Targets and Target Mechanisms
Full-scale targets are used for tactical and gunnery training on armor and infantry gunnery ranges. They are classified into three major gunnery engagement categories:
- The heavy (H) target designator is for threat targets engaged with the main gun or tube-launched, optically tracked, wire-guided (TOW) missile systems only.
- The medium (M) target designator is for threat tank-like, antitank, and antiaircraft vehicles and personnel carriers. These are normally engaged with selected main gun, TOW, 25-mm, or caliber .50 weapon systems.
- The light (L) target designator is primarily for light infantry vehicles, trucks, antitank guns, and personnel targets engaged with 25-mm, caliber .50, or 7.62-mm weapon systems.
The additional target designator for thermal (T) indicates the recommended placement of thermal panels on the targets. When used as indicated, these panels closely represent the thermal signature of a particular threat vehicle as viewed through thermal sighting systems. Several of these targets have replaced the standard NATO targets.
|FULL-SCALE TARGET DESIGNATORS|
|T-64/T-72 Partial Defilade||H-3||60|
|Truck (U-375) Front||L-1||-|
|Truck (U-375) Flank||L-2||31|
|T-12 Antitank Gun Front||L-5||61|
|ATGM Team||L-6, L-7, L-9||E-type, F-type|
|RPG Team||L-6, L-7, L-9||E-type, F-type|
Table 10-1. Full-scale target designators.
Units can order the thermal target modules in Figure 10-1 via an open contract with the Project Manager for Training Devices (PM TRADE) at the U.S. Naval Training Center, Orlando, FL. The contract number is N61339-82-D-0010. The address is PM TRADE, ATTN: Code 632, U.S. Naval Training Center, Orlando, FL 38213-7100.
All orders must include the part number and quantity of each module required and the part number of the proper harness to connect the modules.
|Note.||A specific contract has not been awarded to supply thermal targets to the U.S. Army.|
Figure 10-1. Thermal target module ordering information.
All measurements in inches are rounded off to the nearest 1/10-inch. Use the chart below to round the decimal fraction to the nearest 1/16 inch for construction purposes.
|FRACTION-TO-DECIMAL CONVERSION CHART|
|1/16 = .0625||5/16 = .3125||9/16 = .5625||13/16 = .8125|
|1/8 = .125||3/8 = .375||5/8 = .625||7/8 = .875|
|3/16 = .1875||7/16 = .4375||11/16 = .6875||15/16 = .935|
|1/4 = .25||1/2 = .50||3/4 = .75||1 = 1.0|
Table 10-2. Fraction-to-decimal conversion chart.
Figure 10-2. H-1 and conversion chart.
Figure 10-3. H-2 and conversion chart.
Figure 10-4. H-3 and conversion chart.
Figure 10-5. H-5 and conversion chart.
Figure 10-6. H-7 and conversion chart.
Figure 10-7. M-1 and conversion chart.
Figure 10-8. M-2 and conversion chart.
Figure 10-9. M-5 and conversion chart.
Figure 10-10. M-6 and conversion chart.
Figure 10-11. M-9 and conversion chart.
Figure 10-12. M-10 and conversion chart.
Figure 10-13. M-11 and conversion chart.
Figure 10-14. L-1 and conversion chart.
Figure 10-15. L-2 and conversion chart.
Figure 10-16. L-3 and conversion chart.
Figure 10-17. L-4 and conversion chart.
Figure 10-18. L-5 and conversion chart.
Figure 10-19. L6 and L7 and conversion charts.
TARGET-HOLDING MECHANISM—TANK GUNNERY
The target-holding mechanism—tank gunnery (THMTG) raises and lowers a full-scale silhouette and indicates when a hit is made. It is portable and designed for use in local or major training areas.
The THMTG consists of a target-lifting device and a remote radio transmitter (RT). The RT sends FM signals to a receiver in the target-lifting device. The signals are translated into logic levels by an electronics unit. These logic levels are used to raise and lower the target silhouette or to operate the optional Hostile Fire Simulator, as selected (see Figure 10-20).
Figure 10-20. Target-holding mechanism.
Hit sensors attached to the target silhouette detect target hits of the following ammunition:
|Caliber .50 or larger, setting 1||Caliber .50 or larger, setting 1|
|20mm or larger, setting 2||20mm or larger, setting 2|
|105mm or larger, setting 3||105mm or larger, setting 3|
|120mm or larger, setting 4||ATGM, setting 4|
|ATGM, setting 5|
A target hit activates the visual hit indicator lamp or optional visual hit smoke scorer and causes the target to fall. The visual hit indicator lamp flashes for 0.5 to 1.5 seconds when actuated. Hit sensor sensitivity can be adjusted to determine the size round the target will accept for a kill and minimize the response to near misses, close shot debris, muzzle blast, or wind effects.
The electronics unit controls the scoring options available for the target-lifting device. The electronics unit reacts to stimulation from the hit sensors.
The remoted-target system (RETS) trains tank crews, mechanized infantry, scout crews, and platoons in tank combat table exercises and antitank and helicopter gunnery.
The RETS is a series of standardized target mechanisms installed on the (digital) multipurpose range complex ([D]MPRC) and (digital) multipurpose training range. The (D)MPRC provides moving target systems, stationary target bunkers, and hard-wire systems for power and control.
Components of the RETS (see Figure 10-20) and their functions are—
- The stationary target elevating mechanism (STEM) raises and lowers vehicular targets.
- The target interface unit (TIU) receives encoded target control data from the range control system and decodes it into control signals.
- The visual flash simulator (VFS) produces the steel-on-steel flash of a target hit.
- The armor moving target carrier (AMTC) simulates a tank moving from one concealed position to another.
- The M31A1 target mechanism is a motor-driven device used in automatic or semiautomatic rifle fire training.
- The target kill simulator (TKS) gives the effect of a vehicle burning after a target kill.
- The power distribution and control unit (PDCU) provides the power and control signals for the TKS, VFS, and AMTC.
- The interconnecting box (high/low power) serves as an interface for the RETS range and each target.
- The sensing and scoring subsystem detects a variety caliber of rounds and relays target hit data to the control system.
- The control console can be programmed to cause all target mechanisms and accessories to react or operate on a predetermined basis. The control console also provides a hard copy (printout) of exercise sequencing and results.
Figure 10-21. Remoted-target system.
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