This lesson does not specifically relate to any enlisted or officer task but provides general information on the Redeye, Stinger, Chaparral, and Roland missile systems.
Use only the lesson material to complete the examination.
You must attain a grade of 70 percent on the examination to receive credit for this subcourse.
Redeye, fielded in the 1960s, was the first man-portable air defense weapon system in the Active Army inventory. It will eventually be replaced by the Stinger missile system.
The Redeye missile system (Figure 52) provides combat units with the capability of destroying very-low-to-low-altitude threat aircraft. Redeye is deployed throughout the combat area. It moves with the troops, providing continuous air defense. The Redeye weapon consists of three major components: launch tube assembly, missile-round, and battery/ coolant unit.
The missile, sealed within the launcher, is not removed in the field except by firing. The Redeye launcher provides the means for transporting, aiming, and firing the missile. It has three main sections: the launch tube, open sight assembly, and gripstock. After the missile is fired, the launcher is discarded.
System Operation (Engagement Sequence)
The Redeye engagement sequence is illustrated in Figure 53 and is described in the following paragraph.
On sighting a threat target, the gunner (G) tracks it visually in an open sight (1). At the same time, he activates the missile guidance system (2). A buzzer (3) tells the gunner when the target is acquired and the missile is ready to fire. He then inserts superelevation and lead (4) to the missile target line of sight and fires the missile (5) out of the launch tube (6). When the missile has cleared the launch tube muzzle by a distance sufficient to protect the gunner from blast effect (5 to 9 meters), the sustainer motor fires (7) and propels the missile to the target.
Even though the Redeye system is being replaced by the Stinger system in the Regular Army and Marine Corps units, it will continue to provide MANPAD to Reserve and National Guard units for many years. Redeye system characteristics are shown in Figure 54.
The Stinger is a second generation MANPAD system that was designed to replace the Redeye. The major advantages it has over the Redeye are increased range and intercept capabilities.
The Stinger is a short-range, very-low-to-low-altitude, shoulder-fired weapon with IFF capabilities. It is easily deployable throughout the combat area and moves with the troops. Stinger is capable of engaging all aircraft operating at low level and at ordnance delivery speeds. The Stinger missile system (Figure 55) consists of the following major components:
o launch tube assembly.
o battery/coolant unit.
o separable gripstock.
o IFF interrogator.
IFF components include the IFF interrogator and an interconnecting cable. To support the IFF system, a programmer/ battery charger, shipping and storage container, and code keys are used. This equipment is located at the section headquarters.
When a target is sighted, the Stinger gunner centers it in the range ring, presses the IFF interrogator switch, and listens for an IFF response. If the response is not positive friend, he continues tracking and ranging the target. When the target comes within range and has been identified as hostile, the gunner completes the engagement sequence and fires the missile. Once fired, the separable gripstock is removed from the launch tube, and the tube is discarded. Figure 56 shows a Stinger team ready to engage a target.
Stinger system characteristics are shown in Figure 57.
The Chaparral guided missile system, intercept aerial, carrier-mounted (M48A1), consists of a launching station (M54A1) mounted on a full-tracked carrier (M730). It is equipped with IFF equipment. The system fires Chaparral guided missiles MIM-72A and MIM-72C/E.
The Chaparral (Figure 58) is a highly mobile, surface-to-air missile system fielded to protect stationary critical assets within the division against low-flying enemy aircraft. Chaparral is fielded in the self-propelled configuration only; however, the launching station is a complete, self-contained weapon system and may be separated from the carrier and operated in a ground-emplaced mode.
Effective employment of the system depends upon visual target detection, tracking, and recognition. Because of this, Chaparral is considered to be a fair-weather system capable of operation only during periods of good visibility. The entire system is air portable by cargo aircraft. The launching station may be sling lifted by helicopter when separated from the carrier. The system is composed of three major elements: the launching station, carrier, and Chaparral missiles. The Chaparral missile system is found in the Chaparral/Vulcan battalion of armored, mechanized infantry, and infantry divisions and in nondivisional Chaparral/Vulcan battalions.
The Chaparral engagement sequence normally begins with an alert warning of approaching enemy targets and ends with their destruction. The squad leader is the fire unit tactical commander and is responsible for the fire unit's conduct of fire. As the senior member of a Chaparral squad, he must make the decision to engage. He makes his decision based on visual observation of the target in accordance with the rules contained in FM 44-4, (S) FM 44-1A, and the unit SOP. In M48A2 squads, either the gunner or squad leader may make the engagement decision. This is necessary to make maximum usage of the M48A2's forward looking infrared (FLIR) subsystem.
Alert Warning. An alert warning is an early warning or indication of air attack. Warning of the approach of an aircraft increases the chances of successfully engaging it. Once a squad has been alerted, it is cued to the air attack. Cueing information provides azimuth, range, and tentative identification of the target. Cueing information normally follows alert warning, but may accompany it.
Squad Action. The squad receives alerting/cueing information over the forward area alerting radar (FAAR) early warning net in a manual SMORAD control system (MSCS) track format. Alerting information by radio can also be obtained over the platoon command net or by monitoring the supported unit's command net; from other squad members by prearranged visual or sound signals; or by intercom when a squad member sees or hears the target without prior warning. When an alert warning is received by the squad leader, he repeats the warning over the intercom.
Target Detection. Anyone in the squad may detect a target. The squad member first detecting the target announces, "TARGET," over the intercom. He will follow this with a location statement which includes clock azimuth, altitude in terms of high or low, and if a multiple target, the words, "MULTIPLE TARGET."
The Chaparral missile system is enhanced by the addition of the FLIR modification device. The FLIR device enables the gunner to acquire, track, and engage targets during clear weather, at night, and during some adverse weather. Its introduction will change the engagement sequence slightly in that it gives the gunner the authority to make identification and engagement decisions. The squad leader, however, may override the gunner's decision at any time. The FLIR receiver images the thermal emission (radiation) from the target. This energy is converted to a video signal that is made TV compatible with the camera/video signal processor, and subsequently displayed on the video display control panel. The tracking signal processor obtains video from the camera/video signal processor. Outputs from the tracking signal processor are azimuth and elevation commands which are routed to the Chaparral fire unit through the electronic interconnect unit.
Chaparral system characteristics are shown in Figure 59.
The Roland missile system complements medium-to-high-altitude air defense systems. Roland is an all-weather, short-range, air defense missile system. It was developed jointly by France, West Germany, and the United States.
Originally configured for a track vehicle, the Roland is presently mounted on an M812A1 5-ton truck (Figure 60) which is modified to accept a pallet and a loader device. The Roland carries a total of 10 certified and sealed rounds with 4 in each of 2 magazines and 2 missiles mounted on the launch rails. Reloading is done automatically. Tracking target is accomplished with a search and track radar. The system has a mode IV IFF on board. Targets are displayed on the unit's plan position indicator (PPI) by generated video. The Roland missile can be launched while the module is mounted on the vehicle.
Roland is designed to track targets while on the move; however, the fire unit must stop to engage targets. Using a pulse-doppler radar, when targets come within range, they are displayed on the commander's PPI. The target can then either be automatically challenged for IFF or interrogation can be done manually by the squad leader. Once the target has been challenged, the computer then categorizes the target as friendly or unknown. The Roland also has visual capabilities with onboard optics. Targets can be engaged with the computer figuring in the elevation and lead angles. Onboard infrared trackers aligned with the optical sight axis or radar follow the missile's path by means of a heat source on the missile's aft end. Tracking information on the target is automatically generated by the optical sight or radar.
The US Roland system, currently fielded only by the New Mexico National Guard, is manned at 78 percent of its strength on a full-time basis. Roland system characteristics are shown in Figure 61.