FM 34-8: Combat Commander's Handbook On Intelligence
S2/G2 ORGANIZATIONS AND FUNCTIONS
The Battalion S2 Battalion S2 Organization
- Your S2 should be an MI captain.
- Your battalion S2 section is austere. Even when fully manned, your S2 shop is not resourced to conduct sustained split Tactical Operations Center (TOC) and Tactical Command Post (TAC) operations.
- You are authorized an MI lieutenant (assistant S2) to supervise the S2's battlefield information coordination center (BICC).
- Your S2 section is authorized a combat arms master sergeant as an NCOIC, as well as an MI sergeant and one radio telephone operator (RTO).
- Battalion S2 operations are generally informal, providing detailed products only when time and resources permit.
Nature of Battalion S2 Operations
- Every member of the S2 section should be able to perform any of the nonplanning intelligence functions. This is necessary since anyone in the S2 section could be caught "one deep" in the TOC for long periods of time.
- Your S2's first priority at this level is to ensure a healthy IPB process to drive staff planning.
- Your S2's second priority is to coordinate, supervise, and enforce the R&S plan.
- Because reports from scout platoons and line companies are relatively reliable, the battalion S2 doesn't have to conduct much analysis. This is especially true if you have high quality IPB and wargaming products.
- Because your S2 section is so small, it's relatively easy (compared to higher levels) for the entire shop to talk through and understand the intelligence situation. Hence, you can train your battalion S2 section to a very high degree of proficiency.
- Your S2 and S3 should be full partners in driving all battalion operations. These officers should work together on all decision-making processes. Both staff officers should be intimately familiar with the other's duties.
- Always have your S2 present when you discuss battalion operations.
- Because the battalion staff is so small (compared to higher echelons), you can train your battle staff to be "intelligence literate." Your entire staff should talk to S2 personnel frequently.
- The S2 must provide estimates about enemy future intentions, rather than reiterate past events. Train him to provide you with the intelligence products you need to fight and plan future battles.
- Your S2 doesn't have the time or resources to develop all the possible IPB templates or written products. Your S2 expects to get IPB products from the Brigade S2. As a systematic check, your battalion S2 verifies the brigade S2's IPB effort. Once accepted, your S2 uses brigade products as a start point to develop the detailed IPB products needed to support battalion operations.
- Your S2 should always produce a set of situation templates for likely enemy COAs.
- Your S2 should also develop an event template and an R&S plan to confirm or deny predictions in a timely manner.
- He will also help your S3 produce the DSTs during the wargaming process. Your S2 should record intelligence needs on the DST and BOS synchronization matrix rather than on a separate intelligence synchronization matrix.
Typical MI Support to a Battalion
- Scout assets are organic to your battalion. The S2 must be involved in planning the scout platoon mission. The S2 must give them precise guidance on information he needs, what to look for to get it, and when they must report the information. The S2 should also debrief scouts whenever possible to ensure all relevant information is obtained.
- Except for ground surveillance radars (GSRs) and the remotely monitored battlefield sensor system (REMBASS), you will probably not have MI assets attached to your unit. The assets you do get should be fully integrated with the R&S effort. The S2, through the S3, should task frontline troops and combat patrols for collection as well. You must husband and protect your few resources, focusing on your intended main effort.
The Brigade S2
Brigade S2 Organization
- The S2 section is much larger at the brigade level.
- Your brigade S2 should be an MI major with battalion S2 experience.
- Your S2 shop will have up to three officers and six enlisted soldiers. Light brigades will have fewer personnel.
- The S2 should have an IEWSO (a liaison officer from the MI battalion) to help plan and integrate direct support (DS) and other MI assets.
- The sample intelligence process described in Chapter 2 should give you a good idea of the S2's role at the brigade level.
- IPB and the command estimate process are more formalized at brigade level than at battalion level. The division of labor is more predictable and better defined. You can designate your most experienced assistant S2 as the plans officer, and the others as "shift S2s" within the TOC.
- Because of the increased size of the section you must train harder to get the entire shop on "a single sheet of music." However, a brigade S2 shop can still train to a high degree of proficiency.
- The enemy situation is significantly more ambiguous than at battalion level. Your S2 will have to conduct analysis and take some risks to provide predictive analysis and recommendations to you. This requires a confident, experienced tactical MI officer who understands friendly operations and tactics and can anticipate the type of action or reaction they're likely to evoke from an enemy force.
Nature of Brigade S2 Operations
Command and StaffInteraction with the Brigade S2
- Because of the increased size of the brigade staff, it's difficult to make the entire battle staff intelligence literate. S2 personnel can no longer rely on simple conversations within the TOC (or on the command net) to keep the entire unit informed. S2 personnel at this level have to invest substantial thought into preparing and briefing intelligence products.
- The S2 usually sends an assistant S2 with an analyst to the brigade TAC. They serve as an advisory element to the TAC. They do limited analysis and must access the TOC for anything requiring detailed analysis.
Product Expectations for the Brigade S2
- Your brigade S2 develops more detailed terrain and weather IPB products than the battalion S2. Once completed, he forwards them to the battalion S2s for their use. He should expect battalion S2s to question his IPB effort. He should be prepared to discuss and change these products as appropriate.
- The situation and event templates are more formal and detailed than at the battalion level.
- The S2 still may not develop a separate intelligence synchronization matrix if he can include it as part of the BOS synchronization matrix.
- The S2 develops a more formalized "R&S tasking matrix" (collection plan).
Typical MI Support to a Brigade
- At brigade level, you don't have organic scout assets. This forces you to . rely on subordinate battalions and division to answer your PIRs. When scouts are organic to the brigade, the brigade S2 should become involved in their mission planning just as the battalion S2 is with battalion scouts.
- The brigade will often receive an MI company team consisting of a signals intelligence (SIGINT) platoon, and possibly interrogation and counterintelligence (CI) teams. See Chapter 4 and Appendix B for a discussion of what this company consists of.
- Brigade S2s in light brigades also receive substantial GSR and REM-BASS support.
The Division and Corps G2
Division and Corps G2 Organization
- The G2 sections at division and corps are much larger than their brigade counterpart. The G2 should be an MI lieutenant colonel at division and an MI colonel at corps.
- The G2 section contains the division or corps TOC support element (DTOCSE or CTOCSE) which contains the all-source production section (ASPS), collection management and dissemination (CM&D) section, field artillery intelligence officer (FAIO), counterintelligence analysis section (CIAS), and EW section. All other G2 staff sections work for the G2, but not as part of the DTOCSE or CTOCSE.
The All-Source Production Section (ASPS)
The ASPS prepares the situation templates (enemy COAs) that drive division and corps wargaming. Analysts here are the experts on how the enemy will deploy in any given situation. They develop enemy event templates and analysis matrixes and identify HVTs.
The ASPS also tracks and analyzes the battle. ASPS analysts conduct target development and report located targets to the FSO or the fire support element (FSE). In addition, they conduct BDA.
The Collection Management and Dissemination (CM&D) Section
The CM&D section receives PIRs and IRs from the G2 (with "deadlines" that the G2 section identifies from wargaming and discussions with you). The CM&D section then develops the intelligence synchronization matrix. This shows the fundamental plan for answering each of your PIRs, locating priority targets you have established for attack and collecting BDA.
The CM&D then manages the collection effort. Talk to CM&D to make sure they're collecting against your priorities and to find out how well the collection assets are satisfying tasked requirements. Also talk to them to get a feel for how well the IRs that support future decisions will be answered. The CM&D also disseminates intelligence. Make sure they know when you need specific requirements satisfied.
The Field Artillery Intelligence Other (FAIO)
The FAIO serves as the liaison between division and corps artillery and your G2 section. He coordinates with the ASPS and makes sure priority HPTs are passed to the FSE on an expedited basis.
The Engineer Terrain Detachment
The engineer terrain detachment works for the G2 and prepares the detailed terrain analysis products that the ASPS integrates into the IPB.
The USAF Weather Team (WETM)
The Air Force provides a weather team to (continued) observe and forecast the weather conditions on the battlefield and to help the G2 to evaluate the impact of weather on friendly and threat operations. The WETM provides key weather analysis overlays for the ASPS to integrate into the IPB process.
The G2 Plans Section
The G2 Plans officer receives your guidance for the direction of IPB. He then translates that guidance into specific taskings for other G2 sections.
When the G2 Plans officer receives the situation templates from the ASPS, he war-games with the rest of the planning staff. He helps develop the BOS synchronization matrix and the DST. He and the G2 briefs you on the IRs and the recommended PIRs from the wargaming.
The Counterintelligence Analysis Section (CIAS)
The CIAS studies the enemy's ability to collect on us using a variety of collection assets across the entire battlefield (not just the rear area). This is known as multidiscipline counterintelligence (MDCI). The G3 will develop Essential Elements of Friendly Information (EEFI) and you will approve them after thinking through how you intend to deceive the enemy and what information you want to deny him. The CIAS will then wargame the EEFI against the enemy's ability to collect. The end result is a recommendation to the G3 on OPSEC countermeasures, contributing to force protection.
Because a principal CIAS mission is to G2 describe "how the enemy sees us," the CIAS (continued) is instrumental in devising the best way to feed the enemy "stories" or "pictures" to support your deception effort.
The G2 Operations Section
The G2 Operations Section receives a complete OPLAN from the G2 Plans officer and executes the resulting OPORD/FRAGO. The G2 Operations officer tracks the battle against the evolving intelligence needs of your unit. He then coordinates with the G2, ASPS, and CM&D section to adjust the intelligence synchronization plan accordingly. He also coordinates the deployment of intelligence systems with the G3 and subordinate and adjacent units.
The IEW Component of G3
The Electronic Warfare Section (EWS)
The Electronic Warfare Section estimates the threat of enemy jamming capabilities and plans the use of electronic jamming and deception to support your plan. This section works closely with G3 Plans and the FSE to integrate lethal and nonlethal attack means.
The Electronic Warfare Officer (EWO)
The EWO works closely with the EWS to ensure that friendly jammers don't jam critical frequencies for friendly use. He participates fully in wargaming and the subsequent targeting conference.
- The G2 is your senior intelligence officer and is responsible for driving the division or corps intelligence effort to support your requirements. He orchestrates the work of his organic and attached elements to produce high quality, detailed intelligence products.
- Division and corps have significantly more collection assets than the brigade. Each collection asset requires great specificity in tasking. Because of this, there are substantially more people involved in division and corps collection efforts than in the brigade effort.
- This phenomenon requires extraordinary effort in planning and executing collection. While there is a prescribed collection management (CM) process, the CM process is really an art. The CM effort is usually the center of gravity for G2 operations at division and corps levels.
- Because of the size of the G2 section and the volume of incoming and outgoing information, good G2 sections dedicate significant energy to communicating with each other.
- While the CM&D and ASPS elements at the division main CP (DMAIN) conduct most of the analysis and CM functions, the division rear CP (DREAR) and division tactical CP (DTAC) will have formal G2 elements that can conduct analytical and CM tasks. Your G2 must clearly define the relationship between his staff elements in the three command posts.
Command and Staff Interaction with the Division and Corps G2
- G2, G3, and their subordinate elements must be equal partners and work closely together. G3 staff elements must have a good feel for the intelligence situation, just as the G2 staff must fully understand the friendly situation and your intent.
- G2 and G3 Plans officers must maintain a close working relationship. The G2 Operations officer must spend a significant amount of time coordinating with all other staff elements.
Product Expectations for the Division and Corps G2
- G2 products (especially those made by terrain and weather teams) are highly specialized and detailed. They are an invaluable resource to G2 Plans and ASPS for developing intelligence products the rest of the staff and subordinate staffs can use.
Typical MI Support to a Division and Corps
- The entire intelligence system of systems works in support of your intelligence requirements for planning, deployment, and contingency operations.
- The division has an organic MI battalion and cavalry squadron.
- The corps has an organic MI brigade and a cavalry regiment.
- A large number of nonorganic collection assets supports both division and corps units during deployment.
- The capabilities of these organization arc described in Chapter 4 and Appendix B.
The Non-Maneuver S2
The main function of a nonmaneuver unit S2 is to develop relevant enemy COAs that could affect your unit from the supported maneuver S2 intelligence estimate. These are tailored to your unit's planning and intelligence requirements and should drive your unit staff planning process for assets that remain in GS to the supported unit as a whole.
For example, the S2 of a field artillery (FA) battalion DS to a maneuver brigade acquires the basic maneuver templates from his brigade S2. Given the possible disposition of the enemy maneuver units, the FA battalion S2 templates the likely location of enemy artillery units. This enables the FA battalion S3 to emplace firing batteries in positions least vulnerable to enemy counterbattery fire. The S2 also recommends emplacement of Q36 and Q37 radar to best confirm or deny his templated positions. This facilitates the friendly counterbattery effort.
The Bottom Line
If I always appear prepared, it is because before entering on an undertaking, I have meditated for long and have foreseen what may occur. It is not genius which reveals to me suddenly and secretly what I should do in circumstances unexpected by others; it is thought and meditation.Napoleon
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