Intelligence Electronic Warfare (IEW) Support Assets Available at Division
LESSON DESCRIPTION: In this lesson you will learn the functions and deployment considerations of the IEW assets normally available to support division operations.
Terminal Learning Objective:
|Tasks:||You will be able to describe the functions and deployment considerations of the IEW assets normally available to support division operations.|
|Conditions:||You will be given narrative information and illustrations from FM 34-1, FM 34-10, FM 34-35, and FM 34-45.|
The material contained in this lesson was derived from the following publications:FM 34-1
The IEW support assets organic to the division are contained in the companies of the MI battalion. EW is one of the critical elements of an effective command and control strategy. EW must be thoroughly integrated with OPSEC, PSYOP deception, and destruction in order to provide a coordinated effort in the destruction or disruption of the adversary's command and control structure. Many other organizations within the division have assets that significantly support the IEW Mission. Good examples are division artillery units, engineer units, and the armored cavalry.
PART A: Electronic Warfare
EW is an essential component of command and control warfare and is used to protect friendly command and control while attacking the enemy's. The integrated use of EW throughout the battlefield supports the force needed to locate, identify, damage, and destroy enemy forces and their command and control. The three components of EW are electronic attack (EA), electronic warfare support (ES), and electronic protection (EP).
Electronic attack (EA) uses lethal directed energy and nonlethal (jamming) electromagnetic energy to disrupt, damage, destroy, and kill enemy forces. MI utilizes nonlethal energy to jam enemy communications and targeting systems. Electronic warfare support (ES) gathers information by intercepting, locating, and exploiting enemy communications (radios) and noncommunications (radars) emitters. ES grants the commander the timely information required to make immediate decisions. ES and SIGINT are very similar, but still differences exist. The relationship between ES and SIGINT is clarified. Information is categorized as either ES or SIGINT depending on the use of the information being gathered. ES information is data processed only to the extent required to immediately identify or locate sources of enemy electromagnetic radiation. Further technical analysis of the data results in SIGINT. Therefore, ES can be a source of SIGINT. To illustrate these functions, see Figure 3-1, The scope of electronic warfare.
Electronic Protection (EP) protects personnel, facilities, or equipment from the effects of friendly or enemy EW which degrades or destroys friendly communications and noncommunications abilities. EP makes it difficult for the enemy to target friendly assets. More specifically, it provides communication and noncommunication collection and DF and communication jamming. The overlapping circles indicate that some EW actions fall into more than one category.
TRAILBLAZER. The AN/TSQ-138A TRAILBLAZER is a mobile, multi-station, ground-based communications intercept and DF system with voice and data communications capabilities. It is a two operator system requiring five 98G language qualified personnel and a 98G NCOIC for 24 hour operations. It operates in stand-alone or in conjunction with other TRAILBLAZER systems. It can net with the QUICKFIX and TRQ-32(V)2 or 3, is pre-programmable to scan 125 set frequencies in directed search mode, and is automated DF capable. It supports the heavy division in a tactical environment. The system provides up to the minute intelligence for the division commander. The DF and intercept modes afford the commander definite advantages when making decisions. TRAILBLAZER deploys within the division's forward area of operations and the MI Battalion S3 executes tactical control over the system via the ACT. The system sets to minimize the risk of friendly fire and the potential loss of critical IEW systems supporting the commander. TRAILBLAZER operators do the following:
- Prepare reports.
- Initiate DF requests.
- Edit and refine DF results.
- Search the radio frequency spectrum.
- Maintain site security.
- Perform operator maintenance on equipment.
- Conduct refuel, resupply, and maintenance operations, and conduct route and site reconnaissance prior to system emplacement.
Figure 3-1. The Scope of Electronic Warfare.
AN/PRD-12 LMRDFS. The Lightweight Man-Transportable Radio Direction-Finding System (LMRDFS) provides search (manually or automatically) in the HF, VHF, UHF spectra. A complete system can be employed rapidly, optimized in the forward areas of operation. This system is ideal in light, airborne, air assault, and SOF operations. The system's dual channel design gives it speed, high accuracy and operational flexibility. The light-weight system can be man-packed by two soldiers. The system requires 3 soldiers for 24 hour operations. This system replaced the AN/TRQ-30 and AN/PRD-10/11. It consists of a receiver group, two intercept/DF antenna groups, a battery charger, and an electrical mounting base. Typically, the system will request LOBs via secure data link using a secure SINCGARS radio set.
AN/PPS-5. The AN/PPS-5 Radar Set is a portable, battery powered, line of sight radar set. It is used in battlefield surveillance to detect, locate, identify, and track moving ground targets at ranges up to 10,000 meters, under various conditions of terrain, visibility, and weather. To detect a moving target, the radar set transmits radio frequency (RF) energy. Between pulses, it monitors energy (echoes) reflected back from the target. There are four ways the set presents data: a bright spot on a B-scope display, as a waveform on a A-scope display, an audio tone, and as a deflection of a meter pointer. The operator can locate the target and obtain the range and azimuth.
AN/PPS-15A(V)1. The AN/PPS-15A(V)1 is a portable, battery powered, solid state, coherent doppler, line of sight, short range ground surveillance radar set. It is used to detect and locate moving personnel and vehicles under various conditions of terrain, weather, and visibility. To detect moving targets, the radar set generates characteristic doppler frequencies which are amplified and used for audible detection of targets in the operator headset and a tone in the alarm speaker. The target is also presented as a blinking alarm indication. Once a target is detected, the operator obtains an azimuth and a range by using the radar's digital readouts.
AN/TRQ-32(V)2 TEAMMATE. The TEAMMATE is a tactical IEW DF/intercept system used to receive and record radio communications signals, and determine their location of origin. The TEAMMATE can intercept in the HF, VHF, and UHF ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. The system is housed in an S-457 C/G shelter mounted on an M-1097 HMMWV. The antennas include a DF and BITE/UHF intercept antenna (raised to 30 feet above ground on a pneumatic mast), HF intercept antenna, VHF receiver-transmitter, and an antenna used with a communications guard receiver. It provides SIGINT support to targeting in near real time, and the system is versatile enough to be sling-loaded on a CH-47 CHINOOK. The TEAMMATE is found in the C & J Platoon in the GS MI Company of the divisional MI battalion. It is also capable of DF interoperability with other TEAMMATES, TRAILBLAZERS, or QUICKFIX. The system may or may not be deployed near the brigade TOC and the ACT. The factors that determine collocation involve radio LOS targets, site location coordination, and support. On a linear battlefield, LOS considerations would require that the TEAMMATE be deployed 5-7 km from the FLOT to provide intelligence support during the close battle. Generally, there is no more than 8-10 km between TEAMMATE systems in order to get a fix on targets.
AN/TLQ-17(V)3 TRAFFICJAM. The TRAFFICJAM is a division-level, mobile HF/VHF Electronic Attack system designated for surveillance or jamming of hostile ground and airborne communications. The system is mounted in a standard S-250/G shelter on the M-1037 heavy High Mobility Wheeled vehicle (HMMWV). The system is designed to jam enemy electronic communications operating in the 2 to 80 MHz frequency range. Communications antennae are mounted to the front of the shelter. The AN/TLQA(V)2 is the configuration of TRAFFICJAM used on the AN/ALQ-151(V)2 QUICKFIX. This system is assigned to the HF/VHF EA team in the C&J PLT of the GS MI company at each heavy, light, and AASLT division.
The TRAFFICJAM supports the following intelligence tasks:
- Indications and warning.
- Situational development.
- Target development and support to targeting.
- Force protection.
- Intelligence preparation of the battlefield.
The system supports both EA and ES. When tasked in its EA mission to disrupt enemy command and control communications, the system is meshed into the arsenal of non-lethal fires.
AN/ALQ-151(V)2 QUICKFIX. This special purpose countermeasure system mounts on the EH-60A fitted with special avionics and IEW equipment. It conducts both EA and ES and can be used to receive, locate, and selectively jam target very high frequency communications. It operates by itself or nets with other systems such as the AN/PRD-12, TRQ-32(V)2 TEAMMATE, and TRAILBLAZER. The QUICKFIX IIB's ES and jamming equipment consoles requires one operator each. Jamming and ES operations cannot be conducted simultaneously. Normally, the QUICKFIX IIB flight platoon is organic to the aviation brigade's general support (GS) aviation company. During deploying, the MI BN has operational control OPCON. Table 2 is a comparison between Divisional IEW Systems in the heavy division and the light division.
Table 2. Comparison of Divisional IEW Systems, Under Heavy/Light Divisions.
EW assets must be correctly positioned if they are to be effective. If they are too far from the enemy, they cannot receive transmitted signals or jam enemy receivers. If located too far forward, they are vulnerable to enemy ground attacks. Site selection is based on several factors:
- Ability to hear the transmitted signal.
- Radio LOS requirements.
- Logistic support considerations of the selected site.
- Communication with other teams and the ACE.
- Maneuver scheme.
- Physical security. Jammers are prime targets and should never be located less than 1 kilometer near other operational systems or troop concentrations.
- Availability of alternate sites. Rapidly changing battlefield conditions can force EW teams to move very suddenly and frequently. The need to avoid being overrun or to keep up with a rapid advance by the supported unit and still support the EW mission is fulfilled through the use of alternate sites. Jamming from alternate sites decreases the chances of being located.
- Concealment and cover, foot trafficability, and mutual defense.
- Threat location.
The EA teams deploy well forward to jam enemy communication. The supported tactical commander exercises ON-OFF control of the jammers over the EW operations net FM. The noncommunication collection teams deploy to identify forward deployed enemy countermortar, counterbattery, surveillance, and target acquisition radars. In addition, the meteorological radars associated with fire support units may be priority targets for these teams.
PART B: EMPLOYMENT OF MI ASSETS
The DS company provides the division with ground surveillance, EPW interrogation, and CI support. The surveillance platoons provide ground surveillance with assigned AN/PPS-5 and PPS-15A(V)1 radars and, when augmented, remote sensors. The operation of the surveillance platoon is decentralized. Surveillance assets are usually placed in DS of the brigades as a part of an IEW company team. Ground surveillance assets may also be attached to a brigade and further attached to the battalion task force (BTF) and maneuver company teams. This type of support relationship is especially common in covering force operations.
GSR teams may be deployed to target enemy assault forces, overcome visibility problems caused by weather or battlefield smoke, or to cover gaps and exposed flanks. When used to target the assault force, GSR teams provide highly accurate data to indirect fire systems for immediate attack of the target. When deployed in gaps or on flanks, the GSR teams increase the combat power of defending elements by providing early warning of enemy activity and by targeting the enemy force at maximum range
The operations platoon of the DS company provides CI and EPW interrogation support to the division and brigades. CI teams provide support in countering hostile intelligence collection, sabotage, subversion, and terrorist threat. They also provide support to the command's OPSEC program and advise security managers in performing their duties. This CI support is GS to the division and DS to the brigades. GS teams support units deployed in the division rear, especially the division support command.
These teams consist of CI teams and other elements as needed. These teams may support a subordinate division unit on a permanent, semi-permanent, or specific mission basis. The teams that support the brigades are normally attached to the GS company team. They report to the supported unit.
The interrogation section normally deploys to the division EPW collection point. The battalion operations center tasks the section based on collection missions assigned by the C&MM section. The section reports collected information directly to the C&MM section over the division intelligence net. Interrogation teams normally provide DS to the brigades as a part of the DS company teams. The brigade S2s task and receive reports from the teams through the DS elements. When required, a team may operate temporarily in DS of a BTF.
In order to support a movement-to-contact, interrogators deploy well forward to question indigenous personnel, particularly refugees, to determine as much as possible about the enemy and terrain which lies in the path of the advancing force. CI assets work closely with interrogators in screening local nationals regarding the situation to the front of friendly forces. They also implement CI plans prepared prior to the movement to contact with regard to neutralization or safeguarding of persons identified on white, black, or gray lists.
PART C: THE CORPS MI BRIGADE
The decentralized, fluid nature of the covering force battle in defensive operations requires interrogation support at the lowest echelons, often at troop and company level. This requires DS interrogation teams from the supporting MI companies, battalions, and the corps MI group. Questioning of civilians and EPW is brief and conducted to gain information of immediate tactical value. Interrogators gather information about the identification, composition, location or direction of movement, strength, and capabilities of enemy forces involved in the immediate covering force battle.
The division's major IEW asset not in the MI battalion is the flight platoon in the combat aviation brigade. The flight platoon with its three QUICKFIX IIB systems provides aerial communication intercept and jamming support. The platoon is OPCON to the MI Bn and receives taskings from the ACE. It is a GS resource normally used to complement ground-based SIGINT and EW systems. Aerial resources are used to overcome LOS and mobility limitations and fill gaps in coverage left by ground resources. Frequently these assets are the only one available to provide continuity of support. Another major advantage in using aerial resources is they are capable of cueing ground ES and EA resources and GSR.
In addition to its organic resources, the division is normally augmented by corps EW assets, CI, and interrogation teams from corps. Each of these reinforce the organic capabilities of and are controlled by the MI battalion. Interrogation and CI teams are placed in DS of the division from other companies of the corps MI brigade. The MI brigade provides dedicated IEW support to the corps and its subordinate divisions. Most of the ground-based, and therefore short-range, resources of the corps are allocated in support of the divisions, armored cavalry regiment (ACR), and separate brigade. This includes the corps EA resources which provide the capability to strike enemy forces in and just beyond the close operations. HF intercept and jamming systems, however, have greater range capabilities. HF intercept systems may be deployed forward in support of the divisions or in the corps rear area against deep targets. High frequency jammers are normally used near the division rear boundary against enemy higher-echelon communication.
The aerial resources comprise the source of most of the intelligence, target development, and poststrike assessment data generated at corps level. However, even these resources are unable to meet all corps requirements. The corps relies heavily on EAC, other services, and national agencies to supplement its collection capabilities. The Air Force, EAC, and national systems provide most of the imagery intelligence (IMINT) support required at division and corps. The corps operations plan (OPLAN) will normally designate the source of surveillance support.
The four primary IEW tasks the corps commander emphasizes are situation development, target development, EW, and CI. The combined application of these tasks gives him knowledge of the threat force so that he can disrupt threat operations and protect his own assets from exploitation.
The MI Battalion (Operations). Performs IEW functions in support of overall corps operations. Within this battalion in the Corps ACE, which is responsible for mission and collection management of all corps IEW assets.
The MI Battalion (Tactical Exploitation). Perform all HUMINT support to the corps and its major subordinate elements. The battalion includes a CI company, an IPW company, and a LRS company. These assets can provide intelligence support in the rear, close, and deep battle, and can provide collateral support to ES collection, as well as plausible sources for sanitizing COMINT reports. As previously described, many of the elements of this battalion are used to support the division, ACR, and separate brigade. The major IEW resources of the division and normal support from corps, to include their general capabilities, are summarized in Figure 3-3. Division Resources. In addition to the IEW assets organic to its divisions and MI brigade the corps contains IEW assets organic to its ACR and any subordinate separate brigades. The ACR and separate brigade IEW requirements are similar to those of the division. In fact, the multidisciplined MI company assigned at these levels is a miniature divisional MI battalion.
Figure 3-2. MI Brigade Corps.
The MI Battalion (Aerial Exploitation). Contains the only ES asset organic to the corps and allows the corps commander to "see" the battlefield to the depth of the AO and beyond. This unit provides the commander with his deep-look capability through aerial surveillance and SIGINT collection with the IMPROVED GUARDRAIL V (IGRV -- AN/USD-9A) or GUARDRAIL COMMON SENSOR (GRCS -- AN/USD-9B) system and various UAV systems. The IGRV system provides COMINT collection and direction finding. The GRCS system provides COMINT and ELINT collection and direction finding capabilities.
The aerial exploitation battalion provides aerial reconnaissance and surveillance using the Guardrail Common Sensor and UAV The resources of this battalion are usually used in GS of the corps. However, the tactical commander's terminal interlinks with the GUARDRAIL system permits near real-time reporting by radio downlink of ES data to the major subordinate units of the corps.
Figure 3-3. Division Resources.
Collection and Mission Management of GUARDRAIL Systems. Both collection and mission management functions come from the Corps ACEs Collection Management and Dissemination Cell (CMDC), headed by the Corps Collection Management Officer (CMO). The Corps CMO determines the allocation of the Corps intelligence assets, determining when and where those assets will be used in order to gather the commander/G-2s PIR. Before allocating the corps assets, the CMO will take into account any EAC/Joint assets that are in the corps AO and tasked with providing intelligence which covers the G-2s PIR. These cover Air Force, Navy, and MC assets (such as TR-1, U2R, EP3, etc.), as well as army, theatre, and strategic assets. The IGRV/GRCS (AN/USD-9A/B) system is interoperable with other platforms, such as the U2R and EP3. The Commanders Tactical Terminal (CTT) AN/TSC-125, is a system that receives near real time reporting from IGRV/GRCS (AN/USD-9A/B), U2Rs and EP3s. The CTT can be issued to other services and, if necessary, coalition partners.
Once the ACE determines the need for a mission and the initial placement of assets, the MI Brigade TOC and AE Battalion Operations Center (BOC) are notified through the Brigade liaison officer (LNO) at the ACE. It is the BOC's job to ensure the feasibility and capability of both the system and it's personnel to complete the mission. Once the BOC has been notified, it is then responsible for all factors of getting the mission underway.
The collection management process starts with the ACE's CMDC (and the CMO) which take the G-2s PIR and translate them into actual tasking. The communication's flow for tasking will depend on which IGRV/GRCS (AN/USD-9A/B) system is being used and local SOP. Most commonly, tasking will be sent directly from the ACE to the intelligence processing facility (IPF) by way of the CTT. By using an UHF datalink the ACE and IPF do not need radio LOS with each other.
Dissemination of collected information is also done through the CTT, and information can be sent simultaneously to not only the ACE but also to tactical commanders at all echelons throughout the battle area for intelligence support to operations and targeting purposes. The MI brigade's ACE interfaces with the ACE of the division, ACR, and separate brigades to exchange technical control data. It also interfaces with EAC and national systems to complete the vertical integration of technical data generated by tactical units with that produced by the National Security Agency.
MI commanders do not hold assets in reserve. As you will see in the next lesson, task organizations and assignment of standard IEW mission can provide uninterrupted support and ensure the smooth transition from current to future operations.