Intelligence

43 Retired Generals and Admirals to U.S. Senate: Require Single Standard for Interrogations

GENERAL JOSEPH HOAR, USMC (RET.)
GENERAL CHARLES KRULAK, USMC (RET.)
GENERAL BARRY MCCAFFREY, USA (RET.)
ADMIRAL STANSFIELD TURNER, USN (RET.)
GENERAL CHARLES E. WILHELM, USMC (RET.)
LIEUTENANT GENERAL ROBERT G. GARD JR., USA (RET.)
LIEUTENANT GENERAL HENRY J. HATCH, USA (RET.)
LIEUTENANT GENERAL DONALD L. KERRICK, USA (RET.)
LIEUTENANT GENERAL CHARLES OTSTOTT, USA (RET.)
MAJOR GENERAL LEO M. CHILDS, USA (RET.)
MAJOR GENERAL PAUL EATON, USA (RET.)
MAJOR GENERAL JOHN L. FUGH, USA (RET.)
MAJOR GENERAL FRED E. HAYNES, USMC (RET.)
MAJOR GENERAL MELVYN MONTANO, ANG (RET.)
MAJOR GENERAL THOMAS J. ROMIG, USA (RET.)
MAJOR GENERAL ANTONIO ‘TONY’ M. TAGUBA, USA (RET.)
BRIGADIER GENERAL DAVID M. BRAHMS, USMC (RET.)
BRIGADIER GENERAL JAMES P. CULLEN, USA (RET.)
BRIGADIER GENERAL GERALD E. GALLOWAY, USA (RET)
BRIGADIER GENERAL JOHN H. JOHNS, USA (RET.)
BRIGADIER GENERAL MURRAY G. SAGSVEEN, USA (RET.)
BRIGADIER GENERAL STEPHEN N. XENAKIS, USA (RET.)

GENERAL PAUL J. KERN, USA (RET.)
GENERAL DAVID M. MADDOX, USA (RET.)
GENERAL MERRILL A. MCPEAK, USAF (RET.)
GENERAL WILLIAM G. T. TUTTLE JR., USA (RET.)
GENERAL ANTHONY ZINNI (RET.)
VICE ADMIRAL LEE F. GUNN, USN (RET.)
LIEUTENANT GENERAL CLAUDIA J. KENNEDY, USA (RET.)
VICE ADMIRAL ALBERT H. KONETZNI JR., USN (RET.)
LIEUTENANT GENERAL HARRY E. SOYSTER, USA (RET.)
MAJOR GENERAL JAMES P. COLLINS, USA (RET.)
MAJOR GENERAL EUGENE FOX, USA (RET.)
REAR ADMIRAL DON GUTER, USN (RET.)
REAR ADMIRAL JOHN D. HUTSON, USN (RET.)
MAJOR GENERAL ERIC OLSON, USA (RET.)
MAJOR GENERAL GERALD T. SAJER, USA (RET.)
BRIGADIER GENERAL DORIAN ANDERSON, USA (RET.)
BRIGADIER GENERAL CLARKE M. BRINTNALL, USA (RET.)
BRIGADIER GENERAL EVELYN P. FOOTE, USA (RET.)
BRIGADIER GENERAL DAVID R. IRVINE, USA (RET.)
BRIGADIER GENERAL RICHARD O’MEARA, USA (RET.)
BRIGADIER GENERAL ANTHONY VERRENGIA, USAF (RET.)

 

February 12, 2008

The Honorable John D. Rockefeller IV, Chairman
The United States Senate
Select Committee on Intelligence
Washington, DC 20510

The Honorable Christopher S. Bond, Vice Chairman
The United States Senate
Select Committee on Intelligence
Washington, DC 20510

 

Dear Chairman Rockefeller and Vice Chairman Bond:

As retired military leaders of the U.S. Armed Forces, we write to express our strong support for Section 327 of the Conference Report on the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008, H.R. 2082. Section 327 would require intelligence agents of the U.S. government to adhere to the standards of prisoner treatment and interrogation contained in the U.S. Army Field Manual on Human Collector Operations (the Army Field Manual).

We believe it is vital to the safety of our men and women in uniform that the United States not sanction the use of interrogation methods it would find unacceptable if inflicted by the enemy against captured Americans. That principle, embedded in the Army Field Manual, has guided generations of American military personnel in combat.

The current situation, in which the military operates under one set of interrogation rules that are public and the CIA operates under a separate, secret set of rules, is unwise and impractical. In order to ensure adherence across the government to the requirements of the Geneva Conventions and to maintain the integrity of the humane
treatment standards on which our own troops rely, we believe that all U.S. personnel – military and civilian – should be held to a single standard of humane treatment reflected in the Army Field Manual.

The Field Manual is the product of decades of practical experience and was updated in 2006 to reflect lessons learned from the current conflict. Interrogation methods authorized by the Field Manual have proven effective in eliciting vital intelligence from dangerous enemy prisoners. Some have argued that the Field Manual rules are too simplistic for civilian interrogators. We reject that argument. Interrogation methods authorized in the Field Manual are sophisticated and flexible. And the principles reflected in the Field Manual are values that no U.S. agency should violate.

General David Petraeus underscored this point in an open letter to the troops in May in which he cautioned against the use of interrogation techniques not authorized by the Field Manual:

What sets us apart from our enemies in this fight. . . . is how we behave. In everything we do, we must observe the standards and values that dictate that we treat noncombatants and detainees with dignity and respect.. Some may argue that we would be more effective if we sanctioned torture or other expedient methods to obtain information from the enemy. They would be wrong. Beyond the basic fact that such actions are illegal, history shows that they also are frequently neither useful nor necessary. Certainly, extreme physical action can make someone "talk;" however, what the individual says may be of questionable value. In fact, our experience in applying the interrogation standards laid out in the Army Field Manual (2-22.3) on Human Intelligence Collector Operations that was published last year shows that the techniques in the manual work effectively and humanely in eliciting information from detainees.

Employing interrogation methods that violate the Field Manual is not only unnecessary, but poses enormous risks. These methods generate information of dubious value, reliance upon which can lead to disastrous consequences. Moreover, revelation of the use of such techniques does immense damage to the reputation and moral authority of the United States essential to our efforts to combat terrorism.

This is a defining issue for America. We urge you to support the adoption of Section 327 of the Conference Report and thereby send a clear message – to U.S. personnel and to the world – that the United States will not engage in or condone the abuse of prisoners and will honor its commitments to uphold the Geneva Conventions.

Sincerely,

General Joseph Hoar, USMC (Ret.)
General Paul J. Kern, USA (Ret.)
General Charles Krulak, USMC (Ret.)
General David M. Maddox, USA (Ret.)
General Barry McCaffrey, USA (Ret.)
General Merrill A. McPeak, USAF (Ret.)
Admiral Stansfield Turner, USN (Ret.)
General William G. T. Tuttle Jr., USA (Ret.)
General Charles E. Wilhelm, USMC (Ret.)
General Anthony Zinni (Ret.)
Lieutenant General Robert G. Gard Jr., USA (Ret.)
Vice Admiral Lee F. Gunn, USN (Ret.)
Lieutenant General Henry J. Hatch, USA (Ret.)
Lieutenant General Claudia J. Kennedy, USA (Ret.)
Lieutenant General Donald L. Kerrick, USA (Ret.)
Vice Admiral Albert H. Konetzni Jr., USN (Ret.)
Lieutenant General Charles Otstott, USA (Ret.)
Lieutenant General Harry E. Soyster, USA (Ret.)
Major General Leo M. Childs, USA (Ret.)
Major General James P. Collins, USA (Ret.)
Major General Paul Eaton, USA (Ret.)
Major General Eugene Fox, USA (Ret.)
Major General John L. Fugh, USA (Ret.)
Rear Admiral Don Guter, USN (Ret.)
Major General Fred E. Haynes, USMC (Ret.)
Rear Admiral John D. Hutson, USN (Ret.)
Major General Melvyn Montano, ANG (Ret.)
Major General Eric Olson, USA (Ret.)
Major General Thomas J. Romig, USA (Ret.)
Major General Gerald T. Sajer, USA (Ret.)
Major General Antonio ‘Tony’ M. Taguba, USA (Ret.)
Brigadier General Dorian Anderson, USA (Ret.)
Brigadier General David M. Brahms, USMC (Ret.)
Brigadier General Clarke M. Brintnall, USA (Ret.)
Brigadier General James P. Cullen, USA (Ret.)
Brigadier General Evelyn P. Foote, USA (Ret.)
Brigadier General Gerald E. Galloway, USA (Ret)
Brigadier General David R. Irvine, USA (Ret.)
Brigadier General John H. Johns, USA (Ret.)
Brigadier General Richard O’Meara, USA (Ret.)
Brigadier General Murray G. Sagsveen, USA (Ret.)
Brigadier General Anthony Verrengia, USAF (Ret.)
Brigadier General Stephen N. Xenakis, USA (Ret.)


BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION

General Joseph Hoar, USMC (Ret.)

General Hoar served as Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Central Command. After the first Gulf War, General Hoar led the effort to enforce the naval embargo in the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, and to enforce the no-fly zone in the south of Iraq. He oversaw the humanitarian and peacekeeping operations in Kenya and Somalia and also supported operations in Rwanda, and the evacuation of U.S. civilians from Yemen during the 1994 civil war. He was the Deputy for Operations for the Marine Corps during the Gulf War and served as General Norman Schwarzkopf's Chief of Staff at Central Command. General Hoar currently runs a consulting business in California.

General Paul J. Kern, USA (Ret.)

In November 2004, General Paul Kern concluded his more than 40-year career in the United States Army when he retired as Commanding General, Army Materiel Command (AMC). In June 2004, Secretary Rumsfeld tapped him to lead the military's internal investigation into the abuses at the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq. Prior to his command at AMC, he served as the military deputy to the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Acquisition, Logistics and Technology and was the senior military advisor to the Army Acquisition Executive and the Army Chief of Staff on all research, development, and acquisition programs and related issues. As the Senior Military Assistant to Secretary of Defense William Perry, General Kern was instrumental in ensuring that the Secretary's guidance was implemented throughout the Department. During that tenure he traveled with Secretary Perry to more than 70 countries, participated in U.S. operations in Haiti, Rwanda, Zaire and the Balkans, and helped to promote military relations in Central and Eastern Europe, South America, China, and the Middle East. General Kern had three combat tours during his illustrious career with two tours in Vietnam as a platoon leader and troop commander, and he commanded the Second Brigade of the 24th Infantry in Desert Shield/Desert Storm. During his career, General Kern received the Defense and Army Distinguished Service Medals, Silver Star, Defense Superior Service Medal, Legion of Merit, two Bronze Star Medals for valor, three Bronze Star Medals for service in combat, and three Purple Hearts.

General Charles Krulak, USMC (Ret.)

General Krulak served as the 31st Commandant of the Marine Corps from July 1995 to June 1999. He is a graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy; the Amphibious Warfare School; the Army Command and General Staff College; and the National War College. He also holds a master's degree in labor relations from George Washington University. General Krulak has held a variety of command and staff positions including Commanding Officer of a platoon and two rifle companies during two tours of duty in Vietnam. He was also assigned duty as the Deputy Director of the White House Military Office in September 1987, and he commanded the 6th Marine Expeditionary Brigade and 2d FSSG during the Gulf War.

General David M. Maddox, USA (Ret.)

General Maddox served in the U.S. Army from 1960 until 1995. He retired after serving as Commander in Chief, U.S. Army in Europe. While on active duty, General Maddox served extensively overseas with four tours in Germany during which he commanded at every level from platoon through NATO's Central Army Group, 7th U.S. Army and theater. His last six years of active duty were in Europe transitioning from the Cold War, through Desert Storm, to the total reengineering of our presence and mission in Europe. Since retirement, General Maddox has been an independent consultant to civilian corporations, government agencies, and defense industries regarding concepts, systems requirements, program strategies, operations and systems effectiveness, and analytic techniques and analyses. He has served on the Defense Science Board, is a member of the Army Science Board, and is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, the Corporation of the Draper
Laboratory, and The Washington Institute of Foreign Affairs.

General Barry McCaffrey, USA (Ret.)

Barry McCaffrey served in the United States Army for 32 years and retired as a four-star General. At retirement he was the most highly decorated serving General, having been awarded three Purple Heart medals for wounds received in his four combat tours - as well as twice awarded the Distinguished Service Cross, the nation's second highest award for valor. He also twice was awarded the Silver Star for valor. For five years after leaving the military, Barry McCaffrey served as the nation's Cabinet Officer in charge of U.S. Drug Policy. He was confirmed for this position by unanimous vote by the U.S. Senate. For this period of public service, General McCaffrey received many honors including: the Department of Health and Human Service Lifetime Achievement Award for Extraordinary Achievements in the Field of Substance Abuse Prevention (2004), the United States Coast Guard Distinguished Public Service Award, the Norman E. Zinberg Award of the Harvard Medical School, the Federal Law Enforcement Foundation's National Service Award, and the Community Anti-Drug Coalitions of America Lifetime Achievement Award. After leaving government service, Barry McCaffrey served for five years (2001-2005) as the Bradley Distinguished Professor of International Security Studies at West Point. He continues as an Adjunct Professor of International Affairs. Barry McCaffrey graduated from Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass. in 1960; from West Point with a BS in 1964; earned an MA degree in American Government from American University; and attended the Harvard University National Security Program as well as the Business School Executive Education Program.

General Merrill A. McPeak, USAF (Ret.)

General McPeak served as the Chief of Staff of the U.S. Air Force. Previously, General McPeak served as Commander in Chief of the U.S. Pacific Air Forces. He is a command pilot, having flown more than 6,000 hours, principally in fighter aircraft.

Admiral Stansfield Turner, USN (Ret.)

During his service in the United States Navy, Admiral Turner commanded a mine sweeper, a destroyer, a guided-missile cruiser, a carrier task group and a fleet. He also was President of the Naval War College. Admiral Stansfield Turner's last naval assignment was as Commander in Chief of NATO's Southern Flank. In 1977 President Jimmy Carter appointed Turner as Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. He served in the post until January 1981. In recent years he has worked as a lecturer, writer and TV commentator. Since 1991 he has been teaching at the University of Maryland School of Public Policy. Admiral Turner serves on the Board of Direction of the American Association of Rhodes Scholars, as well as on the boards of other organizations.

General William G. T. Tuttle Jr., USA (Ret.)

General Tuttle served for nearly 34 years in the U.S. Army and retired following command of the U.S. Army Materiel Command. He served tours in Vietnam, Korea, and Europe and his military experience included leadership of the Army Logistics Center, Operational Test and Evaluation Agency, and four logistics commands as well as operations analysis and force management responsibilities on Army and NATO staffs. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Medals of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and the Department of Defense.

General Charles E. Wilhelm, USMC (Ret.)

General Charles E. Wilhelm retired from the United States Marine Corps in November of 2000 after almost 38 years of active service. In his final assignment, General Wilhelm served as Commander in Chief of the United States Southern Command. In that capacity he was responsible for all military activities in the 32 countries of the Caribbean, Central, and South America. During his 12 years as a General Officer, he served in a variety of positions. After his initial assignment as Director of Marine Corps Operations, General Wilhelm served as a Deputy Secretary of Defense during the administration of President George Herbert Walker Bush. Returning from the first Persian Gulf War, he assumed command of the 1st Marine Division. Relinquishing command of the division after its return from combat operations in Somalia, he served as Commanding General of the Marine Corps Combat Development Command, and the II Marine Expeditionary Force before concluding his career at Southern Command. During his Marine Corps career, General Wilhelm commanded at every level and participated in contingencies and combat operations in Vietnam, Lebanon, Somalia, Liberia, Haiti and the Middle East. His decorations and awards include the Defense Distinguished Service Medal (two awards), Silver Star Medal, Defense Superior Service Medal (two awards), Bronze Star Medal with combat “V”, Defense Meritorious Service Medal, Meritorious Service Medal, Navy Commendation Medal with combat “V”, Army Commendation Medal with combat “V”, Joint Service Achievement Medal, Navy Achievement Medal and the Combat Action Ribbon. He was also decorated by the governments of Argentina, Chile, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Lebanon, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru and Vietnam. Since his retirement, General Wilhelm has has served as a corporate executive with the Battelle Memorial Institute, is a member of several boards of directors, provides consultant and advisory services to both government and non-government agencies, and he devotes considerable time to a variety of Department of Defense and Homeland Security activities. Recently, he traveled to Iraq as a volunteer member of the congressionally directed Jones Commission to assess security and stability conditions in that country. General Wilhelm is a native of Edenton, North Carolina. He received his undergraduate degree from Florida Southern College, his graduate degree from Salve Regina College, and he holds an honorary doctorate from Florida Southern. He resides in Villa Rica, Georgia, with his wife Valerie.

General Anthony Zinni, USMC (Ret.)

General Zinni joined the Marine Corps in 1961 and has held numerous command and staff assignments that include platoon, company, battalion, regimental, Marine expeditionary unit, and Marine expeditionary force command. His military service has taken him to over 70 countries including deployments to the Mediterranean, the Caribbean, the Western Pacific, Northern Europe and Korea. He has also served tours in Okinawa and Germany. His operational experiences include two tours in Vietnam, emergency relief and security operations in the Philippines, Operation Provide Comfort in Turkey and northern Iraq, Operation Provide Hope in the former Soviet Union, Operations Restore Hope, Continue Hope, and United Shield in Somalia, Operations Resolute Response and Noble Response in Kenya, Operations Desert Thunder, Desert Fox, Desert Viper, Desert Spring, Southern Watch and the Maritime Intercept Operations in the Persian Gulf, and Operation Infinite Reach against terrorist targets in the Central Region. He was involved in the planning and execution of Operation Proven Force and Operation Patriot Defender in support of the Gulf War and noncombatant evacuation operations in Liberia, Zaire, Sierra Leone, and Eritrea. He has also participated in presidential diplomatic missions to Somalia, Pakistan, and Ethiopia-Eritrea and State Department missions involving the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and conflicts in Indonesia and the Philippines. General Zinni's awards include the Defense Distinguished Service Medal with oak leaf cluster; the Distinguished Service Medal; the Defense Superior Service Medal with two oak leaf clusters; the Bronze Star with Combat "V" and gold star, the Purple Heart; the Meritorious Service Medal with gold star-, the Navy Commendation Medal with Combat "V" and gold star; the Navy Achievement Medal with gold star; the Combat Action Ribbon; and personal decorations from South Vietnam, France, Italy, Egypt, Kuwait, Yemen, and Bahrain. He also holds 36 unit, service, and campaign awards.

Lieutenant General Robert G. Gard Jr., USA (Ret.)

General Gard is a retired Lieutenant General who served in the United States Army; his military assignments included combat service in Korea and Vietnam. He is currently a consultant on international security and president emeritus of the Monterey Institute for International Studies.

Vice Admiral Lee F. Gunn, USN (Ret.)

Vice Admiral Gunn served as the Inspector General of the Department of the Navy from 1997 until retirement in August 2000. Admiral Gunn's sea duty included: command of the frigate USS Barbey; command of Destroyer Squadron 31, the Navy's tactical and technical development anti-submarine warfare squadron; and command of Amphibious Group Three, supporting the First Marine Expeditionary Force in Southwest Asia and East Africa. Gunn is from Bakersfield, California and is a graduate of UCLA, having received his commission from the Naval ROTC program at UCLA in June 1965.

Lieutenant General Henry J. Hatch, USA (Ret.)

In 1992 Henry J. (Hank) Hatch retired from the Army as a Lieutenant General, the Chief of Engineers and Commander of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. He is an active volunteer with several professional organizations including the National Research Council (NRC) (the operating arm of the National Academies of Engineering and Science), the American Association of Engineering Societies (AAES) and the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) and the US National Commission for UNESCO. Hatch earned his Bachelors from West Point and his Masters from the Ohio State University. He is a registered professional engineer in the District of Columbia, a Distinguished Member of ASCE and a member of the National Academy of Engineering.

Lieutenant General Claudia J. Kennedy, USA (Ret.)

General Kennedy is the first and only woman to achieve the rank of three-star general in the United States Army. Kennedy served as Deputy Chief of Staff for Army Intelligence, Commander of the U.S. Army Recruiting Command, and as Commander of the 703d military intelligence brigade in Kunia, Hawaii.

Lieutenant General Donald L. Kerrick, USA (Ret.)

Lieutenant General Kerrick retired from the U.S. Army in 2001 after a 30-year military career. His assignments included Deputy National Security Advisor to the President of the United States; Assistant to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff; Chief of Staff/Staff Director, the National Security Council, The White House; Director of Operations, Defense Intelligence Agency; the Army Staff, Commander 701st Military Intelligence Brigade and Field Station Augsburg, Germany; and Commander 3rd Military Intelligence Battalion (Aerial Exploitation), Korea. General Kerrick also served, by Presidential appointment, as a principal negotiator on the international Bosnia Peace Delegation that ended the Bosnian War. He later was appointed by President Clinton to serve on the Steering Committee for the Protection of United States Critical Infrastructure that developed the blueprint for the structure and procedures designed to protect national critical infrastructure. Kerrick currently serves as the vice president of strategic business development for a major defense company.

Vice Admiral Albert H. Konetzni Jr., USN (Ret.)

Vice Admiral Konetzni served as the Deputy and Chief of Staff, of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet and Deputy Commander, U.S. Fleet Forces Command, where he was responsible for 160 ships, nearly 1,200 aircraft and 50 bases manned by more than 133,000 personnel. He has also served as Commander, Submarine Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet; Commander, Submarine Group Seven (Yokosuka, Japan); and Assistant Chief of Naval Personnel for Personnel Policy and Career Progression. Admiral Konetzni has received two Distinguished Service Medals, six awards of the Legion of Merit, and three awards of the Meritorious Service Medal for his Naval Service. His Homeland Security efforts have earned him the U.S. Coast Guard Distinguished Service Medal.

Lieutenant General Charles Otstott, USA (Ret.)

General Otstott served 32 years in the Army. As an Infantryman, he commanded at every echelon including command of the 25th Infantry Division (Light) from 1988-1990. His service included two combat tours in Vietnam. He completed his service in uniform as Deputy Chairman, NATO Military Committee, 1990-1992.

Lieutenant General Harry E. Soyster, USA (Ret.)

Lieutenant General Soyster served as Director, Defense Intelligence Agency during DESERT SHIELD/STORM. He also served as Deputy Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Department of the Army, Commanding General, U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Command and in the Joint Reconnaissance Center, Joint Chiefs of Staff. In Vietnam he was an operations officer in a field artillery battalion. Upon retirement he was VP for International Operations with Miltary Professional Resources Incorporated and returned to government as Special Assistant to the SEC ARMY for WWII 60th Anniversary Commemorations completed in 2006.

Major General Leo M. Childs, USA (Ret.)

Leo Childs spent over 33 years in the US Army Signal Corps, retiring in 1993 as a Major General. He was the 24th Chief of Signal and concurrently commanded the US Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, Georgia. Other Command assignments included the 82nd Signal Battalion (Airborne Division), the 35th Signal Group (XVIII Airborne Corps), Commanding General of the 5th Signal Command in support of the US Army Europe with simultaneous duties as Commander of the Worms, Germany Military Community and the Deputy Chief of Staff for Information Management, HQ USAREUR and 7th Army. Two tours in Vietnam included duty with the 1st Infantry Division. Other staff assignments were at Headquarters, Department of the Army, and the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe. His final assignment was as the Director Command, Control, and Communications Systems (J6), United States Pacific Command. Leo holds BA and MA degrees respectively from Northeastern and Georgetown Universities.

Major General James P. Collins, USA (Ret.)

(Biographical information forthcoming)

Major General Paul D. Eaton, USA (Ret.)

General Eaton recently retired from the U.S. Army after more than 33 years service. His assignments include Infantry command from the company to brigade levels, command of the Infantry Center at Fort Benning and Chief of Infantry. His most recent operational assignment was Commanding General of the command charged with reestablishing Iraqi Security Forces 2003-2004, where he built the command and established the structure and infrastructure for the Iraqi Armed Forces. Other operational assignments include Somalia, Bosnia and Albania. Other assignments include the Joint Staff, Deputy Commanding General for Transformation and Stryker Unit Development and Assistant Professor and head of the French Department at West Point. He is a 1972 graduate of West Point.

Major General Eugene Fox, USA (Ret.)

Major General Fox retired from the U.S Army in 1989 after 33 years of service. He commanded Field Artillery and Air Defense Units from platoon to brigade level, instructed in a service school, and served in various capacities in the acquisition of DoD weapons systems to include several years as program manager. His last active duty position was the Deputy Director of the Strategic Defense Initiative Office. Subsequent to military retirement General Fox has served as a Defense Consultant for various companies and government agencies.

Major General John Fugh, USA (Ret.)

General Fugh was The Judge Advocate General of the U.S. Army, retiring from that post in July 1993 as a Major General. General Fugh was 15 years old when he migrated to the United States with his family from China. He was the first Chinese-American to attain General officer status in the U.S. Army. General Fugh currently lives in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area.

Brigadier General Gerald E. Galloway, USA (Ret)

Brigadier General Galloway, PhD, served 38 years in the Army, retiring in 1995 as Dean of the Academic Board (chief academic officer) of the USMA Military Academy. Subsequent to retirement he served as Dean of the Faculty and Academic Programs at the Industrial College of the Armed Forces, National Defense University. He has been active in ethics education at the college and professional level. He served two tours in Vietnam.

Rear Admiral Don Guter, USN (Ret.)

Admiral Guter served in the U.S. Navy for 32 years, concluding his career as the Navy’s Judge Advocate General from 2000 to 2002. Admiral Guter currently serves as the Dean of Duquesne University Law School in Pittsburgh, PA

Major General Fred E. Haynes, USMC (Ret.)

General Haynes is a combat veteran of World War II, Korea and Vietnam. He was a captain in the regiment that seized Mt Suribachi, Iwo Jima and raised the American flag there, February 23, 1945. In Korea, he was Executive Officer of the 2nd Bn, 1st Marines. During Vietnam, he commanded the Fifth Marines, and was G-3 of the Third Marine Amphibious Force. During the Kennedy and Johnson eras, he served as Pentagon Director, Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs. As a general officer he commanded the Second and Third Marine Divisions. He was the Senior Member of the United Nations Military Armistice Commission in Korea, and was Deputy Chief of Staff for Marine Corps Research and Development. He is chairman of the Combat Veterans of Iwo Jima, Chairman Emeritus of the American Turkish Council and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. Haynes lives in New York and is currently writing a book, The Lions of Iwo Jima: The Story of Combat Team 28 and the Bloodiest Battle of Marine Corps History.

Rear Admiral John D. Hutson, JAGC, USN (Ret.)

Rear Admiral John D. Hutson served in the U. S. Navy from 1973 to 2000. He was the Navy's Judge Advocate General from 1997 to 2000. Admiral Hutson now serves as President and Dean of the Franklin Pierce Law Center in Concord, New Hampshire. He also joined Human Rights First’s Board of Directors in 2005.

Major General Melvyn Montano, ANG (Ret.)

General Montano was the adjutant general in charge of the National Guard in New Mexico from 1994 to 1999. He served in Vietnam and was the first Hispanic Air National Guard officer appointed as an adjutant general in the country.

Major General Eric Olson, USA (Ret.)

General Olson achieved the rank of Major General before retiring from the United States Army in January 2006. He began his distinguished military career after graduating from the United States Military Academy in 1972. His first duty position was as platoon leader in the 4th Infantry Division (Mechanized) at Fort Carson, Colorado. Subsequently, General Olson has commanded at every level from platoon to division, spending his last three
years of service as the Commanding General of the 25th Infantry Division (Light). General Olson also served as the Commander of Combined, Joint Task Force 76, responsible for all security and reconstruction operations in Afghanistan. In his 33-year military career, General Olson has held several staff positions in joint, combined, and the Department of the Army staffs. He was also the 68th Commandant of Cadets at the United States Military Academy, West Point from 2000 to 2002. General Olson currently serves as the Chief of Staff and Special Advisor to the Special Inspector general for Iraq Reconstruction.

Major General Thomas J. Romig, USA (Ret.)

Major General Romig served for four years as the 36th Judge Advocate General of the Army. His significant military legal positions included Chief of Army Civil Law and Litigation and Chief of Military Law and Operations. His other military legal assignments included Chief of Planning for the JAG Corps; Chief Legal Officer for the 32d Army Air Defense Command in Europe; and Chief Legal Officer for U.S. Army V Corps and U.S. Army forces in the Balkans. Prior to becoming a military lawyer, he served six years as a military intelligence officer. Major General Romig graduated with honors from the Santa Clara University School of Law in 1980. After 34 years of service, he retired from the Army JAG Corps. He served as Deputy Chief Counsel for Operations and Acting Chief Counsel for the Federal Aviation Administration and is currently Dean of Washburn University School of Law in Topeka, Kansas.

Major General Gerald T. Sajer, USA (Ret.)

Major General Sajer was the Adjutant General of Pennsylvania from l987-1995. He served as the assistant Division Commander for maneuver of the 28th Infantry Division, and previously served as the Division's chief of staff and G-3. During the Korean War, he served as a Captain. A graduate of Tufts University and Harvard Law School, General Sajer practiced law in the Harrisburg area for 30 years, specializing in civil litigation. He and his wife have been married for 50 years and have 6 children and 15 grandchildren. They live on a farm near Gettysburg.

Major General Antonio ‘Tony’ M. Taguba, USA (Ret.)

Major General, Antonio ‘Tony’ M. Taguba, USA (Ret.) served 34 years on active duty until his retirement on 1 January 2007. He has served in numerous leadership and staff positions most recently as Deputy Commanding General, Combined Forces Land Component Command during Operations Iraqi Freedom in Kuwait and Iraq, as Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Reserve Affairs, and as Deputy Commanding General for Transformation, US Army Reserve Command. Born in Manila, Philippines in 1950, he graduated from Idaho State University in 1972 with a BA degree in History. He holds MA degrees from Webster University in Public Administration, Salve Regina University in International Relations, and US Naval War College in National Security and Strategic Studies.

Brigadier General Dorian Anderson, USA (Ret.)

General Anderson served 30 years as a Commissioned Officer and later as a Flag Officer US Army, holding leadership and command positions at all levels as an Infantry Officer culminating as Commanding General, US Army Human Resources Command, Alexandria, VA. General Anderson is a 1975 graduate of the United States Military Academy at West Point, NY, holds an MA in Management from Webster University and is a 1995 graduate of the US Army War College at Carlisle Barracks, PA. He is a 2006 graduate of The Executive Program at University of Virginia’s Darden Business School.

Brigadier General David M. Brahms, USMC (Ret.)

General Brahms served in the Marine Corps from 1963-1988. He served as the Marine Corps' senior legal adviser from 1983 until his retirement in 1988. General Brahms currently practices law in Carlsbad, California and sits on the board of directors of the Judge Advocates Association.

Brigadier General Clarke M. Brintnall, USA (Ret.)

Clarke "Pete" Brintnall retired from the Army as a brigadier general in 1988 after serving as Director of the Inter-American Region and acting Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Inter-American Affairs. Following his retirement he was National Security Council Director of Latin American Affairs. He is a graduate of the U.S. Military Academy.

Brigadier General James P. Cullen, USA (Ret.)

Mr. Cullen is a retired Brigadier General in the United States Army Reserve Judge Advocate General's Corps and last served as the Chief Judge (IMA) of the U.S. Army Court of Criminal Appeals. He currently practices law in New York City.

Brigadier General Evelyn P. Foote, USA (Ret.)

General Foote was Commanding General of Fort Belvoir in 1989. She was recalled to active duty in 1996 to serve as Vice Chair of the Secretary of the Army's Senior Review Panel on Sexual Harassment. She is President of the Alliance for National Defense, a non-profit organization.

Brigadier General David R. Irvine, USA (Ret.)

Brigadier General Irvine enlisted in the 96th Infantry Division, United States Army Reserve, in 1962. He received a direct commission in 1967 as a strategic intelligence officer. He maintained a faculty assignment for 18 years with the Sixth U.S. Army Intelligence School, and taught prisoner of war interrogation and military law for several hundred soldiers, Marines, and airmen. He retired in 2002, and his last assignment was Deputy Commander for the 96th Regional Readiness Command. General Irvine is an attorney, and practices law in Salt Lake City, Utah. He served 4 terms as a Republican legislator in the Utah House of Representatives, has served as a congressional chief of staff, and served as a commissioner on the Utah Public Utilities Commission.

Brigadier General John H. Johns, USA (Ret.)

Brigadier General John H. Johns, USA (Ret), Ph.D., served in Vietnam and was a key member of a group that developed the Army's counterinsurgency doctrine in the early 1960s at Ft. Bragg and later in the Pentagon. After retirement from active duty, he served as a Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense and then as a professor at the National Defense University for 14 years, where he specialized in National Security Strategy.

Brigadier General Richard O’Meara, USA (Ret.)

Brigadier General Richard O’Meara is a combat decorated veteran who fought in Vietnam before earning his law degree and joining the Army's Judge Advocate General Corps. He retired from the Army Reserves in 2002 and now teaches courses on Human Rights and History at Kean University and at Monmouth University.

Brigadier General Murray G. Sagsveen, USA (Ret.)

Brigadier General Sagsveen entered the U.S. Army in 1968, with initial service in the Republic of Korea. He later joined the North Dakota Army National Guard. His assignments included Staff Judge Advocate for the 164th Engineer Group, Staff Judge Advocate for the State Area Command, Special Assistant to the National Guard Bureau Judge Advocate, and Army National Guard Special Assistant to the Judge Advocate General of the Army. He completed the U.S. Army War College in 1988. At the time of his retirement in 1996, he was a brigadier general and the senior judge advocate in the Army National Guard. General Sagsveen currently serves as the general counsel of the American Academy of Neurology in St. Paul, Minnesota. In February 2004, he participated in a medical conference in Baghdad, Iraq, and he has been participating in an effort among U.S. specialty medical societies to assist physicians in that country.

Brigadier General Anthony Verrengia, USAF (Ret.)

Brigadier General Verrengia retired from the USAF in 1989, after 38 years of uniformed service. He is a veteran of the Cold War, Korean War, and Vietnam War. He is a Master Navigator, who flew in all types of Military Air Transport Operations for over twenty years. During his career he also held Command and Staff positions in Operations, Plans, Logistics, Training and Personnel, and served at all levels of Air Force Command from the Squadron to Numbered AF, to Major Air Command, to the Air Staff in Washington, DC He is a Graduate of the Air Command and Staff College, The Air War College, the Industrial College of the Armed Forces, and the National War College.

Brigadier General Stephen N. Xenakis, USA (Ret.)

Dr. Stephen N. Xenakis has served in the U.S. Army, as well as in healthcare management, academic medicine, and clinical practice. He retired from the Army in 1998 at the rank of Brigadier General and held many high level positions, including Commanding General of the Southeast Regional Army Medical Command. He currently serves as the Director of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at the Psychiatric Institute of Washington.

 



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