Commitment to Israel's security and well being has been a cornerstone of U.S. policy in the Middle East since Israel's creation in 1948, in which the United States played a key supporting role. Israel and the United States are bound closely by historic and cultural ties as well as by mutual interests. Continuing U.S. economic and security assistance to Israel acknowledges these ties and signals U.S. commitment. The broad issues of Arab-Israeli peace have been a major focus in the U.S.-Israeli relationship. U.S. efforts to reach a Middle East peace settlement are based on UN Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338 and have been based on the premise that as Israel takes calculated risks for peace, the United States will help minimize those risks.
UNSC resolutions provided the basis for cease-fire and disengagement agreements concerning the Sinai and the Golan Heights between Israel, Egypt, and Syria and for promoting the Camp David accords and the Egyptian-Israeli Peace Treaty.
The landmark October 1991 Madrid conference also recognized the importance of Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338 in resolving regional disputes, and brought together for the first time Israel, the Palestinians, and the neighboring Arab countries, launching a series of direct bilateral and multilateral negotiations. These talks were designed to finally resolve outstanding security, border, and other issues between the parties while providing a basis for mutual cooperation on issues of general concern, including the status of refugees, arms control and regional security, water and environmental concerns, and economic development.
On a bilateral level, relations between the United States and Israel have been strengthened in recent years by the establishment of cooperative institutions in many fields. Bilateral foundations in the fields of science and technology include the Binational Science Foundation and the Binational Agricultural Research and Development Foundation. The U.S.-Israeli Education Foundation sponsors educational and cultural programs.
In addition, the Joint Economic Development Group maintains a high-level dialogue on economic issues. In early 1993, the United States and Israel agreed to establish a Joint Science and Technology Commission. In 1996, reflecting heightened concern about terrorism, the United States and Israel established a Joint Counterterrorism Group designed to enhance cooperation in fighting terrorism.
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