessary, and coordinates with the squadron CTCP. The troop command post maintains CSS status and coordinates with the CTCP when the first sergeant is preoccupied. The first sergeant conducts detailed coordination with platoon sergeants on platoon nets or face to face when required to keep the command net clear. At squadron level, the CTCP operates the administrative/logistics net. This net is used for squadron service support operations. Troop first sergeants and XOs use the net to submit reports and requests for support. All service support leaders and sites also operate on the net to respond to requests and to coordinate CSS execution. The administrative/logistics net is used to control movement of support assets during displacement and movement of LOGPACs until turned over to first sergeants at logistics release points. Chapter 2 discusses these facilities and communications nets in greater detail.
SOPs should establish report formats, reporting times, and brevity codes to keep logistics nets manageable. Units send logistics reports in two channels. Detailed information is sent to the supporting logistics element while a summarized status in each general category is given to the higher tactical command post, using a brevity code.
The higher unit begins an operation with numerical logistical data. Battle and other loss reports update the original data. The S4 ensures that lengthy, repetitive reports are minimized and that large quantities of numerical data are required only when no other method of updating original data is available. Routine reports should be limited to a summary of those items changing during the reporting period. All reports can be delivered by messenger. Emergency reports are submitted as necessary. Reports should also function as requests when possible.
Commanders must know the logistical status of their maneuver units at all times. Regimental and squadron command posts normally track status of subordinate units by a code, allowing the commander to quickly assess the combat capability of the unit (see Figure 10-4).
Figure 10-4. Combat service support reports.
The troop organizes its organic and attached CSS into combat and field trains. The combat trains include recovery, organizational maintenance teams, and medical aid and evacuation team. The first sergeant, assisted by the maintenance sergeant, controls the movement, positioning, and operations of the combat trains. The combat trains, to include the first sergeant, should consist of vehicles armored similarly to the troop combat elements to provide protection in forward areas. During operations, the first sergeant directs the efforts of combat medic teams and maintenance teams, supervises LOGPAC operations, coordinates LOGPAC requirements, and directs the evacuation of casualties and equipment. He does not personally guide all these assets around the battlefield. His focus must remain forward on the battlefield, supervising logistic operations during the battle. Each team leader must know the troop situation and location of squadron assets and be capable of navigating themselves to accomplish any task the first sergeant assigns.
The troop field trains consist of supply, some maintenance, and maintenance prescribed load list (PLL). They normally collocate with the squadron field trains and are OPCON to the field trains OIC in the trains area. The supply sergeant manages the troop personnel and vehicles in the field trains and relays support requests from the first sergeant to the appropriate squadron element in the field trains. He normally assembles and leads the troop LOGPAC forward from the field trains to the logistics release point and, in most cases, from the logistics release point to the troop resupply site.
Combat trains consist of the elements below.
- Combat trains command post.
- Aid station.
- Unit maintenance collecting point.
- Class III and Class V emergency resupply.
The UMCP consists of the majority of the squadron maintenance platoon providing recovery, automotive maintenance, and weapon system maintenance. Some PLL is forward to facilitate repairs. A direct support maintenance support team is also present to assist and to provide battle damage assessment.
The squadron field trains may form a base to be integrated into a regimental or brigade support area base cluster. The field trains contain the following:
- Field trains command post.
- Support platoon base.
- Part of squadron maintenance platoon, normally to perform wheeled vehicle or extended tracked vehicle maintenance.
- Part of the direct support maintenance support teams.
- Slice logistics elements (forward logistics elements [FLE]).
- Squadron PAC.
- Field mess teams.
- Troop field trains.
A sample squadron service support layout is shown in Figure 10-5.
Figure 10-5. Squadron service support layout.
LOGISTICS PACKAGE OPERATIONS
The most efficient resupply of forward squadron units is accomplished by LOGPAC. LOGPACs are organized in the field trains by the field trains OIC and support platoon leader. The S4 plans and coordinates the operation to ensure that LOGPACs contain requested or required supplies. Additionally, the S4 determines which logistics release point (LRP) best supports the mission and notifies all units. LOGPACs are normally organized at least once a day for routine resupply. Troop and company team supply sergeants control the LOGPAC for their unit. A habitual LOGPAC organization facilitates operations and allows direct coordination by the supply sergeant as necessary. LOGPACs are normally organized for the units below.
- Each ground troop and attached company team.
- Main command post (includes command group and
- tactical command post).
- Forward FARP.
- Combat trains, including emergency resupply vehicles.
Attached combat support units may have a separate LOGPAC if assets are provided by the parent unit on attachment. If not, they resupply from another LOGPAC. Prior coordination by the S4 is necessary to ensure the designated LOGPAC is augmented with additional assets to handle the increased requirements. The S4 ensures no organic or attached unit is left unsupported. The S4 monitors the service support provided by parent units to direct support or OPCON units. The squadron must compensate for breakdowns in support to the extent possible and then make coordination to correct the problem.
The support platoon leader remains prepared to organize unscheduled LOGPACs to provide emergency or supplementary resupply. This LOGPAC may be for a specific unit or to replenish the emergency stocks held in the combat trains.
LOGPACs normally consist of the following:
- Troop or company team supply truck. The supply sergeant controls this vehicle. The supply truck contains the Class I rations for the unit, normally for the next 24-hour period. The truck also brings the unit water trailer. Additionally, the supply sergeant brings replacement soldiers, incoming mail, Class II and VI supplies requested by the first sergeant, and Class IX parts or other maintenance items requested by the maintenance sergeant.
- POL trucks. Bulk fuel and packaged POL products are on these vehicles.
- Ammunition trucks. These vehicles contain a mix of Class V for the unit's weapons. Demolitions and mines are also included. The squadron SOP normally establishes a standard LOGPAC load of munitions. The S4 uses reports by unit first sergeants or other users to adjust the standard loads.
- Additional trucks as necessary to carry supplies or replacement soldiers.
Once LOGPACs are formed, the support platoon leader moves them forward as a march unit to the LRP. At the LRP, troop first sergeants or their representatives assume control of the LOGPAC. Alternatively, the supply sergeant leads the LOGPAC to a site coordinated previously with the first sergeant. The logistics commander (S4 or HHT commander) or a representative from the CTCP should be present at the LRP to monitor the operation, coordinate with unit first sergeants and support platoon leader, receive hardcopy logistics reports, and deliver CSS situation updates. The LRP should be a smooth transition of control without delay. LOGPACs for the main command post and combat trains may be met by the HHT first sergeant either at an LRP or in the field trains. LOGPACs for FARPs may be met by an ACT first sergeant coordinating forward support. The S4 ensures all units or elements with a designated LOGPAC have been notified. Upon completion of resupply operations, units return the LOGPAC to the LRP. They are formed by the support platoon leader or designated representative for movement to the rear and preparation for the next resupply. Units should not delay returning a LOGPAC to the LRP. Supply sergeants must know the location of the field trains and be prepared to guide their LOGPAC to the rear.
Two basic methods of resupply may be used at the unit level. Tailgate issue is used when units are in static positions and the LOGPAC moves from vehicle to vehicle. Little or no movement is required by combat vehicles. The main command post and FARP are normally resupplied by this method. Service station resupply is used during most tactical operations when units are moving or only temporarily halted. Unit elements move to the designated site for resupply. The FARP uses this method to resupply air cavalry troops. The troop XO selects general LOGPAC sites based on the overall situation, but the first sergeant makes the final positioning determination. A good site should provide the following features:
- Cover and concealment.
- Proximity to platoons or elements being resupplied.
- A road or trail network that supports the LOGPAC vehicles and tactical vehicles.
- Room for dispersion.
- Reduction of thermal signatures.
COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT FOR ATTACHMENTS
When a maneuver company team is attached to the squadron, the necessary combat service support is also attached. This slice is established by SOP and should be coordinated in advance. It normally consists of medical, maintenance and recovery, and supply support for Class III, V, and IX. Class I support is coordinated on a case-by-case basis. The CSS slice is attached to the squadron and these assets may be used in the manner that best supports the overall mission. This is particularly true when the attached company is task organized within the squadron. Generally speaking, these assets form the combat trains and LOGPAC for the attached company. When attached, these assets as well as the company should arrive fully uploaded and ready to provide support.
All support elements organize and prepare to defend themselves against air or ground attack. They normally occupy areas that have been secured by maneuver elements of the troop or squadron. The security of the trains at each echelon is the responsibility of the individual in charge of the trains.
The best defense is to avoid detection. Selecting good trains sites, using available cover, concealment, and camouflage all contribute to security. Strict movement and positioning discipline as well as noise and light discipline prevent detection. Observation posts are established to provide local security. Security is established as it is in an assembly area. Small arms, machine guns, and antitank weapons should be available for self-defense.
A perimeter defense is normally planned. Elements in the trains are assigned specific defensive positions or sectors. Mutually supporting positions dominating likely avenues of approach are planned. A reaction force is designated. Combat elements in the trains are integrated into the plan and combat vehicles can be positioned to use their weapon systems, if operational. Fire plans and sector sketches are prepared and plans are rehearsed. An alarm or warning system is established in SOP to rapidly execute the defense plan without further guidance. CSS work and rest plans must account for security requirements.
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