United States Volunteers in 1905
Under the laws prevailing as of 1905, the military forces of the United States in time of war fell within two general classes: those of the regular armv and those of the United States volunteers. The chief distinction between service in these two classes was the prolessional character which attached to the officers and men of the regular establishment, who made their service that of a business or occupation and serve irrespective of any actual or threatened national exigency both in times of peace as well as hostilities. On the other hand, the officers and men of the volunteers when they respond to the call, "to the colors," abandon their usual occupations to serve for a limited time, with the expectation of remaining in the military service for only such period as the emergency demands, and when hostili ties cease the men composing the volunteer army are mustered out of thn service, and return to their homes and firesides to again enter their various peaceful vocations.
When it becomes necessary to raise a volunteer army (and in this connection it will be borne in mind that th« organized militia when called into the service of the United States was limited to a service of but nine months), the President had authority to issue a proclamation stating the number of men required, within such limits as maybe fixed by law, and the Secretary of War Is required to prescribe such rules and regulations, not inconsistent with the law as may in his judgment be necessary for the examination, organization and mustering into, the service of the United States of the volunteers for which the call is issued.
All men received into service in the volunteer army, as far as is practicable, are required to be taken from the several States and Territories and the District of Columbia in proportion to their population. United States volunteers when called into the service of the United States were required to be organized under, and are subject to the laws, orders and regulations governing the regular army. All enlistments for the volunteer army were for a term of two years unless sooner terminated and all officers and men composing said army are required to be discharged from the service of the United States when the purposes for which thev are called into service shall have been accomplished, or on the conclusion of hostilities.
When the members of any company, troop, battery, battalion or regiment of the organized militia of any State enlist as a body in the volunteer army, the regimental, battalion, company, troop and battery officers in service with the militia organization thus enlisting may be appointed by the governors of the States or Territories involved, and when so appointed, they become officers of corresponding grades in the same organization when it shall have been received into the service of the United States as a part of the volunteer army. The President has authority, under the law, to authorize the Secretary of War to organize companies, troops, battalions or regiments of officers and men possessing special qualifications from the nation at large, not, however, to exceed three thousand men, under such rules and regulations, including the appointment of the officers thereof, as may be prescribed by the Secretary of War. This provision authorizes the organization of engineer troops, and places the selection and appointment of the officers of such organizations in control of Federal authority, as distinguished from that of the States or Territories.
The appointment of regimental, battalion and company officers, generally, in the volunteer forces, with the few exceptions noted, is placed (by constitutional provision) in the control of the governors of the States and Territories in which the various volunteer organizations are raised. In addition to its other officers, each regiment of the volunteer army is required to have 1 surgeon, 2 assistant surgeons and 1 chaplain. The governor of any State or Territory may, with the consent of the President, appoint officers of the regular army in the grade of field officers in organizations of the volunteer army, and the President may appoint officers of the regular army in the grade of field officers in organizations of the volunteer army; officers thus appointed are entitled to retain their rank in the regular army; not more than one officer, however, of the regular army may hold a commission in any one regiment of the volunteer army at the same time.
The President is authorized to appoint in the volunteer army, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, not exceeding 1 major-general for each organized army corps and division, and 1 brigadier-general for each brigade, and any officer so selected and appointed from the regular army is entitled to retain his rank therein. Such appointments carry with them the right to the number of aides-de-camp authorized for an officer of like grade in the regular army.
The staff officers authorized by law for commanders of corps, divisions and brigades in the land forces of the United States, when those forces are composed of regulars and volunteers, may be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, as officers of the volunteer army, or may be assigned by the President, in his discretion, from officers of the regular army, or the volunteer army, or of the militia in the service of the United States. When such officers are relieved from staff service, the appointments or assignments terminate.
The staff of the commander of an army corps, as authorized, consists of 1 assistant adjutant-general, 1 chief engineer, 1 inspector-general, 1 chief quartermaster, 1 chief commissary of subsistence, 1 judge advocate and 1 chief surgeon, who have respectively the rank of lieutenant-colonel; 1 assistant adjutant-general, who has the rank of captain, and the authorized aides-de-camp. The staff of the commander of a division consists of 1 assistant adjutant-general, 1 engineer officer, 1 inspector-general, 1 chief quartermaster, 1 chief commissary of subsistence, a chief signal officer and 1 chief surgeon, who have respectively the rank of major, and the aides-de-camp authorized by law. The staff of the commander of a brigade consists of 1 assistant adjutant-general, 1 assistant quartermaster and 1 commissary of subsistence, each with the rank of captain; 1 surgeon, and the aides-de-camp authorized by law.
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