Find a Security Clearance Job!

Military

APPENDIX A

The United Nations

A new chapter in the history of the

United Nations has begun.

                                                Boutros Boutros-Ghali
                                                 UN Secretary General

The Peacekeepers' Handbook and other references explain in extensive detail the organization and functions of the UN during peace operations. This appendix does not provide an extensive description of the UN, but rather a general description of its organization and functions, the legal aspects of its operations, extracts of the UN charter, a sample mandate, and TOR.

ORGANIZATION

The UN has, as its primary responsibility, the maintenance of international peace and security. The charter provides the basis for the various elements of the UN in fulfilling this responsibility.

SECURITY COUNCIL

The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is vested with the authority from the UN Charter to investigate any situation or conflict that threatens international peace and security. It usually tasks the secretary general (SYG) to prepare a plan to deal with the crisis and is the approving authority for that plan. The UNSC may either decide to take action or refer the matter to the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) for consideration. The council's decisions are theoretically binding on all member states of the UN.

SECRETARY GENERAL

The UN SYG is responsible to the UNSC for the organization, conduct, and direction of UN peacekeeping operations. The office is, in effect, the commander-in-chief responsible for conducting

Figure A-3. The UN has as its primary responsibility the maintenance of international peace and security. US forces may participate as part of a UN force.

negotiations with the host nations, belligerents, and contributing states; preparing the operational plan; and presenting it to the UNSC for approval.

GENERAL ASSEMBLY

The UNGA may consider any matter referred to it by the UNSC or may consider any other situation or conflict it feels impairs the general welfare or friendly relations among nations. The recommendations of the UNGA are not binding on the SYG, the UNSC, or its own members. Its powers in conflict resolution are not well-defined.

MILITARY STAFF COMMITTEE

The MSC was originally designed to advise and assist the UNSC and the SYG on matters of military concern. It is composed of the chiefs of staff of the permanent representatives of the UNSC or their representatives. Although envisioned as an international joint staff, to plan, organize, and command UN peacekeeping operations, various factors precluded its development in that direction. From time to time, a military advisor or assistant has been appointed to advise and assist the SYG on military matters.

SECRETARIAT

The UN Secretariat is headed by the SYG and is the permanent organization responsible for the establishment, coordination, and administration of peacekeeping operations. Several secretariat departments headed by under secretary generals (USYGs) are involved in peace operations and may interface directly with the SYG's special representative to a specific peace operation. See Figure A-1.

The USYGs are responsible to the SYG for policy concerns with respect to peace operations. The Department of Peacekeeping Operations is headed by a USYG who is responsible to the SYG for the day-to-day operational matters affecting peace operations. Under the USYG for Peacekeeping is the military advisor to the SYG as well as the Director, Field Administration and Logistics Division, who is responsible for logistical support of peace operations. See Figure A-2.

Figure A-1. United Nations Secretariat

The Department of Administration and Management is headed by a USYG who is responsible to the SYG for the administration and financial support of peacekeeping operations.

The Department of Humanitarian Affairs is headed by a USYG who may also provide guidance to the SYG's special representative with respect to the humanitarian aspects of a specific peace operation and the peace operation's interface with PVOs and NGOs.

The Department of Political Affairs is the political arm of the SYG in matters relating to the maintenance of international peace and security and the control and resolution of conflicts within states. As such, it advises on policy in those areas and is responsible for political research and analysis. It also has executive responsibilities in the fields of preventive diplomacy and peacemaking, including negotiations and other diplomatic activities. All these functions and responsibilities as they relate to field operations are prepared and carried out by the department under the overall direction of the SYG.

The Department of Peacekeeping Operations is the operational arm of the SYG for the day-today management of peacekeeping operations. In this capacity, the department acts as the main channel of communication between United Nations headquarters and the field. However, the Department of Political Affairs (on strictly political matters), the Department of Humanitarian Affairs (on humanitarian policy matters), and the Department of Administration and Management are also in regular contact with the field (see Figure A-2).

Figure A-2. Department of Peacekeeping Operations

The Department of Humanitarian Affairs is responsible for the coordination of humanitarian operations, particularly for making the necessary arrangements for the timely and effective delivery of assistance by United Nations relief organizations. As the focal point of the SYG for Humanitarian Assistance, its responsibilities also include early warning and negotiations for access to populations in need. In most recent complex operations, the department has appointed a field-based humanitarian coordinator who works under the authority of the special representative of the secretary general (SRSG) and is in direct contact with the Department of Humanitarian Affairs. In some cases, the humanitarian coordinator is with an agency or program, while in others, he is independent.

FIELD ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS DIVISION

Each UN peace operation will have a UN official on staff. This official commands the deployed elements of the FALD and is responsible for all matters related to the operation. The official is usually a career UN civil servant. The FALD, in coordination with selected military staff officers, is also responsible for negotiating the SOFA, receiving and dispatching UN personnel, and establishing administrative and logistic standing operating procedures (SOPs). See Figure A-2.

PLANNING PROCESS

While no formal planning process exists for UN peacekeeping operations, the planning unit in the Department of Peacekeeping Operations is responsible for developing plans for approved operations. Each operation is unique and individually authorized, planned, and controlled. Instead of a universal checklist, a general pattern, based on past experience, is used for UN planning. The planning process of other international or regional organizations should parallel this sequence.

SITUATION ANALYSIS

At the outbreak of a conflict, the UNSC or UNGA should perceive a threat to international peace and security. The situation may be debated, and if a permanent member of the UNSC does not use its veto, a resolution may be passed.

SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTIONS

A UNSC resolution usually calls for a cease-fire or other measures designed to resolve conflict and may appoint a special representative, ambassador, or mediator to be sent to the conflict area to report on the crisis. The resolution may require the SYG to prepare a plan to deal with the conflict by creating a peace operation. The SYG is then responsible for informal negotiations and the preparation of a mandate. Mandates are typically for a 6-month period and must be renewed by the UNSC twice per year.

INFORMAL PREPARATIONS

Based on the direction the SYG receives from the UNSC, informal negotiations commence. This involves negotiations with member states to establish the tentative contributions (personnel, financial, logistical) that can be provided to a UN force. The requirements, balanced with the scale of contribution, determine the general composition and organization of the force. The SYG approaches the belligerent parties and drafts a mutually acceptable and enforceable mandate that is also acceptable to contributing members. The final product of these negotiations should be a viable mandate. The role, mission, and tasks of the operation derive from this mandate.

MANDATE

The SYG submits a plan for the peacekeeping operation and a proposed mandate for approval by the UNSC. If the council approves the plan and the mandate, the SYG commences formal preparations. The mandate provides the international legal authority for the operation. A second and equally important document is the budget plan that must be accepted to ensure that the operation can be funded.

FORMAL PREPARATIONS

With the approval of the mandate and the budget, the SYG ensures negotiations commence with the belligerent parties and the host nation for preparation of the SOFA. The SYG selects the key appointments for the force:

  • The force commander--who is a military officer from a nation not involved in the conflict

  • The UN political advisor--often called the SRSG--who is normally a career diplomat.

These appointments are usually agreed to by the belligerent parties in peacekeeping operations prior to the formal announcement to the media. Either the force commander or the SRSG may be appointed as head of mission.

The SYG verbally requests military forces and equipment from the contributing members. The requests at this stage are still general in nature, allowing some flexibility to contributing members until the exact scale of the force and international composition is determined. Once the UN has an acceptable force composition, it issues formal requests for troops and equipment services in the form of verbal notes or LOAs.

PARTICIPATING MEMBER-STATE PREPARATIONS

Participating member states negotiate the extent of their contribution to the operation with the UN and the host nation. Results will be incorporated into memorandums of understanding to secure those services or support from the host nation that are not provided by the UN. It is not unusual for the UN to place limits on national contributions due to nonmilitary factors such as financial limitations. The UN should finalize the SOFA or SOMA with the host nation before the force deploys. Until the SOFA or SOMA is finalized, soldiers are subject to the local laws or granted diplomatic status.

RECEPTION AND SERVICE SUPPORT

FALD usually deploys an advance party to establish reception and service support arrangements for the operation. The UN plans, organizes, and directs the deployment of the force to the theater. National contingents conduct training and prepare administrative materials required for deployment to the operation. National reconnaissance may not be allowed prior to deployment.

END SURVEY

The key action at the start of operations with the UN is the conduct of the end survey. The UN command performs the end survey after the national force arrives. The survey is the UN military staff identification of equipment, supplies, and personnel that the member country has deployed in support of the mission. Based on that survey, the UN command can identify member nation capabilities and items it must support or reimburse for costs associated with operational use. The UN normally pays for equipment deployment and the costs to maintain equipment for operational use. The UN normally also pays for personnel rotations twice annually, usually on a six-month basis.

TERMS OF REFERENCE

The TOR (used in Somalia and FYROM) is an important document in UN operations. The TOR is the document developed by DOS with DOD that explains national responsibilities for each nation involved in a UN operation. The TOR is the planning document that impacts force structure, sets the stage upon deployment for the end survey, and provides the mission for the US force deployed for a UN operation. The TOR also addresses resource management and cost reimbursement. Detailed planning at the conception stage of involvement in UN operations during the development of the TOR eases cost impacts on national forces, since planners have already agreed on those subjects with the UN. US participants in the TOR development process are generally DOS and DOD. Force planners working with the UN should understand that if a US force is not tasked in the TOR--and the US deploys one--the UN will not provide resources or reimburse support to that force. See Annex A to this appendix for an example of TOR.

DEPLOYMENT

Deployment is usually a UN responsibility. It may be delegated to nations that possess a self-deployment capability. In the absence of this capability, a third nation such as the US may be used, under UN arrangements, to assist in deployment of national contingents. Upon arrival in the AO, the national contingents are normally placed under OPCON of the force commander.

OPERATIONAL CONTROL

The normal operational chain of command for peacekeeping operations is from the unit commander, to the force commander, to the head of mission; if not to the force commander, to the SYG, who reports to the UNSC. In certain cases, US forces may be placed under OPCON of a foreign commander, but command is exercised only in the US chain to the NCA.

LEGAL ASPECTS

The legal authority under which a UN peace operation is conducted defines the parameters of the operation. The duties, responsibilities, powers, privileges, and immunities of a force and its personnel are laid out in international agreements and other documents. All commanders, observers, and officers in a peacekeeping operation must know the legal authority that regulates their operation. The key legal authority documents are--

  • The mandate.

  • The SOFAs, SOMAs, or other applicable agreements

  • Applicable US directives and regulations.

THE MANDATE

The two types of mandates include United Nations mandates and non-United Nations mandates.

United Nations Mandates

The UNSC or UNGA resolution authorizing and defining a peace operation is referred to as the mandate. The mandate is the authority under which an operation is conducted. It may be subject to periodic renewal. Annex B to this appendix is an example of a UN mandate resolution.

The mandate is usually prepared in a climate of crisis. Its preparation involves a great deal of diplomatic negotiation and compromise. Political expediency usually takes priority over military operational requirements. The mandate is therefore a document of compromise. However, it must remain acceptable to the belligerent parties involved and the nations providing the peace operation force.

As a general rule, the clearer and more detailed the mandate, the more enforceable it is. Ideally, it should be flexible enough for peace operations forces to have freedom of action and movement. Once agreed upon, it is unlikely the mandate will change. Historically, there has been a general reluctance to reopen negotiations to change a mandate. The mandate usually includes--

  • The role of the peace operation force.

  • The mission of the peace operation organization.

  • The tasks or functions to be performed.

  • The size and organization of the force or mission.

  • The appointment of the commander, any special mediators, and their TOR.

  • The nomination of the office responsible for the supervision of the operation.

  • General arrangements for financial and logistical support.

  • The division of UN and national responsibilities.

  • The time limit of the mandate.

  • The terms or conditions the host nation intends to impose on the presence of the force or mission.

  • Statements of the rights and immunities of force or mission members.

Non-United Nations Mandates

Non-UN mandates usually result from treaties, accords, resolutions, or agreements evolving from other international or regional organizations. The aim of these is the same as a UN mandate, namely to create a peace operation force or mission to resolve a conflict. The contents of a non-UN mandate should be the same as a UN mandate.

STATUS OF FORCES AGREEMENTS OR STATUS OF MISSION AGREEMENTS

The second key document that defines the legal authority and responsibilities of a force and force personnel participation in a peace operation is the SOFA or SOMA. The SOFA or SOMA may be a treaty or a memorandum of understanding. It is an agreement negotiated between the UN and the host countries, which details the rights privileges, immunities, and nature of services to be provided to the force and its personnel, as well as their responsibilities and obligations.

Participating member states provide input to the UN secretariat on details in the SOFA or SOMA, but the secretariat and the host nation may, however, negotiate the agreement. Individual states may negotiate a memorandum of understanding with the host nation concerning specific items not covered in the SOFA or SOMA. SOFAs or SOMAs are rarely amended. Moreover, unlike a mandate, a SOFA or SOMA does not require renewal because it is a standing agreement.

Each SOFA or SOMA is different. Subjects that may be covered include--

  • Control and authority over force areas and premises.

  • Displaying of flags, banners, symbols, and so forth.

  • Wearing of uniforms.

  • Authority to carry weapons.

  • Freedom of movement in the AO.

  • Freedom of peacekeeping action in the AO.

  • Identification of personnel, vehicles, buildings, positions, and so forth.

  • Economic and financial regulations.

  • Use of host nation support such as communications, water, electricity, sewerage, airports, sea ports, and so forth.

  • Immunity from search, seizure, or inspection of force documents, personnel, vehicles, buildings, or areas.

  • Cooperation and liaison channels between the force and local authorities.

  • Employment of civil labor,

  • Claim and dispute settlement.

A key subject is the exercise of civil and criminal jurisdictions. Unless the SOFA or SOMA states otherwise, peace operation forces are subject to local laws, customs, and procedures. Ordinarily, the SOFA or SOMA grants limited immunity from host nation civil and criminal jurisdiction to peace operation forces performing official duties; however, peace operation forces must respect the local laws and customs. Commanders should discuss jurisdictional provisions with their servicing staff judge advocate.

OTHER TREATIES, DIRECTIVES, AND REGULATIONS

In addition to the mandate and SOFA or SOMA, peace operations forces must be familiar with or have a working knowledge of other directives and regulations that further define and provide legal authority for the conduct of their operations.

United Nations Secretary General Directive

The SYG, upon appointing the force or mission commander, issues a formal written directive to him, outlining the TOR. He issues subsequent direction in supplementary directives.

United Nations Regulations

The force commander issues specific force regulations once a force has been established. These regulations cover such subjects as--

  • General provisions such as regulations, definitions, instructions, amendments.

  • International uniforms, insignia, privileges, immunities.

  • Authority of the force commander such as command authority, chain of command, delegation, discipline, military police.

  • General administrative, executive, and financial arrangements such as the authority of the SYG and the force commander, UN headquarters, finance and accounting, personnel, food, accommodations, amenities, transportation, supplies, equipment, communications, maintenance, medical, dental, sanitary, contracts, and public information services.

  • Rights and duties of members of the force such as respect for local law, conduct, and legal protection.

  • Information handling, honors and awards, jurisdiction, customs duties, foreign exchange regulations, identity cards, driving privileges, pay, overseas service allowances, dependents, leave, promotions, and service-related death, injury, or illness.

  • Applicable international conventions such as the observance of international conventions applicable to military personnel.

Force Commander's Directive

The force commander's directive is also referred to as a force SOP or force standing order. Upon receipt of the UN regulations, the force commander prepares more detailed regulations and operating procedures for the force. All key members of the force must understand these procedures, since all operations are conducted in accordance with them.

Each operation is unique. SOPs are designed and issued for each force. The UN has standardized the main subject headings, which are--

  • Command and control (includes force commander's briefing, force administration, headquarters, operational briefings, and contingent briefings).

  • Organization (includes structure and TOR for operations, personnel, administration, logistics, communications, and civilian personnel).

  • Operations (defines the mission and tasks of the force and gives details on the procedures and actions to be taken by the force to accomplish its tasks).

  • Information (details collection, collation, analysis, assessment, and dissemination).

  • Air operations (details aircraft, states of readiness, availability, limitations on flying, flight planning procedures, instructions on night flying, airspace control).

  • Operations economics (details the aim, roles, organizations, and procedures).

  • Communications (details the organization and procedures for force communications).

  • Personnel and logistics (details personnel management administration and services and logistics support).

  • Public information (details UN and force press policy and procedures).

Memoranda of Agreement

MOAs may be reached among the force commander, the other UN peacekeeping force contingents, and the host nation. These MOAs address administrative matters such as use of airports for rotation, national visitors, and so forth.

National Law

Members of peace operation contingents remain subject to applicable national laws, policies, and regulations of their sponsoring nations, including military criminal codes. Ordinarily, the sponsoring nation authority takes the appropriate military discipline and punitive actions--not the UN chain of command. US personnel remain subject to the UCMJ, which is administered by the US contingent commander or other appropriate US authority. US forces also remain subject to applicable domestic laws, policies, and regulations.

Annex A

Terms of Reference for US Forces Somalia, United Nations Operation in Somalia

1. PURPOSE. These terms of reference constitute an agreement between the Commander-in-Chief, US Central Command (USCINCCENT) and the Commander, United Nations Operations in Somalia (UNOSOM II) for the staffing, organization, and operations of US Forces, Somalia (USFORSOM).

2. AUTHORITY. The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) has established UNOSOM II in accordance with UNSC Resolution 814 (1993). The National Command Authorities have approved the participation of US Armed Forces as part of, and in support of UNOSOM II.

3. MISSION. USFORSOM will perform duties as assigned by USCINCCENT and Commander, UNOSOM II pursuant to UNSC Resolution 814 (1993).

4. TIMING. UNOSOM II was established on 26 March 1993 by UNSC Resolution 814 (1993). Administratively, UNOSOM II Force Command Headquarters will be operational in early May 1993. Commander, UNOSOM I Force Command will assume full responsibility for enforcement of UNSC Resolution 814 (1993) on or about 4 May or at a date mutually acceptable to him and the Commander, Unified Task Force (UNITAF), Somalia.

5. COMMAND RELATIONSHIPS.

a. USCINCCENT retains command of USFORSOM and delegates operational, tactical, and/or administrative control of USFORSOM as required to support the Commander, UNOSOM II Force Command.

b. USCINCCENT exercises command of USFORSOM through the Commander, USFORSOM, who is dual-hatted as Deputy Commander, UNOSOM II.

c. USCINCCENT retains operational control of the quick reaction force (QRF) and intelligence support element (ISE), as described in paragraphs 6b and 6c. below.

d. Commander, USFORSOM has administrative control of USFORSOM.

e. Specific command relationships not outlined in the TOR will be coordinated between Commander, UNOSOM II; Deputy Commander, UNOSOM II; and USCINCCENT. USCINCCENT retains final approval authority for all command relations involving US forces.

6. ORGANIZATION. The USFORSOM consists of the support force, including US personnel assigned to the UNOSOM II staff, the QRF--when directed, the ISE--when directed, and other augmentation forces, as required and when approved by USCINCCENT, to support the Commander, UNOSOM II.

a. The support force will consist of those US military combat service, combat service support personnel, and headquarters staff assigned directly to UNOSOM II.

(1) Personnel assigned to the support force will be under the operational control of the Commander, UNOSOM II, through the Commander, USFORSOM, and also serve as Deputy Commander, UNOSOM II.

(2) The primary element of the support force will consist of the Logistics Support Command, Somalia (LSCS), whose mission is:

(a) During transition to UNOSOM II, provide UNOSOM II the same level of combat service support being provided by US forces to UNITAF, until relieved by other UNOSOM II donors or UN contract services, or as directed by USCINCCENT. Transition or logistics support functions to the UN FOD (1) logistics support structure will be event-driven, not schedule-driven.

(b) After completion of the transition to UNOSOM II, be prepared to provide command, control, and management of common-item, theater-level logistics support for UNOSOM II, to include all units of USFORSOM deployed in support of UNSC Resolution 814. Provide selected common item support/common-user service support and inland distribution of bulk POL, as required to support the Commander, UNOSOM II. Further logistics functions are outlined in paragraph 7 below.

b. A QRF provides US combat capability for rapid response in support of the Commander, UNOSOM II to counter specific threats that exceed the capability of UNOSOM II units. It will not be used to spearhead routine operations, escort convoys, or perform long-term security actions. The QRF will initially be ashore in Somalia and will transition to offshore/over-the-horizon presence where conditions warrant and when directed by the US National Command Authorities.

(1) Tactical control of the QRF is delegated from USCINCCENT to Commander, USFORSOM, in the following situations:

(a) Deployment for normal unit training exercises within Somalia.

(b) Situations within Somalia that exceed the capability of UNOSOM I forces and require emergency employment of immediate combat power for a limited period or for show-of-force operations.

(2) QRF tasking outside of the above guidelines requires explicit USCINCCENT approval. However, when a situation arises requiring immediate action and prior approval is impossible or impracticable, the Commander, USFORSOM, is authorized to make the execution decision.

(3) The QRF will comply with the rules of engagement for US forces supporting UNOSOM II as established in Operation Restore Hope II, OPORD 001.

c. The ISE will be deployed by USCENTCOM to provide intelligence support to UNOSOM II and USFORSOM. AU US intelligence information will be derived from and pass through the ISE. The ISE will consist of a US-only intelligence cell, US representatives to UNOSOM II headquarters, intelligence-related systems and communications personnel, and other US intelligence support activities, as required.

(1) The ISE assets will remain under the supervision and control of the US at all times. Consistent with US releasibility requirements, the ISE will directly support UNOSOM II operations.

(2) The director of intelligence, USCENTCOM, has overall responsibility for developing and implementing the concept of operations for intelligence, coordinating intelligence requirements, developing the organization of the US-only ISE, and facilitating the acquisition of intelligence support systems.

(3) There will be no bilateral intelligence exchanges with coalition forces in Somalia.

7. LOGISTICS.

a. Organization of the UNOSOM II Support Command is based on the following assumptions:

(1) UNOSOM II will operate from five area support centers, one in each of the five brigade sectors, with a general support base in Mogadishu, initially staffed largely by the LSCS.

(2) The predominant UNOSOM II contributor within each sector will accept responsibility for the area support center and provide logistics support for the entire sector.

(3) The items below are the responsibility of UNOSOM II:

(a) Perishable and nonperishable subsistence.

(b) Petroleum (fuel).

(c) Construction materials and barrier material.

(d) Water production/purification, storage, and issue/

(e) Ammunition: standard calibers.

(f) Intratheater airlift.

(g) Ground line haul.

(4) The following items are a national responsibility:

(a) Personal demand items (Class VI).

(b) Clothing, individual equipment, tools, administrative supplies.

(c) Ammunition: nonstandard calibers.

(d) Major end items: racks, pylons, tracked vehicle, and so forth.

(e) Repair parts (tactical vehicle maintenance, aviation support/maintenance).

(f) Medical support.

[1] Level-I and -II medical care are national responsibilities. Level-III care for UNOSOM force is to be provided by UNOSOM designated area support facility. The US will provide LEVEL-I, -II, and -III care specifically for the US forces.

[2] Class VIII (medical supplies) remains a national responsibility.

[3] Casualty evacuation is a national responsibility unless specifically designated by UNOSOM II to be provided by an area support unit.

(g) Postal support and legal support.

b. Consistent with the above assumptions, initially the LSCs will provide most of the personnel and resources to stand up the UNOSOM II Support Command. The LSCS will furnish support at approximately the same level presently being provided by the UNITAF support command.

c. Once the UNOSOM II support command is operational, the LSCs will do the following:

(1) Provide command and control of logistics support to UNOSOM II.

(a) Furnish theater-level logistics management expertise.

(b) Assist Commander, UNOSOM II, in establishing procedures for the receipt, storage, and issue of materiel at the theater level.

(c) Coordinate with the UN FOD (2) for contracting and acquisition support to UNOSOM II. All contracting functions will be assumed by the UN FOD(1).

(d) Provide highway regulation services.

(3) Conduct materiel management control and be responsible for the management functions attendant to US common item support for combat rations, water, and bulk petroleum to UNOSOM II.

(4) Provide common item support (CIS), defined as combat rations, water, and bulk petroleum, to UNOSOM II, to include:

(a) Receipt, storage, and issue/distribution of combat rations to the area support centers.

(b) Production, purification, storage, and issue or distribution of water to the area support centers.

(c) Receipt, storage, and issue or distribution of bulk petroleum (limited to JP5 and MOGAS) to the area support centers.

d. Once the UNOSOM II support command is established and functioning, the LSCS will begin drawing down by shifting selected functions to other donors and UN contractors. This transition will be event-driven, not schedule-driven.

8. FUNDING. US support of UNOSOM II will be handled in accordance with applicable US law regarding agreements between the UN and the US government.

9. OTHER SERVICES. Administrative and technical support and services specifically not outlined in this TOR must be coordinated and negotiated among UN, US, and participating countries.

10. COORDINATION AND LIAISON. Coordination and liaison among the US and UN and other countries will be conducted as appropriate.

11. RESPONSIBILITIES OF US MILITARY PERSONNEL.

a. US Armed Forces personnel assigned to UNOSOM II will perform their duties in accordance with the rules and regulations established for the UNOSOM II force command and as directed by USCINCCENT. The QRF, ISE, and other units operating under US control will maintain current US command relationships.

b. No classified US military information of any nature that is not releasable based on appropriate directives, will be released to foreign nationals or the UN unless specifically cleared by an appropriate US official.

12. PRESS GUIDANCE. There will be no press release for this TOR. Specific requests for press activities with UNOSOM II will be forwarded to the UN for appropriate actions. The Department of State will remain the lead US agency for public affairs activities regarding all aspects of US participation in UNOSOM. The USCENTCOM Public Affairs Office may conduct routine public affairs activities consistent with the UN and participating government agreements.

13. MODIFICATION AND TERMINATION. Modification of the TOR will be issued by USCINCCENT in consultation with the joint staff, Office of the Secretary of Defense, Department of State, and United Nations. The TOR wil be reviewed one year from the date of issuance. The TOR may be terminated by mutual agreement of the parties or by direction of USCINCCENT.

Annex B

Example of United Nations Mandate Resolution

The UNSC, noting that the present situation with regard to (country or countries) is likely to threaten international peace and security and may further deteriorate unless additional measures are promptly taken to maintain peace and to seek out a durable solution.

Considering the positions taken by the parties in relation to the "peaceful intentions" signed at New York on (date). Having in mind the relevant provisions of the charter of the UN and its Article 2, paragraph 4, which reads: "Al members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations."

a. Calls upon all member states, in conformity with their obligations under the charter of the UN, to refrain from any action or threat of action likely to worsen the situation in ( ) and ( ), or to endanger international peace.

b. Asks the governments of ( ), which have the responsibility for the maintenance and restoration of law and order, to take all additional measures necessary to stop violence and bloodshed in their countries.

c. Recommends the creation, with the consent of the governments of ( ), of a UN peacekeeping force in those countries. The composition and size of the force shall be established by the SYG, in consultation with the governments of ( ). The commander of the force shall be appointed by the SYG and report to him. The SYG, who shall keep the governments providing the force fully informed, shall report periodically to the UNSC on its operation.

d. Recommends that the function of the force should be, in the interest of preserving international peace and security, to use its best efforts to prevent a recurrence of fighting and, as necessary, to contribute to the maintenance and restoration of law and order and a return to normal conditions.

e. Recommends that the stationing of the force shall be for a period of three months, all costs pertaining to it being met in a manner to be agreed upon by the governments providing the contingents and by the governments of ( ). The SYG may also accept voluntary contributions for that purpose.

f. Recommends further that the SYG designate, in agreement with the governments of ( ), a mediator, who shall use his best endeavors with the representatives of the communities and also with the aforesaid governments for the purpose of promoting a peaceful solution and an agreed-upon settlement to the problem confronting ( ), in accordance with the charter of the UN, having in mind the well-being of the peoples of ( ) as a whole and the preservation of international peace and security. The mediator shall report periodically to the SYG on his efforts.

g. Requests the SYG to provide, from funds of the UN, as appropriate for the remuneration and expenses of the mediator and his staff.

Annex C

Extract of the UN Charter

Chapter VI

Pacific Settlement of Disputes

Article 33

1. The parties to any dispute, the continuance of which is likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security, shall, first of all, seek a solution by negotiation, enquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement, resort to regional agencies or arrangements, or other peaceful means of their own choice.

2. The Security Council shall, when it deems necessary, call upon the parties to settle their dispute by such means.

Chapter VII

Action With Respect to Threats to the Peace,

Breaches of the Peace, and Acts of Aggression

Article 39

The Security Council shall determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression and shall make recommendation, or decide what measures shall be taken, in accordance with Articles 41 and 42, to maintain or restore international peace and security.

Article 41

The Security Council may decide what measures not involving the use of armed force are to be employed to give effect to its decisions, and it may cal upon the Members of the United Nations to apply such measures. These may include complete or partial interruption of economic relations and of rail, sea, air, postal, telegraphic, radio, and other means of communication, and the severance of diplomatic relations.

Article 42

Should the Security Council consider that measures provided for in Article 41 would be inadequate or have proved to be inadequate, it may take such action by air, sea, or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security. Such action may include demonstrations, blockade, and other operations by air, sea, or land forces of Members of the United Nations.


1. Now called the Field Administration and Logistics Division (FALD).

2. Now called the Field Administration Logistics Division (FALD).



NEWSLETTER
Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list