82nd Airborne Division Artillery (DIVARTY)
319th Field Artillery Regiment
In December 2012, the Fires Center of Excellence (FCoE) submitted a Force Design Update (FDU) (Fires HQ FDU) to re-establish fires command headquarters at echelons above brigade (EAB), for consideration in the Total Army Analysis (TAA) process for fiscal years 2016-2020. On Oct. 3, 2013, the Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Army approved the Fires HQ FDU.
The Army decision to implement DIVARTYs will provide Field Artillery (FA) capabilities (planning, synchronization, and coordination) in order to execute strategic, operational and tactical fires in support of Unified Land Operations (ULO) and to provide effective mission command for the training and readiness of attached FA units. Current Echelon Above Brigade (EAB) mission command FA force structure and organizational design does not sufficiently meet the required capabilities in support of Combatant Commander (CCDR) requirements as part of the Joint force. This results in the inability to effectively integrate and synchronize fires at Division, Corps and Theater Army in support of ULO.
The Fires HQ FDU creates a DIVARTY for each active component Division and will align an active component Field Artillery Brigade (FAB) to each Corps and one to Eighth United States Army (EUSA). The term “Fires Brigade” (FiB) is being replaced with Field Artillery Brigade (FAB). The FDU does not alter the organization of the Army National Guard (ARNG) FABs; however ARNG FABs will be aligned with ARNG Divisions for training affiliation and will be capable of serving as a DIVARTY to support ARNG Divisions during deployment and provide reinforcing and counterfire capability to a Corps or Joint Task Force (JTF). The primary task for the FAB includes coordination, integration, synchronization and employment of fires as well as provides long range precision fires to the Corps through strike operations.
The DIVARTY is a proven force design that will play a key role in reversing the continuing atrophy of FA skills, halt the erosion of professional and leader development in the fires Warfighting Function, and restore the art and science of synchronizing effects for precise and discriminating fires.
The DIVARTY had no organic firing units, but can be provided a variety of FA Battalions (rocket and cannon) and other assets to accomplish its mission for the Division Commander. This may include a combination of one to five rocket/missile (MLRS or HIMARS) and/or FA Cannon Battalions as well as other enablers. The DIVARTY consists of a Headquarters (HHB), a Signal Platoon, and a Target Acquisition Platoon (TAP), initially consisting of two AN/TPQ-37 Radars and over the six years 2014-2020 transitioning to two AN/TPQ-53 Radars. DIVARTYs will provide command oversight for training management and certification of the Brigade Combat Team (BCT) FA Battalions, and Fire Support Cells. DIVARTYs will provide synchronization of sensors such as Sentinel and counterfire radars organic to the Division as well as synchronization of Joint sensors.
As of October 2015, all 10 DIVARTYs had activated. The DIVARTY’s primary role is to ensure readiness of the Fires formations within the divisions by improving the ability to deliver operational and technical Fires. The duties and responsibilities of the DIVARTYs are defined in Field Manual 3-09 and soon to be released Army Training Program 3-09.90, DIVARTY. The United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) commander further defined their roles and responsibilities in Fragmentary Order 1 to the U.S. Army FORSCOM Division Artillery Implementation Order with DIVARTY key tasks:
- Improve the division commander’s ability to deliver operational and tactical level Fires.
- Serve as the force field artillery headquarters for the division. The DIVARTY commander serves as the division FSCOORD.
- Develop standardized approach to training and integrated Fires to ensure accomplishment of operational and tactical level fire support tasks.
- Provide support to the brigade combat team (BCT) commanders with FA subject matter expertise. Coach, mentor and develop artillery commanders and leaders, and provide readiness assessment and advice to maneuver commanders.
The bottom line: DIVARTYs are the Fires integrators for the division and BCT commanders. Through stringent training and certification programs they ensure standardization across the division in the employment of Fires assets. Their success is incumbent on building strong relationships across the division and with joint Fires resources to ensure the Fires teams deliver over-match to the division and BCT commanders.
Precision targeting is non-negotiable. So going forward the Army implemented an 80-10-10 or a “Grid Getter Standard.” 80-10-10 is a ratio based on a precision mindset that makes it necessary for Forward Observers and Fire Support Teams to achieve Joint TLE categories while on the battlefield. Specifically, achieving a CAT I (6.0M TLE) and CAT II (15M TLE) “precision grid” 80 percent of the time; achieve a CAT IV (50M TLE) “near precision grid” 10 percent of the time; achieve a CAT V/VI (200M or greater TLE) as a degraded operation, the final 10 percent of the time. This 80-10-10 ratio defines the term Accurate in the First Requirement for Accurate Fires.
Due to the complexities of the operational environment, the requirements for precise and discriminating fires, as well as the restrictions on employment of fires, these demands require that Fires organizations and Fire Supporters be thoroughly trained and certified. The Field Artillery Headquarters facilitates standardized core training throughout the Fire Support chain by ensuring routine training as a complete Fire Support systems, significantly enhancing the maneuvers commanders ability to plan, integrate, task organize, and execute Fires in support of ULO.
TRADOC Pam 525-3-4, the United States Army Functional Concept for Fires, states a responsibility to establish and maintain a fire support system that can, “enable the defeat of a wide range of threats, provide timely and responsive fires in environmental and operational conditions, provide a range of precision to conventional scalable capabilities to engage ground targets, prevent fratricide and minimize collateral damage, and to provide access to and integrate joint, Army, and multinational Fires capabilities at the lowest appropriate levels.” This will allow the commander to achieve his desired effects on the enemy in a manner that does not require detailed integration with the scheme of subordinate maneuver elements.
Operational-Level Fires is the transition from the Theater Joint Force Air Component Command fight to air-ground integration fight. Operational-Level Fires are usually conducted at the operational level of war, but may be conducted at any level of war. Operational-Level Fires generally integrate Army Field Artillery (surface-to-surface) fires with joint and multi-national capabilities but could be conducted by any combination of available fires assets. Field Artillery Brigades and DIVARTYs focus on the conduct of Operational-Level Fires, including the integration of sensors and intelligence assets to support the targeting process, although they can also conduct Close-Support Fires that require detailed integration with the scheme of subordinate maneuver elements. Close-Support Fires are usually planned, coordinated, integrated, synchronized and conducted by BCT Field Artillery battalions.
On 15 January 2006 the 82nd Airborne Division began transformation to the US Army's new modular force structure. As a result various previously divisional assets were inactivated and reactivated as part of the Division's reorganized and redesignated Brigade Combat Teams. The Division Artillery was inactivated and 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Battalion, 319th Field Artillery Regiment were inactivated and reactivated assigned to 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Brigade Combat Teams, 82nd Airborne Division respectively. D Battery, 319th Field Artillery was inactivated, reorganized and redesignated as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 4th Battalion, 319th Field Artillery Regiment, and reactivated assigned to the similarly reorganized and redesignated 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team (Seperate).
The 82nd Airborne Division Artillery (DIVARTY) mission was to deploy anywhere worldwide within 18 hours of notice in order to plan, coordinate and execute lethal and non-lethal fires in support of 82nd Airborne Division and other selected maneuver units. It was also the headquarters of the parent regiment, the 319th Field Artillery Regiment (Airborne).
The 319th Airborne Field Artillery Regiment consisted of the 1-319th, 2-319th, and 3-319th Airborne Field Artillery Battalions. In addition, the Regiment had a Headquarters Battery (HHB), D Battery, based in Vicenza, Italy, as part of the Southern European Task Force.
The 82nd Airborne Division Artillery was organized in 1917 to provide fire support for the new "All American Division" 82nd Division. The Division Artillery performed distinguished service in support of the Division's operation in campaigns throughout France during World War I. The Division was deactivated after that conflict, and was not recalled to active service until 1942.
The 82nd Airborne Division Artillery, under the command of Maxwell D. Taylor, was the first airborne artillery unit to serve in a US Army Division.
Because of the Nazi threat, both the 319th Field Artillery Regiment and the 82nd Infantry Division were activated 25 March 1942 at Camp Claiborne, Louisiana. In August, prior to deployment to Europe, the unit was redesignated as the 319th Glider Field Artillery Battalion, with Batteries A through E. That same month, the 82nd was redesignated as the Army's first Airborne Division.
The 319th Field Artillery's first taste of combat came after an airborne/gliderborne assault into Sicily on 9 July 1943. Advancing up the toe of Italy, the 82nd was able to capture the Naples port and the Foggia airfields. The 319th, in direct support of the 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment, was credited with much of the success of the campaign.
Following a rest in England, the 319th Field Artillery left the British coast on 6 June 1944, bound for France in 40 gliders. The Battalion landed 2 miles northeast of St. Mere Eglise and 3 miles from the landing zone. Only a 7-gun battery could be mustered. The remainder of the guns were damaged in the landing. For 37 days, the 75mm truck-drawn tubes provided continuous and accurate fire support, often within 100 meters of friendly troops.
The next combat operation began in Nijmegan, Holland on 17 September 1944. About 2 hours after landing as part of Operation "Market Garden", the Battalion was firing on German defenders. Fighting was heavy, resulting in the expenditure of over 34,000 rounds in two months.
Christmas time 1944 was tough for the 319th Field Artillery. From December 1944 until February 1945, they fought back against the German assault in the Ardennes area during the "Battle of the Bulge."
After nearly 2 years overseas war ended for the "All Americans." Troopers of the 82nd were awarded 3 Medals of Honor. (First Sergeant Leonard Funk, Jr., Private First Class Charles N. Deglopper, Private John R. Towle), 70 Distinguished Service Crosses, 894 Silver Star Medals, 2,478 Bronze Star Medals, and numerous foreign decorations.
In World War II, the Division Artillery received battle streamers for its service in campaigns in North Africa, Sicily, Naples, Rome-Arno, Normandy, Rhineland, Ardennes-Alsace, and Central Europe.
In July 1945 the Division was ordered for occupation duty where they became known as "America's Guard of Honor." General George S. Patton was so impressed with the 82d, he was quoted as saying, "In all my years in the Army, and of all the honor guards I have ever seen, the 82nd honor guard is undoubtedly the best."
After a victory parade in New York City following its return from the war, the Division Artillery accompanied the Division to its new home at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. After that time, Division Artillery units served in combat in the Dominican Republic, the Republic of Vietnam, Grenada, Panama, and Southwest Asia.
In 1965, the "All Americans" were again called to duty under hostile fire. On 29 April 1965 the 82nd, under the code name Operation Powerpack, deployed to Santo Domingo, the revolution-torn capital of the Dominican Republic. Peace and stability were soon restored and again the members of the Division distinguished themselves in their duty. The 1st Brigade and elements from the 319th Field Artillery Regiment served as part of the Inter-American Peace Force for over a year, returning to Fort Bragg in the summer of 1966.
On 12 February 1968, during the communist Tet offensive in Vietnam, the 3rd Brigade, 82nd Airborne Division and elements of the 319th Field Artillery Regiment deployed to the North Vietnamese-infected I Corps. After participating in combat operations in the Hue/Phu Bai area, 3rd Brigade moved south where they became part of the pacification efforts near Saigon. On 12 December 1969, the 3rd Brigade returned to Fort Bragg and the 82nd Airborne after serving almost 22 months in Vietnam.
On 25 October 1983, 2 brigade task forces and elements of the 319th Field Artillery were deployed to the Caribbean Island of Grenada. Within 18 hours of notification, 82nd troopers were not only wheels-up from Fort Bragg, but were in a firefight with enemy forces. After a successful mission, the 82nd was again called upon.
On 20 December 1989, more than 2,000 Division paratroopers conducted a night combat airborne assault onto Torrijos International Airport, Panama. After the jump and the airport seizure, the 82nd successfully carried out multiple follow-on combat missions throughout the country. The Division's decisive action left the Panamanian defense forces destroyed, a ruthless dictator removed, and a duly elected democratic government in power.
The 82nd Airborne also deployed in support of Operation Desert Storm. On 8 August 1990, the Division became the vanguard of the largest American deployment since the Vietnam War. As the first unit deployed to Saudi Arabia, the 82nd drew President Bush's "Line in the Sand" to deter Saddam Hussein's million man army from further aggression. On 23 February 1991, the lead elements of the Division, along with the French 6th Light Armored Division had already pushed into Iraq. During the short "100 Hour War" Division units drove deep into Iraq and were responsible for the capture of several thousand Iraqi soldiers and the destruction of massive amounts of equipment, weapons and ammunition. The 82nd began redeployment to Fort Bragg on 7 March 1991, after the liberation of Kuwait was complete and a cease-fire agreed to.
Elements of the 82nd Division Artillery deployed in support of the 82nd Airborne Division on its three deployments to Iraq as part of Operation Iraqi Freedom between 2003 and 2005.
In 2006 the DIVARTY was inactivated as part of the transformation of the 82nd Airborne Division as a whole to the US Army's new modular force structure. Its 3 battalions and seperate company were all inactivated and reactivated assigned to seperate units. 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Battalions, 319th Field Artillery Regiment became organic to the 82nd Airborne Division's reorganized modular 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Brigade Combat Teams respectively. D Battery, 319th Field Artillery Regiment was inactivated and reorganized and redesignated as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 4th Battalion, 319th Field Artillery Regiment, and activated assigned to the similarly reorganized and redesignated modular 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team (Seperate).
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