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Emniyet Genel Müdürlügü
General Directorate of Security

The first police organization in the country was established in Istanbul on April 10, 1845, and the first Police Regulations, published on the same date, defined the tasks of this new organization. The security organization had many structural changes by the laws legislated after 1845, and finally law 3201 June 4, 1937 defined and regulated the duties, responsibilities, powers and personnel details of the national police - the Directorate of National Security. Consequently, although affiliated to the Ministry of the Interior, the Directorate General of Security [General Directorate of Security] became an agency administered under its own law.

There is a special operations section at the General Directorate of Security.

The 1991 Anti-Terror Law nullified the "thought crimes" articles of the penal code. However, it introduced a broad and ambiguous definition of terrorism, enabling the government to use the law not only to combat alleged terrorism but also to impose sentences of two to five years on ordinary citizens for written and oral propaganda, meetings, and demonstrations aimed at "damaging the indivisible unity of the state."

Persons detained for individual crimes under the Anti-Terror Law must be brought before a judge within forty-eight hours. Anyone charged with crimes of a collective political or conspiratorial nature may be detained for up to fifteen days and up to thirty days in the ten southeastern provinces under a state of emergency in early 1995. The law does not guarantee access to counsel in such cases, leaving this decision to prosecutors, who routinely deny access.

A May 1999 assessment by the General Directorate of Security found deep Iranian involvement in subversive activities affecting the Ankara regime and the Ankara region. In addition to supporting Hizbullah, Hamas and the Islamic Jihad Organization, among others, Iran is also believed to be supporting the Kurdish Workers Party, which has been waging a war of separatism against Turkey for 15 years. GDS accuses Iran of being "directly and indirectly involved in arms and narcotics smuggling because of its regional and international support for terrorism, and its involvement with around 100 radical terrorist groups worldwide. Also, because Iran supplies arms, ammunition, and explosives to the terrorist organizations it directs or the militants of these organizations it trains".

Eight state security courts, each composed of five members--two civilian judges, one military judge, and two prosecutors--may try defendants accused of terrorism, drug smuggling, membership in illegal organizations, or espousing and disseminating prohibited ideas. The state security courts mainly handle cases under the Anti-Terror Law. As of the end of 1993, a total of 3,792 persons had been detained under the law, and 811 persons were serving sentences under its provisions. In addition to the longer prearraignment detention the law permits, the state security courts can hold closed hearings and may admit testimony gathered during police interrogation in the absence of counsel. Verdicts of the courts may be appealed to a special State Security Court of Appeals.

Turkey's General Directorate of Security handles applications and related transactions for passports, visas, driver's licenses and other important documents electronically using advanced local (LAN) and wide area (WAN) data networks. The Directorate also uses these networks to help police and other law enforcement agencies fight crime more effectively by providing electronic access to a database - Turkey's largest - of warrants, fingerprints, ballistics, DNA, blood and tissue analysis, and other critical information.

Supporting rapidly the Turkish Armed Forces, when needed, from the aspect of personnel, vehicles, goods and services constitute the basis of the mobilization policy and system. The transformation to full automation of the military mobilization activities are continuing. Within this scope, first of all the automation of the Mobilization Department of the Ministry of National Defense has been completed. As of the year 2000, it was provided that the General Directorate of Security and the entire Recruitment Organization and the units and institutes with mobilization numbers were integrated with computer data lines.

The main operational organ of the struggle performed against drug trafficking in Turkey is Anti - Smuggling and Organized Crime Department of General Directorate of Security which reports and acts under the Ministry of Interior. The Smuggling, Intelligence and Operations Department established in 1981 was renamed as Anti - Smuggling and Organized Crime Department in 1995 and restructured to undertake duty to combat organized crime which requires influence before of the events to discover and is perpetrated by influencing on economic and administrative structure for the purpose of gaining benefits, in accordance with Regulation dated 24/04/1998. The Anti-Smuggling and Organized Crime Department determines aim and strategies related to these duties and performs planning, coordination, control, follow - up and supervision of the services rendered by the units acting under its responsibility in 81 provinces, and adds effectiveness and efficiency to operations. Within this framework, approximately 3000 personnel working in Anti - Smuggling and Organized Crime Department and its rural organization is provided with basic trafficking and specialization training according to a certain program.



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